Vurl: 1029986 caption: Venezuela – Air Force Summary



Download 242.63 Kb.
Date conversion31.01.2017
Size242.63 Kb.
Venezuela – Air Force

Media Object Element:



vurl: 1029986

caption: Venezuela – Air Force

1. Summary

1.1.1. STRENGTH

23,000


1.1.2. COMBAT

F-16 Fighting Falcon, Su-30MK2V ‘Flanker-G’



1.1.3. AIR DEFENCE / ATTACK

Canadair VF-5A



1.1.4. COUNTER-INSURGENCY

OV-10 Bronco, K-8



1.1.5. COMBAT SUPPORT

Falcon 20, C-26A Metro III



1.1.6. TRANSPORT

C-130H Hercules



1.1.7. TANKER-TRANSPORT

Boeing 707



1.1.8. UTILITY

Caravan, Turbo Stationair, Shorts 360



1.1.9. UTILITY HELICOPTER

Super Puma, Cougar, Mi-17



1.1.10. COMMUNICATIONS

Airbus ACJ, King Air 200, Citation, Falcon 20



1.1.11. TRAINER

Aermacchi SF-260EV, EMB-312 Tucano, K-8



2. Assessment

Since the mid-1950s, Venezuelan Military Aviation (Aviacion Militar Venezolana - AMV), formerly the Venezuelan Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Venezolana - FAV), has been one of the most efficient and best-equipped air arms in Latin America. For many years it relied upon the US and Europe for equipment, but deteriorating relationships with the US have resulted in several procurement projects being stalled, and eventually abandoned, with potentially damaging consequences for capability.

Not surprisingly, Venezuela has turned to other suppliers in order to maintain its armed forces and concluded a military co-operation agreement with Russia as early as May 2001. More recently, Venezuela has embarked upon an ambitious acquisition programme, including fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters. In addition to obtaining substantial numbers of Mil attack and assault helicopters for the army, the most recent major procurement programme centres around the Sukhoi Su-30MK2V multirole fighter, with all of the 24 examples having now been delivered. There is an intention to acquire a batch of up to 16 Sukhoi Su-35 Super Flankers once the aircraft is available for export (around 2010), as well as new heavy lift transport aircraft, tankers, advanced trainers, reconnaissance and airborne early warning aircraft and strategic air defence systems. Such acquisitions would enhance an already formidable Venezuelan capability. This prospect has caused concern, particularly in the US, as it would give Venezuela a significant regional advantage over neighbouring states, especially Colombia, whose air arm is principally structured and equipped to conduct counter-insurgency operations.

The change from predominantly US-made aircraft to Russian and Chinese hardware is likely to require considerable adaptation and training of Venezuelan pilots in order to reach proficiency.



2.1. Adaptability

The Air Force has adapted to the emerging threats thanks to an ambitious re-equipment programme. This has included the long awaited acquisition of new lead in fighter trainers (LIFT) in the form of the CATIC K-8 which will be also the first aircraft acquired expressively for anti-narcotic operations. A law that allows the air force and air defence forces to shoot down un-identified and un-cooperative aircraft is also being drafted to address new threats. A new air defence system is being created and this has led to the adoption of new doctrine, the air force will be the leading agency operating it.



2.2. Sustainment

The Air Force conducted routine reserve refresher training, however the availability of new equipment and political distrust in the retired officer corps has hampered this.



2.3. Readiness

The Integrated Aerospace Defence Command reports directly to the armed force’s Strategic Operations Command and as such is the main body in charge of air defence. The Sukhoi Su-30Mk’s and the F-16’s form the first line of defence in the country and these will be soon joined by the K-8’s which will perform anti-narcotic patrols. A missile defence system is in the process of being designed with help from Russia, China and Belarus.



3. Deployments, tasks and operations

3.1. Role and Deployment

The AMV has the mission of securing national defence through the dominance of airspace, contributing to the maintenance of internal order and actively participating in the country’s development, employing national airpower to guarantee territorial integrity and independence and the nation’s sovereignty.



3.2. Recent and Current Operations

The AMV provides transport and logistic support for Venezuela’s international peacekeeping efforts.

The Venezuelan Air Force is involved in various joint operations with Bolivia. In June 2006 a pair of Venezuelan AS-532AC Cougar helicopters from the 10th Special Operations Air Group were deployed to Bolivia. The helicopters were integrated into the Bolivian Air Force but continue to be maintained by Venezuelan air force personnel.

In 2009 Venezuela’s remaining six Mirage 50 fighter-bombers were donated to the Ecuadorian Air Force along with spares and missiles. Venezuelan personnel trained Ecuadorian crews for transition into the new fighters in Venezuela and in Ecuador.

There are two Falcon VIP jets deployed to Havana, Cuba where they are at the disposal of the Fidel and Raul Castro. They operate in civilian markings but are owned by the Venezuelan Air Force.

4. Command and control

Table 1. 




Minister of the Popular Powers of Defence:

Vice-President Ramón Carrizales

Commander, Strategic Operational Command:

General Carlos Mata Figueroa

Air Force Commander:

General Jorge Oropeza

In March 2009, President Chavez announced a reshuffle of the command and control structure of the military. It was announced that the defence ministry was to undergo immediate changes and will be transformed into a purely administrative rganizedon in charge of overseeing the development of the armed forces and directing the country’s defence policy. Actual control of the armed forces will now be entrusted completely to the Strategic Operational Command (CEO).

There is a Chief of Staff, who is the second-in-command, with operational and other resources assigned to four subordinate commands: Personnel Operations Command; Air Operations Command; Logistics Operations Command; and the recently reformed Integral Aerospace Defence Command (CADAI). The Inspector General is responsible for assisting the General Command with supervision and evaluation of all aviation-related activities.

CADAI has been re-assigned during 2009 and is directly controlled by the Strategic Operational Command (CEO), although on paper it still forms part of the Air Force.

Media Object Element:



vurl: 0528788

caption: Higher Levels of Command for Venezuelan Military Aviation

5. Organisation

The AMV is rganized into four fighter groups (11, 12, 13 and 16), one training group (14), two special operations groups (10 and 15), four transport groups (4, 5, 6 and 9) and one group tasked with electronic missions (85).

The Integral Aerospace Defence Command comprises six surveillance (radar) squadrons and three Air Defence Artillery (ADA) squadrons.

5.1. Order of Battle

Table 2. 




Unit

Base

Type

Role

Air Zone I, Maracaibo

Special Operations Air Group 15

Maracaibo

 

 

Special Operations Squadron 151

Maracaibo

OV-10

Counter-Insurgency

Special Operations Squadron 152

Maracaibo

Tucano

Counter-Insurgency

Air Zone II Z, Barquisimeto

Fighter Air Group 12

Barquisimeto

 

 

Fighter Squadron 36

Barquisimeto

VF-5A Active

Attack / Reconnaissance

Fighter Squadron 36

Barquisimeto

VF-5A

Continuation Training

Fighter Squadron 36

Barquisimeto

NF-5B

Continuation Training

Air Zone III, Palo Negro

Air Transport Group 6

Palo Negro

 

 

Transport Squadron 1

Palo Negro

Boeing 707

Tanker / Transport

Transport Squadron 1

Palo Negro

C-130H

Transport

Transport Squadron 2

Palo Negro

Shorts 360

Transport

Special Operations Air Group 10

Palo Negro

 

 

Special Operations Squadron 101

Palo Negro

Super Puma

Transport

Special Operations Squadron 101

Palo Negro

Cougar

Transport

Special Operations Squadron 102

Palo Negro

Super Puma

Transport

Special Operations Squadron 102

Palo Negro

Cougar

Transport

Search and Rescue Squadron 103

Palo Negro

Super Puma

Combat Search and Rescue

Search and Rescue Squadron 103

Palo Negro

Cougar

Combat Search and Rescue

Fighter Air Group 11

Palo Negro

 

 

Fighter Intelligence, Surveillance and Electronic Reconnaissance Group 85

Palo Negro

 

 

Electronic Combat Squadron 851

Palo Negro

C-26A

Combat Support

Electronic Combat Squadron 851

Palo Negro

Falcon 20C(EW)

Combat Support

Air Training Group 14

Maracay

 

 

Primary Training Squadron 141

Maracay

SF-260

Primary Training

Basic Training Squadron 142

Maracay

Tucano

Advanced Training

Tactical Training Squadron 143

Maracay

Tucano

Tactical Training

Fighter Air Group16

Palo Negro

 

 

Fighter Squadron 161

Palo Negro

F-16A

Multirole Fighter

Fighter Squadron 161

Palo Negro

F-16B

Continuation Training

Fighter Squadron 162

Palo Negro

F-16A

Multirole Fighter

Fighter Squadron 162

Palo Negro

F-16B

Continuation Training

Air Zone IV, Barcelona

Fighter Air Group 13

Barcelona

 

 

Fighter Squadron 131 “Aces”(1)

Barcelona

Su-30

Multirole Fighter

Fighter Squadron “Pumas” 132(1)

Barcelona

Su-30

Multirole Fighter

Air Zone V, Caracas

Air Transport Group 4

Caracas

 

 

Transport Squadron 41

Caracas

Airbus ACJ(2)

VIP Transport

Transport Squadron 41

Caracas

Boeing 737(2)

VIP Transport

Transport Squadron 42

Caracas

Cougar

VIP Transport

Transport Squadron 42

Caracas

Mi-17V-5

Utility

Transport Squadron 42

Caracas

Mi-172

VIP Transport

Air Transport Group 5

Caracas

 

 

Transport Squadron 51

Caracas

King Air 200

Communications

Transport Squadron 52

Caracas

Citation I

Communications

Transport Squadron 52

Caracas

Citation II

Communications

Transport Squadron 52

Caracas

Falcon 20F

Communications

Air Transport Group 9(3)

Puerto Ayacucho

 

 

Transport Squadron 91

Puerto Ayacucho

Ce-208

Transport

Transport Squadron 91

Puerto Ayacucho

Turbo Stationair

Communications

Transport Squadron 92

Puerto Ayacucho

Caravan

Transport

Transport Squadron 92

Puerto Ayacucho

Turbo Stationair

Communications

Transport Squadron 93

Puerto Ayacucho

Caravan

Transport

Transport Squadron 93

Puerto Ayacucho

Turbo Stationair

Communications

Notes:

(1) Currently being equipped with Su-30MK2V.

(2) Operated from Simón Bolivar International Airport, Maiquetia.

(3) Air Transport Group 9 also has one Cessna 750 Citation X, but it is not known to which squadron this is assigned.

5.2. Operational Art and Tactical Doctrine

Tactical and operational doctrines are largely those of the US Air Force, but several changes are taking place from the acquisition of Russian combat aircraft and the adoption of a socialist oriented doctrine in the armed forces.



5.3. Bases

Table 3. 




Luis del Valle García air base

Barcelona

(10° 06’ 25” N; 64° 41’ 20” W)

Teniente Vicente Landeta Gill air base

Barquisimeto

(10° 02’ 33” N; 69° 21’ 30” W)

La Carlota air base

Caracas-La Carlota IAP

(10° 29’ 06” N; 66° 50’ 36” W)

General Rafael Urdaneta air base

Maracaibo

(10° 33’ 29” N; 71° 43’ 40” W)

Mariscal Sucre air base

Boca del Río, Maracay

(10° 14’ 59” N; 67° 38’ 57” W)

El Libertador air base

Palo Negro, Maracay

(10° 11’ 00” N; 67° 33’ 26” W)

General Jose Antonio Paez air base

Puerto Ayacucho

(05° 37’ 12’’ N; 67° 36’ 23’’ W)

A number of other airfields are periodically used, but these do not have any permanently-resident flying units.

6. Personnel

6.1. Demographics

The 23,000 professional personnel that make up the air force are composed of 18% of officers, 34% of non-commissioned officers and 48% of troops. It is a gender equal service since 2002.



6.2. Recruitment

Recruitment into the Military Aviation School is limited to around 150 cadets each year, it has not experienced any difficulties in obtaining properly qualified personnel.



6.3. Morale

Morale in the older officer corps has deteriorated considerably, however a new breed of officer corps is being formed, one that has political loyalty to the government and is affiliated to the Socialist Party.



6.4. Professionalism

Funds have been allocated for training levels to be maintained at adequate levels and Venezuela fighter pilots have performed adequately in international exercises.



7. Training

Since 1988, all officer cadets of Venezuela’s armed services and National Guard attend a common course of two years duration at the Basic Training School at Maracay. Aspiring Military Aviation officers must complete an additional four-year course with the Military Aviation School before securing a commission in the rank of subteniente. After this, the young officer may choose to complete a degree course at either a civilian university or the Armed Forces Polytechnical University. There are also several military-run specialist schools, the courses of which must be successfully completed for promotion, as well as a Command and Staff School for the training of general staff and higher grade officer ranks. Venezuela also trains officers from several of the smaller countries in the region by arrangement with their respective governments.



7.1. Training Areas

Listing of training centres and geographic locations traditionally used for training.



7.2. Military Exercises

The Venezuelan military carried out a series of military exercises in June 2008 using new equipment sourced mainly from Russia. These took place near the military base on La Orchila Island, off the Caribbean coast to the north of Caracas. According to the then Defence Minister, Gustavo Rangel Briceño, the exercises simulated an attack by a hostile power, with mock enemy units being targeted. A mock enemy vessel was targeted by missiles (Otomat MK2) and Su-30 fighter aircraft, which launched ‘Kingbolt’ and ‘Kedge’ air-to-surface missiles for the first time, these exercises being the first for 13 years to involve expenditure of live ammunition. As such, they appear intended to showcase Venezuela's recent acquisitions and particularly the air force’s Su-30s.

In September 2008, two Russian Tu-160 Blackjack strategic bombers arrived in Venezuela for a week long exercise with the Venezuelan armed forces. Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez announced that Russia was its strategic ally and that Russian forces were welcome in Venezuela.

In June 2009 the air force deployed 130 personnel as well as Su-30MK, F-16 and VF-5 fighters to perform Operation Pereu-Geminis on Margarita island. The exercise included launching air to air missiles.

On June 26-30, the Su-30MK’s performed TV and laser guided missile launches as part of exercise Urimare 01-09 over the island of Orchila.

8. Air Force procurement

8.1. Requirements

Venezuela has experienced considerable difficulty in acquiring military aircraft from Western sources in recent times. This culminated in the US imposing an arms embargo in late 2006, having previously been successful in preventing sales of aircraft containing US technology, most notably EMB-314 Super Tucano armed trainers from Brazil, L-159 ALCA jet trainers from the Czech Republic and EADS CASA C-295 transport aircraft from Spain.



8.1.1. Combat

Venezuela was left with little choice but to seek alternatives and turned to Russia as a prime source of military equipment, including combat aircraft and helicopters. In fact, the Venezuelan government had contemplated acquiring up to 50 MiG-29s from Russia, with a pair of MiG-29s visiting Palo Negro air base in November 2001 for demonstration purposes. At that time, Russia tabled two potential contracts to sell MiG-29s to Venezuela: one offering 12 basic aircraft for USD132 million; and a second of 12 aircraft with a full package of armaments and servicing for USD216 million. In late 2005, however, Venezuela abandoned the idea of buying the MiG-29 after Venezuelan pilots testing the aircraft apparently found it performed poorly when compared to their F-16’s. The AMV began to look at acquiring the Sukhoi Su-30 ‘Flanker’ instead. This eventually culminated in a firm order for 24 Su-30MK2Vs in June 2006, with deliveries commencing in December of the same year. Venezuela has taken delivery of all 24 Sukhoi Su-30MK2s, with the last four being delivered in July 2008.

Sources told Jane's that the Russian aircraft have been declared operational with Kh-59ME (AS-18 'Kazoo') long-range Air-to-Surface Missiles (ASMs), Kh-31P (AS-17 'Krypton') medium-range radar-guided ASMs and Kh-29 (AS-14 'Kedge') medium-range laser- or radar-guided ASMs. They are also armed with KAB-500 and KAB-1500 guided bombs, in laser and electro-optical variants; R-27R/T (AA-10 'Alamo') semi-active and infrared-guided medium-/long-range Air-to-Air Missiles (AAMs); and R-73 (AA-11 'Archer') medium-range AAMs.

Two squadrons are operational and contained within 13th Fighter Air Group in Barcelona. Some aircraft have also been deployed to 11th Fighter Air Group for operational conversion and they will likely be the recipients of a second batch of aircraft if Russia and Venezuela can finalise a contract currently in the final stage negotiations. Up to 12 additional Su-30 aircraft could be part of this new deal, in order to replace its fleet of Mirage 50 aircraft, which were transferred to Ecuador during 2009.

The Venezuelan government is also reportedly in negotiations with China to acquire JF-17 Thunder multi-role fighters that would replace the country’s F-16A/B’s as these run out of spares due to the US embargo.

The air force has identified the Mil Mi-28NE Night Hunter as its selected replacement for its fleet of OV-10 Bronco close air support aircraft. Reports suggest Venezuela may procure a batch of ten Mi-28NE’s helicopters from Russia, but there has been no official confirmation of a contract or the number of aircraft being considered. However, in mid 2009 it was announced that ten K-8 armed trainers would take over the OV-10 Bronco’s role in supporting anti-narcotic operations.



8.1.2. Transport

In order to replace the retired G222 and complement the ageing C-130H Hercules, the AMV has a requirement for up to a dozen new transport aircraft. This was partly to be met by the selection in late 2005 of the EADS-CASA C-295M but US content export restrictions put an end to negotiations, with development of a version incorporating French engines and avionics being disregarded on grounds of cost. Subsequently, in late 2006 Venezuela announced that it was considering alternatives from Russia and Ukraine. In December 2007, it became known that Venezuela planned to obtain 10 Ilyushin IL-76MDs and at least two Il-78 tanker-transports, possibly with a portion of the USD1 billion loan for defence equipment secured from Russia in October 2008. This has not translated into a delivery and the Venezuelan Air Force has also reportedly been interested in acquiring six Antonov An-74 Coaler

The air force has also identified the need to replace its fleet of Beech Super King Air and Cessna Citation light transport aircraft with up to six new light transports. These aircraft could be used in the Medical Evacuation role. Additionally, the air force has a requirement for medium lift helicopters.

8.1.3. UAVs

In February 2007 the Venezuelan government signed a memorandum of understanding with Iran for the joint development of a tactical UAV to be used in a variety of roles including intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR), border patrol and anti-narcotic operations. Sources indicate that Venezuela recently acquired 12 UAV’s.



8.1.4. Air Defence

Venezuela is reportedly in an advanced stage of negotiations for twelve additional Tor-M1 air defence systems. The Venezuelan government has also expressed interest in acquiring a number of S-300 long-range area defence systems. These are to be incorporated into a new tri-service air defence organization that will be responsible for national air defence.

An air defence upgrade program worth at least USD150 million was launched in 2005 with the purchase of of three Chinese JYL-1 long-range, 3-D surveillance radar systems for the command of military air operations. Another deal is being considered for the acquisition of a new Chinese national defence communications system network, which will be satellite-based, with strong encryption and security capabilities. The new Chinese radar and communications system will replace older US-made radars currently in place. In October 2008, China launched the VENSAT-1 Simon Bolivar, Venezuela’s first communications satellite, paving the way for future co-operation.

In August 2001, Venezuela acquired an Atlas Mistral surface-to-air heat-seeking missile system from France at a cost of USD24 million. Venezuela has also taken delivery of three Rafael / IAI Defender ground-based air defence systems, which combines the BARAK-1 point defence missile with a Thales Netherlands Flycatcher 2 surveillance radar. In addition, a batch of missiles was received from Israel in July 2004; the type of weapon involved has not been disclosed, but it is believed that they were Rafael Python IV air-to-air missiles for use by the F-16 Fighting Falcon.



8.1.5. Trainer

In September 2008 President Chavez announced the order for 24 HAIG K-8 jet trainers from China, at a reported cost of USD120 million. Eight of the K-8s will complement Venezuela's ageing VF-5D Freedom Fighters at Grupo 12 at Barquisimento airbase, while the remaining 10 will be transferred to Grupo 15 in Barquisimento, where they will begin anti-narcotic operations, taking over and eventually replacing the OV-10’s. A simulator is also included in the deal. Deliveries are expected to start January 2010 to Grupo 12. The order was cut to 18 aircraft in July 2009 due to funding constraints.

There have been reported of Venezuelan interest in the Chinese Hongdu L-15 lead in fighter trainer to replace the ageing VF-5 fleet.

8.1.6. Helicopter

The Venezuelan air force received a first batch of eight Mi-17V-5 medium transport helicopters acquired through a deal worth an estimated US 36 million in 2009. The helicopters had been ordered reportedly since 2007.



8.2. Modernisation

The F-5 fleet was upgraded by Singapore Aerospace (SAI) in the early 1990s with new avionics, defensive aids and communications equipment, and surviving aircraft were further upgraded during 2003-2004 by Elbit to allow operations to continue for a further decade. Contacts with Iran have suggested a possible upgrade of the VF-5’s with Iranian assistance, with an Iranian technical delegation arriving in Venezuela during May 2009 for inspection of the VF-5’s.

In 2009 the remaining OV-10 Broncos received new propellers designed to make their operation less noisy. An upgrade for the fleet, contracted with Marsh Aviation in 2005 was not possible. They will be replaced by ten armed K-8’s from late 2010.

Under “Project Tepuy”, which launched in 1999, the air force has modernized three C-130H Hercules as of early 2009 and plans to continue the fleet’s modernization. The service comprises two new AC systems, an avionics modernization, structure inspection and maintenance, as well as a complete overhaul of the hydraulics and mechanical systems.



9. Equipment in service

9.1. Fixed Wing

Table 4. 




Type

Manufacturer

Role

Original Total

In Service

First Delivery

F-16A Fighting Falcon

Lockheed Martin

Fighter – Multirole

18

17

1983

Su-30MK2V ‘Flanker-G’

Sukhoi

Fighter – Multirole

24

24

2006

F-16B Fighting Falcon

Lockheed Martin

Fighter – Multirole

6

4

1983

VF-5A

Canadair

Fighter – Ground Attack / Strike

16

7

1972

K-8

CATIC

LIFT

181

6

2010

OV-10A Bronco

Rockwell

Counter-Insurgency

18

5

1991

OV-10E Bronco

Rockwell

Counter-Insurgency

16

2

1975

C-130H Hercules

Lockheed Martin

Transport

8

6

1970

707-384C-H (KC-137E)

Boeing

Tanker / Transport

2

2

1990

ACJ

Airbus

Communications

1

1

2001

Falcon 20C (EW)

Dassault

Electronic Intelligence

1

1

1987

C-26A Metro III

Fairchild

Electronic Intelligence

2

2

1996

Falcon 20F

Dassault

Electronic Warfare

1

1

1985

King Air 200

Beechcraft

Utility

3

3

1979

King Air 200C

Beechcraft

Utility

2

1

1981

500 Citation I

Cessna

Utility

1

1

1973

550 Citation II

Cessna

Utility

3

3

1981

551 Citation II/SPC

Cessna

Utility

1

1

2001

750 Citation X

Cessna

Utility

1

1

2006

T206H Turbo Stationair

Cessna

Utility

15

12

2006

208B Caravan

Cessna

Utility

4

4

2006

360-300

Shorts

Utility

3

3

2000

SF-260EV

Aermacchi

Trainer

12

11

2000

EMB-312 Tucano

Embraer

Trainer

31

22(1)

1986

NF-5B

Canadair

Trainer

6

2

1993

VF-5D

Canadair

Trainer

4

1

1972

Note:

(1) Several currently in storage; total includes about 10 armed versions.

9.2. Rotary Wing

Table 5. 




Type

Manufacturer

Role

Original Total

In Service

First Delivery

AS 332B Super Puma

Eurocopter

Utility

8

4

1990

AS 532AC Cougar

Eurocopter

Utility

10

9

2000

Mi-17V-5

Kazan

Utility

6

6

2009

Mi-172

Ulan Ude

VIP Transport

2

2

2009

9.3. Missiles

Table 6. 




Type

Manufacturer

Role

AIM-9L Sidewinder

Raytheon

Air-to-Air

AA-10 ‘Alamoʼ

Vympel

Air-to-Air

AA-12 Alamo (R-77)

Vympel

BVRAAM

AA-11 ‘Archerʼ (R-73E)

Vympel

Air-to-Air

Python IV(1)

Rafael

Air-to-Air

AS-13 ‘Kingbolt’

Raduga

Air-to-Surface

AS-14 ‘Kedge’

Vympel

Air-to-Surface

AS-18 Kazoo (Kh-59ME)




Air-to-Surface

AS-17 Krypton (Kh-31A/P)




Air-to-Surface

AM 39 Exocet

Aerospatiale Matra

Anti-Ship Attack

Note:

(1) Unconfirmed.



1 Being delivered in January 2010


The database is protected by copyright ©ininet.org 2016
send message

    Main page