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1. One exchange on this show compares the difficulty of changing planes at O’Hare to taking a bath with one’s mother, and a two-part episode from its first season concluded “what happens in Saudi Arabia stays in Saudi Arabia.” One character in this show is a former (*) East German ski jumper whose brain was transferred to a goldfish, and another is an effeminate grey alien named Roger. For 10 points, name this animated show focusing on Stan Smith, a CIA agent, created by Seth MacFarlane of Family Guy fame.
ANSWER: American Dad
2. It is a special case of the Thurston elliptization conjecture and Whitehead developed his namesake prime link while trying to prove this statement. A proof for it involving the use of (*) k-handles was developed by Smale and the Kirby-Siebenmann invariant was central to Freedmen’s Fields medal winning proof for the n equals 4 case. For 10 points, name this conjecture, which states that a compact n-manifold is equivalent to the n-sphere if it has the same homotopy groups.
ANSWER: Poincaré conjecture
3. A Puritan in this novel feels so guilty that she runs into a cathedral and confesses to a priest. That character, Hilda, eventually marries Kenyon. A character who is last seen at Raphael’s (*) tomb in the Pantheon first meets one admirer while viewing a Praxiteles statue. In this novel, the Capuchin Antonio stalk his former fiancee, a relationship that ends when the protagonist throws Antonio from the Tarpeian Rock. For 10 points, Miriam magically convinces Donatello to commit murder in what novel of Nathaniel Hawthorne?
ANSWER: The Marble Faun
4. One holder of this office was supported by the aristocratic gamoroi. Another holder of this office reached a treaty with Carthage that kept that empire to the west of the Halycus River. (*) Plato was invited to advise at the court of one of these people, Dion, and another, Dionysus, made a point about his precarious life by suspending a sword above his admirer, Damocles. In addition, Agathocles, Gelon, Hierons all held, for 10 points, what usurpatory office in a Greek colony on Sicily?
ANSWER: tyrant of Syracuse or king of Syracuse
5. Late in life, he wrote about how his memory was affected by age in Before the Sabbath. His aphorism collection The Passionate State of Mind was inspired by his admiration for Montaigne. In his major work, he describes how those dissatisfied with the (*) present and prone to failure turn to interchangeable ideologies such as Nazism and Communism. For 10 points, name this man who worked as a longshoreman and had no formal education, but nonetheless wrote such books as The Ordeal of Change and The True Believer.
ANSWER: Eric Hoffer
6. One figure of this name is the sibling of Dag and Sigrún, and was slain at the Battle of Frekastein. Another figure of this name is the son of Hálfdan the Old, but the best known figure with this name offers an arm ring, sword, and horse to Loki and is accused of killing his wife's (*) brother. That figure has runes carved on his tongue, is married to Iðunn, and welcomes newcomers to Valhalla. Oaths are sworn on the cup of, for 10 points, what Norse god of poetry?
7. Written during World War I, it states “too many peasants fight, they know not why” and predicts that “the Workers Earth” will bring “long peace to Cornland, Alp and Sea.” It begins by noting “it is portentous, and a thing of state” that the title event is happening “in our little town…near the old court-house.” (*) For 10 points, name this poem about a “bronzed, lank man” with “suit of ancient black” and a “high top-hat,” who is pacing through Springfield, Illinois according to Vachel Lindsay.
ANSWER: “Abraham Lincoln Walks at Midnight in Springfield, Illinois”
8. In Godard's A Woman is a Woman, the female lead of this other movie is asked how its filming is going. This film was based on a book by Henri-Pierre Roché, a roman a clef involving Marcel Duchamp. In this movie, the smile of a Greek sculpture is compared to that of Jeanne (*) Moreau’s character, who gives birth to a daughter played by a young Sabine Haudepin. Oskar Werner and Henri Serre play the title characters, who agree to a lengthy love triangle with Catherine. For 10 points, name this 1962 film directed by François Truffaut.
ANSWER: Jules et Jim or Jules and Jim
9. The Curtin-Hammett principle states that product ratios are based on transition state ratios and not this conformation value. The rate constant is related to this value by the Brönsted relation and its temperature dependence is given by the (*) van’t Hoff equation. It can be obtained from activities through the law of mass action. The natural logarithm of this value times the gas constant and temperature yields the standard Gibbs energy change of a reaction. For 10 points, name this constant that changes according to Le Chatelier’s principle.
ANSWER: equilibrium constant (or Keq, prompt on K)
10. Anabaptists recommend it be supplemented with puzzles and responsibilities such as dish washing. Bertha Meyer was responsible for establishing these in London, Manchester and Leeds, while Margaret Schurz introduced a method for it to Elizabeth (*) Peabody, who established an English language one in Massachusetts. It had been started in Germany by Johan Pestalozzi’s disciple Friedrich Fröbel. For 10 points, name this game-centered early childhood education strategy.
11. The children of John Chanler are known as the "orphans" of this family. One member was a prominent abolitionist who purchased a sizeable portion of Florida land where he cultivated and popularized the grapefruit. Another member was an early (*) trader of teas with China, and in the wake of the Jay Treaty he established American Fur. For 10 points, name this family, namesakes of an area in Queens and a Manhattan luxury hotel, members of whom coined “the 400” and died on the Titanic.
ANSWER: the Astors
12. In this novel, the Scottish phrenologist Galileo Gall inadvertently becomes a gun smuggler. One character’s lost glasses symbolize his unreliable reporting. That character, The Nearsighted Journalist, represents (*) Euclides da Cunha, whose historical tract Os sertoes was the basis for much of this work. It studies the Canudos community led by the Republic-hating Antonio Conselhiero, known as “The Counselor.” For 10 points, name this Mario Vargas Llosa novel about the Brazilian government’s clash with a millenarian sect.
ANSWER: The War of the End of the World or La guerra del fin del mundo
13. In genetics, the LicT element is an “anti”-this, and intrinsic sequences with this name form hairpins and perform their function independent of rho factor. On the moon, a line by this name (*) separates the day and night sides, while a resistor at the end of a line used to prevent reflection goes by this name. Kyle Reese is a pivotal character in a series of films by this name, which has seen namesake villains attempt to preserve the rise of Skynet. For 10 points, name this word, which names a series about John Connor.
14. The Treaty of Speyer prevented Denmark from entering any conflict with this entity, and one of its opponents led a successful campaign against Tunis. It acquired several territories under the leadership of Joachim II Hector, and this entity benefitted from the Treaty of Passau(*) after a conflict which saw Pope Paul III route its forces at Muhlberg. Named for a town in Thuringia, for 10 points, identify this alliance of Lutheran princes created to combat the Holy Roman Empire.
ANSWER: Shmalkaldic League
15. One text of this religion mentions Arthur Henderson’s apathy. In addition to God Passes By, another work calls for further participation in the Second Seven Year Plan, Citadel of Faith. A more famous text commands those of age 15 to 70 to pray towards the shrine of this religion’s (*) founder, who wrote about the landmarks of search, love, and unity in The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys. For 10 points, name this religion whose teachings are collected in the Kitab-i-Iqan and the Kitab-i-Aqdas, founded by Bahaullah.
16. An uprising in this nation was lead by Farabundio Marti and dubbed La Matanza, and was put down by Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez. Their civil war saw the massacre of Catholic missionaries at El Mozote, and was ended by the Chapultepec Accords (*) in 1992. The FMLN party has recently won an election in this nation, which was previously led by the ARENA party. Manuel Jose Arce lead a conglomerate of this nation, Honduras, and Nicaragua. For 10 points, name this nation with capital at San Salvador.
ANSWER: El Salvador
17. In wave mechanics it gives the ratio of the square of the dissipation time to the internal wave period. When this value greatly exceeds the square of the Reynolds number, forced convection effects are negligible. The product of this value and the (*) Prandtl number yields the Rayleigh number, and it governs the flow regime in natural convection. For 10 points, name this dimensionless quantity, which represents the ratio of the buoyancy force to the viscous force acting on the fluid.
ANSWER: Grashof number
18. Subsection two of section 15 in the Charter guarantees its legality in Canada. Congressman Dingell wrote to an opponent of this asking him to “go home and stay there.” BAMN rallied against (*) Ward Connerly, whose initiative agaisnt this was upheld by the Ninth Circuit. At the heart of Nixon’s “Philadelphia Plan” as well as two Supreme court cases brought against Lee Bollinger of the University of Michigan, for 10 points, name this political issue that was the focus of California’s Prop 209 and the case of Regents v. Bakke.
ANSWER: affirmative action
19. According to Forbes, the largest institution dedicated to it is the ASA. A Yale Journal of Economics paper used direct mailing regarding this to determine the value of advertising content. Amartya Sen’s main critique of Manmohan (*) Singh’s economic reforms was a lack of government support for this. 2005 was declared the year of this by the UN’s Economic and Social council. A major US source of them is Kiva. Given by the Grameen bank of Muhammed Yunnus, for 10 points, name this type of small-scale funding for the impoverished,
ANSWER: microcredit or microloans
20. This country's only Caribbean colony was St. Bart's, held until 1878. The longest river in this country is the Klar-Gota, while large lakes include Vanern, Vattern, and the agriculturally important Lake Siljan (seel-yahn) and (*) Storsjon (storrs-yohn). Its largest island has its capital at Visby and is called Gotland. Ystad, Uppsala, and Malmo are among this country’s largest cities. For 10 points, name this Scandinavian country with capital Stockholm.
ANSWER: Sweden or Sverige
21. This man added to one famous work in his Planned Chaos, while another work charts the collapse of Germany and contains a section on “the delusion of World Planning”, Omnipotent Government. This author of The Anti-Capitalistic Mentality ‘s most famous work states that economic laws can be derived from individual(*) materialism and introduced praxeology. For 10 points, identify this Austrian economist whose Socialism and Human Action inspired the work of Fredrich Hayek.
ANSWER: Ludwig von Mises
22. In antenna theory it can be obtained from the superposition of one turn of the helical antenna translated along the z-axis. Its physical significance was demonstrated in an experiment in which a shielded solenoid produced interference in an external (*) field-free region. Since its divergence has no physical significance, the Lorenz gauge can be used to separate it from the electric scalar potential and its nature was elucidated in the Aharonov-Bohm experiment. For 10 points, name this vector field with a curl that equals the magnetic field.
ANSWER: magnetic vector potential [or magnetic potentia]
23. Members of a group under its aegis included Joe Hunter, Joe Van Dyke and Joe Messina; that group’s and that group’s Melvin Ragin introduced the wah-wah pedal. That group was the subject of a 2002 documentary about its shadows. One song on this (*) label claimed that the title thing was “burning through my heart,” and it was at a televised anniversary special for it that the “Moonwalk” debuted. For 10 points, name this “sound” and record label founded by Berry Gordy, that included artists such as The Temptations and Diana Ross.
ANSWER: Motown Records
24. This man’s first commission was a house in East Grinstead called Hammerwood Park, and his son helped him design the waterworks for a city in which he also designed a Custom House, New Orleans. The St Louis. Cathedral was this man’s last work before his death from (*) yellow fever, and another of his works used a design originally proposed by William Thornton. For 10 points, name this proponent of Greek Revival who preceded Charles Bullfinch as architect of the U.S. Capitol, called the father of American architecture.
ANSWER: Benjamin Latrobe
25. This narrative poem uses its ancient setting to obscure such daring sentiments as labeling God “the supreme evil.” One character dreams that a fire started without heat is put out by love and rebukes the chorus for trying to comfort her pain. Two men who are chastised for obscuring their deeds with talk, (*) Toxeus and Plexippus, die during the central action of this poem, after which a head and hide are awarded to the female title figure. Althea avengers her brothers by burning the brand that controls Meleager’s life in, for 10 points, what poem by Algernon Swinburne?
ANSWER: Atalanta in Calydon
26. These multinucleated cells occupy a shallow cavity known as Howship’s lacuna. They are directly regulated by (*) calcitonin, and estrogen deficiency results in an increase in the production of interleukin 6 by these cells which can result in osetoporosis. For 10 points, name these cells derived from the monocyte progenitor cell lineage in the bone marrow that attach to bone matrix and produce an acidic environment, triggering bone resorption.
ANSWER: osteoclasts [do not accept osteoblasts]
2008-2009 Fake ICT
1. This book became the focus of testimony before Estes Kefauver's Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency. For 10 points each:
 Name this 1954 work which alleged that Batman and Robin were gay lovers and that EC Comics was obsessed with “injury to the eye.”
ANSWER: Seduction of the Innocent
 Seduction of the Innocent was written by this psychiatrist, who previously worked on nobler causes such as providing equal mental health care to black patients in New York.
ANSWER: Frederic Wertham
 As a result of the Kefauver hearings, this quasi-voluntary body was established to remove sex, glorified crime, and horror elements from comics, as indicated by a front-cover emblem.
ANSWER: the Comics Code Authority
2. Throughout this play, Coulmier demands that the actors stay on script so as not to excite themselves. For 10 points each:
 Name this play, focusing on the performance of the play-within-the-play about Charlotte Corday’s killing of a revolutionary.
ANSWER: Marat/Sade: The Persecution and Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat as Performed by the Inmates of the Asylum of Charenton Under the Direction of the Marquis de Sade
 This German author of How Mister Mockingpott Was Cured of His Suffering wrote Marat/Sade.
ANSWER: Peter Weiss
 In this novel by Peter Weiss, Coppy and Heilmann meet the narrator in museums to muse on art and plot the overthrow of the Nazis.
ANSWER: The Aesthetics of Resistance
3. One of these entities is present at a radius of zero in the Schwarzchild metric to the Einstein field equations. For 10 points each,
 Name these regions of the gravitational field where there is infinite curvature. Choptuik used computer simulations to demonstrate that observable ones could exist.
 This principle states that every singularity is hidden behind an event horizon, preventing the existence of naked singularities.
ANSWER: cosmic censorship hypothesis
 According to this conjecture, as a general singularity is approached, the Einstein field equations become local and the solution becomes oscillatory.
ANSWER: BKL conjecture (or Belinsky-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz conjecture)
4. His Southern drawl was provided by Daws Butler. For 10 points each:
 Name this Hanna-Barbera dog character, whose eponymous show was the origin of Yogi Bear.
ANSWER: Huckleberry Hound
 Huckleberry Hound made brief appearances on both The Brak Show and this other Adult Swim original, which follows a former superhero now working at the Sebben & Sebben firm.
ANSWER: Harvey Birdman, Attorney at Law
 Huckleberry Hound was once mentioned as a punchline on this younger-skewing show about Dr. Ghastly resurrecting a fellow evil genius in the body of the bear Boskov.
ANSWER: Evil con Carne
5. It proposes that both “surface” and “deep” varieties of the title entities exist. For 10 points each:
 Name this 1957 text of Noam Chomsky which says that there is an innate brain function for language.
ANSWER: Syntactic Structures
 Syntactic Structures advanced the theory of innate grammar overlaid by language-spefific rules, known by this hyphenated phrase.
ANSWER: transformational-generative grammar
 Chomsky collaborated with this linguist to list thirty binary features needed to describe all phonemes in The Sound Pattern of English.
ANSWER: Morris Halle
6. Name these ancient Egyptian capitals, for 10 points each.
 The Saqqara and Giza pyramids are found on the outskirts of this Old Kingdom capital.
 A bust of Nefertiti and a valuable cache of letters were found at this city, which Akhenaton founded as a rival to Thebes during the Eighteenth Dynasty.
ANSWER: Tell el-Amarna
 Following the decline of Per Ramessu, the Twenty-First Dynasty moved to this site in the delta, which was the seat of power from 1075 to 712.
7. His signature records include one where he "leaps in" as well as “These Foolish Things” and "Taxi War Dance." For 10 points each:
 Name this originator of “West Coast cool” in jazz, also known for holding his tenor sax at an odd angle.
ANSWER: Lester Young
 Lester Young long played with this pianist and bandleader, whose theme was “One O’Clock Jump.”
ANSWER: Count Basie
 This jazz guitarist, a Cuban-born contemporary of Young and Basie, was known for songs such as "Cement Mixer" and for inventing an argot known as "vout."
ANSWER: Slim Galliard
8. It includes the tale of a cat wandering into a haunted house in "Beyond" and a suicide that is more than it seems in "Kid's Story." For 10 points each:
 Name this DVD that also includes "Final Flight of the Osiris" and "World Record" among its nine cartoon shorts that take place just before a 2003 action sequel.
ANSWER: The Animatrix
 This Laurence Fishburne-played character and mentor to Neo survives the three Matrix movies but is killed while bombing a water treatment facility in The Matrix Online.
 The Animatrix component “The Second Renaissance” tells of the founding of this machine city in the Arabian Peninsula. Neo visits it in The Matrix Revolutions.
9. It came into being in 2002 under the terms of the 1998 Rome Statute. For 10 points each:
 Name this institution that has opened cases against the Lord's Resistance Army in Uganda and belligerents in DR Congo, the Central African Republic, and Sudan.
ANSWER: ICC or International Criminal Court
 This Argentine lawyer, who formerly put Argentina’s military regime on trial, is the prosecutor of the ICC and has the discretion to issue warrants for its defendants.
ANSWER: Luis Moreno-Ocampo
 In March 2009, the ICC published a warrant for the arrest of this Sudanese president, charging him with personal complicity in Darfur war crimes.
ANSWER: Omar al-Bashir
10. He fought an 1826 duel with Henry Clay. For 10 points each:
 Name this Virginia politician who was a states-rights advocated during his time in Congress from 1799 to 1829, and who added the location of his Roanoke estate to the style of his name.
ANSWER: John Randolph of Roanoke
 After breaking with Jefferson, Randolph led this faction in Congress. Its name translates as “the third thing.”
ANSWER: Tertium Quids
 The apparent belief that John Randolph converted to this religion as a teenager is untrue, meaning that Keith Ellison and Andre Carson are its only adherents in US Congress history.
11. Their molecules can either align with their axes in parallel or in layered sheets. For 10 points each,
 Name these electronic display devices that function by applying varying electrical voltage to a layer of nematic or smetic material to produce different optical properties.
ANSWER: LCD (or liquid crystal display)
 In these modified active-matrix LCD displays, each pixel has an associated silicon transistor that functions as an electronic switch.
ANSWER: thin-film transistor displays (or TFT displays)
 In this type of smetic passive-matrix LCD device the presence of optically active materials produces a permanent charge separation that is analogous to ferromagnetic dipoles in magnetic material.
ANSWER: surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal (or SSFLC)
12. It was a victory for Clearchus, who had been hired by Cyrus the Younger during an attempt to win the throne of Iran. For 10 points each:
 Name this 401 BCE battle, a defeat for Artaxerxes in which Xenophon fought on the winning side.
 Clearchus’s mercenaries were known by this numerical name, and had to engage in a tactical retreat following the battle.
ANSWER: the Ten Thousand
 The retreat is described in this work by Xenophon.
13. Its magnetic form arises when nuclei emit or absorb radio and microwave radiation in response to the application of magnetic fields. For 10 points each,
 Name this phenomenon that occurs when an object or system vibrates in phase with an externally applied oscillatory force.
 In this form of resonance, two vibrational levels of the same symmetry series and similar energies produce perturbation of energy levels. It arises from cubic and quartic terms.
ANSWER: Fermi resonance
 The polyad number quantum number is important in this type of resonance. It is characterized by the exchange of two quanta between symmetric and asymmetric stretches.
ANSWER: Darling-Dennison resonance
14. It was formed over the objection of Henry Montagu, who preferred the old militia system. For 10 points each:
 Name this group of eleven cavalry regiments, twelve cavalry regiments, and a thousand dragoons, that fought against the Royalists starting in 1645.
ANSWER: the New Model Army
 Attempting to flush out incompetent commanders, this 1645 law required all sitting members of Parliament to resign from military officer positions.
ANSWER: the Self-Denying Ordinance
 This victor at Naseby and captain-general of the New Model Army provided most of its training tactics and ultimately fell out with Cromwell.
ANSWER: Thomas Fairfax the Younger
15. For 10 points each, answer the follow questions about unrelated animal phylum.
 Excluding cephalopods, members of this phylum have an open circulatory system. Examples include the octopus, cuttlefish, snail, and slugs.
ANSWER: Mollusca (or mollusks)
 The Venus’ girdle, sea walnuts, and sea walnuts are all members of this other phylum of marine invertebrates that resemble the medusa form of cnidaria due to the presence of ciliary structures.
ANSWER: comb jellies (or ctenophore)
 This other phylum of aquatic invertebrates is characterized by the presence by a circular arrangement of moving cilia located at their front end.
ANSWER: Rotifera (or wheel animalcule)
16. Callicles and Pausanias are assigned speaking parts in this poem, which is divided into two acts, the first of which further has two scenes. For 10 points each:
 Name this 1852 dramatic poem, in which the title philosopher yells “Receive me! Save me!” before killing himself via a stage direction.
ANSWER: “Empedocles on Etna”
 This author of “Thyrsis” and “Dover Beach” wrote “Empedocles on Etna.”
ANSWER: Matthew Arnold
 This Arnold poem, written at a Carthusian monastery in the Alps, discusses Arnold’s despair at believing in neither Christianity nor reason.
ANSWER: “Stanzas from the Grande Chartreuse”
17. Answer the following about a common activity in philosophy, for 10 points each.
 Collected from the author’s Gifford Lectures, this two-volume work of Gabriel Marcel distinguishes between primary and secondary reflection as shattering and unifying, respectively.
ANSWER: The Mystery of Being
 “Ethical” and “ontological” sides of the title attitude are explored in this work by Paul Tillich that outlines “three anxieties” of modern life.
ANSWER: The Courage to Be
 This author of The Principle of Ground wrote not only Existence and Being and The Question of Being, but also Being and Time.
ANSWER: Martin Heidegger
18. Valere and Isabelle are united at the end of this play. For 10 points each:
 Name this play in which Ariste’s lenient methods of raising a female ward are contrasted with those of the main character.
ANSWER: The School for Husbands
 This author of The Doctor in Spite of Himself and The Would-Be Gentleman wrote The School for Husbands.
 This common Moliere character name, also seen in The Doctor in Spite of Himself and Don Juan, appears as the protagonist of The School for Husbands.
19. For 10 points each, answer the following questions dealing with electrodes.
 This platinum containing electrode has an ion activity of unity and a partial pressure of 1 atmosphere. It possesses a reduction potential of zero volts, which allows it to serve as a reference for other electrodes.
ANSWER: standard hydrogen electrode
 Due to the difficulty of preparing the electrode surface of the standard hydrogen electrode, this mercury/mercury chloride electrode is often used as a reference electrode in potentiometry.
ANSWER: calomel electrode
 This potential arises due to the unequal distribution and diffusion rates of cations and anions across and an electrode boundary and must be corrected for in electrode measurements through calibration.
ANSWER: liquid-junction potential
20. "Rage in the Cage" and "River Blindness" appeared on the album where this is the title track. For 10 points each:
 Name this 1981 song which focuses on a "moment" that "can't be wrong" and laments that "zoom lens feelings just won't disappear."
 “Freeze-Frame” was a song by this band, named after its guitarist. Lead singer Peter Wolf left the group shortly after they became MTV stars.
ANSWER: The J. Geils Band
 The most popular song by the J. Geils Band was this track from “Freeze-Frame” about spotting a “homeroom angel” in a “girly magazine,” which makes the singer’s “blood run cold.”
ANSWER: (My Angel Is a) “Centerfold”
21. It has coastline on the Arabian Sea and also borders Balochistan. For 10 points each:
 Name this province, a former kingdom, where the ruins of Mohenjo-Daro and the present-day provincial capital, Karachi, can be found.
 The provinces of Sindh and Balochistan, like the “autonomous state” of Free Kashmir, are divisions of this country.
 Pakistan is currently considering changing the name of this province, whose capital is Peshawar, to Pakhtunkhwa. It is regarded as a hotbed of lawlessness and religious radicalism.
ANSWER: Northwest Frontier Province
22. A man signing “Charlie Chaplin” on a a check, a drunk forgetting to pay off a bet, and customs officers burning a manuscript cause the repeated loss of thousand pounds. For 10 points each:
 In what novel, also featuring the evangelist Melrose Ape and the Daily Excess gossip columnist Miles Malpractice tormenting Adam Fenwick-Symes?
ANSWER: Vile Bodies
 Vile Bodies was written by this author of Scoop and A Handful of Dust.
 Lady Circumference’s son Lord Tangent is shot by a starter pistol in this Waugh work, in which Paul Pennyfeather wears a fake mustache following his false conviction for slave trading.
ANSWER: Decline and Fall
23. Name these architects, for 10 points each.
 His Balfron and Trellick Towers set the model for high-rise apartment blocks in Britain, and he once threatened to sue Ian Fleming.
ANSWER: Erno Goldfinger
 This architect of the French Communist Party headquarters planned the city of Brasilia and is still working at the age of 101.
ANSWER: Oscar Niemeyer
 This man’s chief designes are the Säynätsalo town hall, Vyborg library, and two Finnish Pavilions for 1930s World's Fairs.
ANSWER: Alvar Aalto
24. He described the “circulation of elites” in Mind and Society and indifference curves in Course of Political Economy. For 10 points each:
 Name this Italian economist and sociologist, who also has a namesake “optimality” where no one can improve his position without damaging another’s.
ANSWER: Vilfredo Pareto
 Pareto’s principle states that a certain percentage of effects come from a certain percentage of causes, and is also known as this rule named after those respective numbers.
ANSWER: 80/20 rule
 This Western Electric engineer pioneered the field of quality control by applying the Pareto principle to manufacturing problems.
ANSWER: Joseph Juran
25. It first rose as an independent power under Gundobad, and in a later incarnation was led by figures such as John the Good. For 10 points each:
 Name this region to the southeast of Paris, which long controlled the Low Countries and whose historically independent dukedom ruled from Dijon.
 This generous art patron was the duke of Burgundy for the second half of the fourteenth century. He and his son John the Fearless dominated the insane Charles VI of France.
ANSWER: Philip the Bold [or Philip II; prompt on Philip]
 The floral symbolism and the depiction of the Flight into Egypt on this Dutch painter's Champmol or Dijon Altarpiece are among the more intriguing work sponsored by Philip.
ANSWER: Melchior Broederlam
26. Aeschylus tells us that this guy's mortal wife was Cissia. For 10 points each:
 Name this cicada who didn't receive eternal youth, the father of Memnon and eternal lover of Eos.
 Tithonus, along with Priam and many people, was the son of this Trojan king. He possessed horses with divine parentage and tried to sacrifice Hesione.
 Hesione's marriage with Telamon produced this founder of Salamis, who is injured by a boulder thrown by Hector and leaves after Ajax's suicide.
answer: Teucer [or Teucrus; or Teucris]