Just when you think you've got the seasons in your area all figured out, along comes a winter that is nothing like what you expect. Around the country, around the world, everything seems to be upside down. Places like Seattle that are accustomed to cool temperatures and a lot of rain instead get warm, dry weather. Places like sunny southern California, the Southwest desert, and even the southeastern United States get cold temperatures and heavy rain. In the usually cold Northeast, it doesn't even feel like winter. And it snows in weird places like in Guadalajara, Mexico.
That's almost a sure sign of El Niño — above-average Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures and atmospheric conditions that change the places where storms go.
Cold temperatures and rain befall the usually dry deserts, and warm dryness comes to the usually cool forests of North America, South America, and much of the rest of the world. The important thing is not that there is more hard winter weather around the world during El Niño — although during a big El Niño, a grande El Niño, there certainly seem to be more storms. El Niño's "Bad Boy" reputation as a natural disaster comes not from extra storminess, but from the fact that it puts storms in places that can't handle them so well.
Is El Niño a bad boy?
Is El Niño really bad news? It all depends on where you live. A powerful El Niño is terrible news to people in Ecuador and Peru, for example, who often face deadly floods in their steep desert terrain. It's not much good to southern California either, and for the same reason — the desert soil can't absorb much water, so the rains bring on floods and mud slides. But the folks in Seattle and western Canada don't mind a mild winter once in a while. In the northeastern United States, often El Niño means milder winter temperatures and less snow than usual — less hardship and a welcome savings on winter heating bills. And for people across the Gulf States and the Eastern Seaboard, El Niño does one really good thing in the Atlantic Ocean in the summer and fall. It generates powerful high-altitude winds that cut the tops off of tropical storms before they can grow into hurricanes.
Good or bad, scientists say that, aside from the seasons themselves, El Niño is the most powerful climate force on Earth. So this is a big part of the big answer to the little question: Why is one winter different from another? It's not the only reason, of course. But if one winter is very different from normal — almost the opposite of what you would expect — take a look out in the tropical Pacific Ocean.
The El Niño look
If El Niño is out there, as it is in Figure 1, the Pacific Ocean has a very different look. The Warm Pool and the big thunderstorms have moved. Instead of up against south Asia, they are spread out into the middle of the Pacific or even far over on the other side of the ocean, up against the coast of South America. All kinds of big changes are taking place. The tradewinds have completely pooped out and may even be blowing in the opposite direction. The Cold Tongue is a goner, and in its place is extra-warm water. Take a look at the jet stream, the storm track. Instead of looping around like it normally does, it is so strong that it carries storms straight over the Pacific Ocean and across the Southwest and the southern United States.
Figure 1: Features of El Niño across the tropical Pacific.
These important season-changing conditions — the Warm Pool and the big thunderstorms and the winds — seem to swing back and forth from one extreme to another across the tropical Pacific Ocean. On average, every three to seven years El Niño seems to come along. But "average" and "normal" are not very good words to use with things like El Niño. Like a lot of things about weather, "average" and "normal" don't seem to come around very often. The swings from especially warm to especially cool Pacific Ocean conditions are not regular, and their pattern is not reliable.
Some climate experts at the Go Figure Academy of Sciences and elsewhere have been trying to make a computer model that acts like the Pacific Ocean, swinging between warm and cool, so that they can predict when El Niño will show his face. But they're not very good at it yet. On the other hand, scientists have become very good at using new tools like satellites and buoys moored across the ocean to detect changes in the temperature of the water and in the winds. So once El Niño conditions begin to take shape, they can see them sooner. If you live in a region that feels El Niño's effects, this means that some years climate experts may be able to warn you months in advance about what kind of winter to expect. Figure 2 shows the patterns of global weather that are linked to a powerful El Niño.
Figure 2: Common winter weather impacts of El Niño.
La Niña, the contrary sister
El Niño causes some serious weather problems around the world, no doubt about it, but La Niña, which Figure 3 illustrates, is not exactly a sweet little thing either. In places like the northeastern United States that are accustomed to cold and snowy winters, La Niña often makes for especially hard winters. In the rainy Pacific Northwest, La Niña winters seem to bring even more rain and snow than usual.
Figure 3: Features of La Niña across the tropical Pacific.
Across the desert Southwest, often the season is even drier than normal. Tornadoes seem especially numerous during springs and summers of La Niña, and the Atlantic hurricane season can be especially long and dangerous. In 1999, for example, while La Niña conditions prevailed in the tropical Pacific Ocean, 12 tropical storms grew big enough to earn names, eight of them became hurricanes, and five became intense hurricanes.
Here is a rule that is not always exactly true, but still is useful to compare the impacts of El Niño and his contrary sister. Where El Niño is warm, La Niña is cool. Where El Niño is wet, La Niña is dry. While El Niño conditions and their seasonal impacts look very different from normal, La Niña conditions often bring winters that are typical — only more so. There's something else to keep in mind: El Niño and La Niña tend to make seasonal conditions one way or another, but every El Niño and La Niña is different.
The La Niña look
Like a lot of brothers and sisters, El Niño and La Niña don't get along together. In the tropical Pacific Ocean, they are opposites. If you have one, you can't have the other. In the ocean, the uppermost layer of warm water — which flattens out during El Niño — now has an especially sharp wedge-shape to itself during La Niña. It is thick up against South Asia, where the Warm Pool is especially deep. Above the ocean, the tradewinds are especially strong. And on the opposite side of the ocean, up against South America, because of the strong offshore winds, the warm surface layer disappears altogether. The deeper cold water is flowing directly up to the surface for a great distance along the Equator. This means that the Cold Tongue is sticking out far into the sea.
La Niña impacts on the world's weather are less predictable than the effects wrought by El Niño. This is mainly because of the big differences in the jet stream and the storm track. El Niño causes the Pacific storm track to become stronger, to drop farther south than usual, and to straighten out like a necklace of weather extending more-or-less straight across the ocean. The La Niña storm track is weaker and loopy and irregular, like a piece of wet and wiggly spaghetti, more changeable — so the behavior and direction of the storms it carries are more difficult to accurately forecast (see Figure 4).
Figure 4: Common winter weather impacts of La Niña.
Hurricanes form mostly from June through November (hurricane season).
The birth of a hurricane requires at least four conditions:
1. The ocean waters must be warm enough (80 degrees F) at the surface to put enough heat and moisture into the atmosphere to provide the energy a hurricane needs.
2. Atmospheric moisture from sea water evaporation must combine with that heat and energy to form the powerful engine needed to propel a hurricane.
3. A wind pattern must be near the ocean surface to spirals air inward. Bands of thunderstorms form, allowing the air to warm further and rise higher into the atmosphere. If the winds at these higher levels are relatively light, this structure can remain intact and grow stronger: the beginnings of a hurricane!
A hurricane goes through many stages as it develops:
1. It starts as a tropical wave, a westward-moving area of low air pressure.
2. As the warm, moist air over the ocean rises in the low air pressure area, cold air from above replaces it. This produces strong gusty winds, heavy rain and thunderclouds that is called a tropical disturbance.
3. As the air pressure drops and there are sustained winds up to 38 miles per hour, it is called a tropical depression.
4. When the cyclonic winds have sustained speeds from 39 to 73 miles per hour, it is called a
tropical storm (storms are given names when they begin to have winds of this speed).
5. The storm becomes a hurricane when there are sustained winds of over 73 miles per hour.
The End of a Storm: When a hurricane travels over land or cold water, its energy source (warm water) is gone and the storm weakens, quickly dying.
A Hurricanes Biggest Threat: Storm Surge
A storm surge is an offshore rise of water associated with a low pressure weather system, typically hurricanes. Storm surges are caused primarily by high winds pushing on the ocean's surface. The wind causes the water to pile up higher than the ordinary sea level.
In areas where there is a significant difference between low tide and high tide, storm surges are particularly damaging when they occur at the time of a high tide. In these cases, this increases the difficulty of predicting the magnitude of a storm surge since it requires weather forecasts to be accurate to within a few hours. Storm surges can be produced by extra tropical cyclones, such as the Night of the Big Wind of 1839 and the Storm of the Century (1993), but the most extreme storm surge events typically occur as a result of tropical cyclones. Factors that determine the surge heights for landfalling tropical cyclones include the speed, intensity, size of the radius of maximum winds (RMW), radius of the wind fields, angle of the track relative to the coastline, the physical characteristics of the coastline and the bathymetry of the water offshore.
The Galveston Hurricane of 1900, a Category 4 hurricane that struck Galveston, Texas, drove a devastating surge ashore; between 6,000 and 12,000 lives were lost, making it the deadliest natural disaster ever to strike the United States.
Hurricane Katrina had a storm surge of approximately 28 feet.
Hurricane Sandy’s storm surge is estimate to have been between 11-15 feet.
America’s Worst Hurricanes
Total economic damage from Hurricane Sandy could reach over $50 billion, according to estimates from forecasting firm Eqecat. Widespread power and transportation outages boosted damage well past early estimates.
Sandy would rank second to Katrina, which caused $106 billion in damage when adjusted for inflation. Though less powerful, the 2005 storm was devastating due
to its concentration, the low elevation of New Orleans, and insufficient levees.
How are hurricanes or typhoons categorized?
Hurricanes are categorized based on the maximum speed of sustained winds within the cyclone. The Saffir-Simpson scale ranges from 1 for low-level hurricanes to 5 for the most unforgiving and catastrophic.
Moderate: Damage to roofs, serious damage to mobile homes, low-level flooding
Extensive: Damage to small buildings, low roads cut off, flooding
Extreme: Roofs destroyed, mobile homes destroyed, trees down, major flooding
156 mph or more
Catastrophic: Most buildings and plants destroyed, major flooding
How are hurricanes and typhoons named?
Beginning in 1953, the (U.S.) National Hurricane Center maintained a list that it used to name tropical cyclones, including hurricanes. That list is now maintained by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), which keeps separate lists for cyclones in the Atlantic, in the eastern north Pacific, and in the eastern central Pacific. Other organizations are responsible for naming cyclones in other parts of the world.
The lists for the Atlantic and eastern northern Pacific each actually comprise six different lists of 21 names that are used in rotation, which means that the names used for this year's hurricanes will pop up again in six years. If more than 21 cyclones occur in the year, subsequent storms are named after the letters of the Greek alphabet.
When a hurricane is particularly devastating or costly, its name is removed from the list and replaced with a new one. There will, for instance, be no more hurricanes named Hugo (1989), Andrew (1992), Katrina (2005), or Irene (2011).
Until 1979, tropical storms and hurricanes were given only women's names. Since then, they have been given alternating male and female names.
Tornadoes: Really Twisted Winds
Tornadoes are nature's most violent storms. Nothing that the atmosphere can dish out is more destructive. They can sweep up anything that moves. They lift buildings from their foundations. They make a swirling cloud of violently flying debris. They are very dangerous to all living things, not only because of the sheer power of their winds, but the missiles of debris they create.
Wind measuring instruments are destroyed by tornadoes, although according to reliable estimates, their winds can exceed 250 miles per hour. Flying at those speeds, pieces of straw can penetrate wood. According to most scientists, the top wind speeds in the strongest tornadoes are about 280 miles per hour.
In an average year, 1,200 tornadoes are reported in the United States, far more than any other place in the world.
On average, tornadoes cause 80 deaths in the United States every year and 1,500 injuries, although averages don't mean very much when it comes to these storms. In 1998, for example, 130 people died in tornadoes in the United States, including 42 who were killed in an outbreak in central Florida and 34 who died in a single tornado in Birmingham, Alabama. Most human casualties are people in mobile homes and vehicles. The deadliest single tornado struck on March 18, 1925. In three and a half hours, it traveled 219 miles through Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana, killing 695 people.
Most tornadoes, nearly 90 percent, travel from the southwest to the northeast, although some follow quick-changing zigzag paths. Weak tornadoes, or decaying tornadoes, often have a thin ropelike appearance. The most violent tornadoes have a broad, dark, funnel-shape that extends from a dark wall cloud of a large thunderstorm.
There have been reports of some tornadoes that practically stand still, hovering over a single field.
Others crawl along at 5 miles per hour. But the average tornado travels 35 miles per hour, and some have been clocked at more than 70 miles per hour. A tornado in 1917 traveled a record 293 miles. The average width of a tornado's path is about 140 yards, although some have been reported to be more than a mile wide.
Most tornadoes occur between 3 p.m. and 9 p.m., although they have been known to strike at all hours of the day or night. They usually last only about 15 minutes, usually moving constantly, spending only a matter of seconds in any single place, although some have been known to stay on the ground for hours.
The size of the place known as Tornado Alley expands through spring and summer as heating from the sun grows warmer and the flow of warm moisture from the Gulf of Mexico spreads farther north. An area that includes central Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas is the hard core of the season, but before it is over, as Figure 1 illustrates, Tornado Alley extends north to Nebraska and Iowa.
Figure 1: Tornado Alley.
It shrinks and swells over time, but there is only one Tornado Alley. Nowhere else in the world sees weather conditions in a combination that is so perfect for these storms. Here's what makes the storms of Tornado Alley so bad:
Beginning in spring and continuing through summer, low-level winds from the south and southeast bring a plentiful supply of warm tropical moisture up from the Gulf of Mexico into the Great Plains.
From down off of the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains or from out of the deserts of northern Mexico come other flows of very dry air that travel about 3,000 feet above the ground.
From 10,000 feet, the prevailing westerly winds, sometimes accompanied by a powerful jet stream, race overhead, carrying cool air from the Pacific Ocean.
Sometimes, the winds form a convective cap lid of warm air over the Plains that the rising air is eventually able to break through and explode upward into the sky. These are the ingredients for the most severe thunderstorms and most powerful twisters — sharp differences in temperatures at different levels, big contrasts in dryness and moisture, and layers of powerful winds that are blowing from different directions at different speeds.
Weather forecasters in Tornado Alley have a pretty good idea of the menu of conditions that are necessary to make severe thunderstorms, and they're pretty good at being able to forecast that severe thunderstorms are on the way. They can say that large hailstones and strong winds are likely, and a tornado is a possibility during the next several hours or the next day or two.
But they can't forecast a tornado. The question of which of the conditions on the menu for severe thunderstorms actually causes tornadoes to form in these storms remains one of the most difficult mysteries of weather science. A severe thunderstorm that causes a tornado can look exactly like a severe thunderstorm that does not cause a tornado. Weather researchers have been working on the problem for years, chasing tornadoes all over the countryside, and still it is one of those things that is not well understood.
The presence in the area of supercell thunderstorms really puts pressure on forecasters in local weather service field offices. The national Storm Prediction Center in Norman, Oklahoma, is on the phone giving advice, but the buck stops in the local office. The local forecasters know that a lethal tornado could come spinning down out of the dark cloud at any moment, but they can't be sure until they see it show up on a Doppler radar screen or a funnel is actually observed.
Billions of dollars have been spent in the last several years on research and computer modeling and radars and satellite technologies and high-speed communications, and progress has been made. On average, when tornado warnings were issued in 1994, communities had six minutes to react. By 1998, the average lead time for warnings had been stretched to 12 minutes.
Television meteorologists and other media outlets play vital roles in such weather emergencies, continuously broadcasting the locations and predicted paths of tornadoes. Many lives are being saved by the increased public awareness and the lengthening time of advance warning that is available. In fact, the longer lead-time has reached the point where people are rethinking the idea of public shelters for tornadoes. As minutes are added to advance warnings, now it may be possible for people in harm's way to rush to a shelter before a tornado hits.
More than 15,000 severe storm and tornado watches and warnings are issued by the National Weather Service every year. Most of the time they are accurate. Sometimes they are missed. Occasionally there are false alarms. The successes are taken for granted and often overlooked in the details of a tornado disaster. The failures and the false alarms seem to be remembered forever. Perfectly reasonable people who will forgive you for missing the rain on their picnic now have a different attitude. When it comes to tornadoes, they want perfection.
Lives and limbs
What are the odds of a tornado crossing your path? Even in Tornado Alley, the odds are against such an unhappy occasion. When it happens, of course, it's a disaster — but still, the odds are high against it.
People think about tornadoes in tornado country the way people in the Southeast think about hurricanes and people in California think about earthquakes. It's part of the background of daily life that you really don't give very much thought to, because chances are, it's not going to happen.
The five-dollar word for this is complacency — a self-satisfied unawareness of danger — and somebody is always getting on their high horse about it. The truth is, day in and day out, most people have other things to worry about that just seem more real. And it's just human nature to be optimistic, and to think things are going to turn out for the best. But it leaves you open for some terrible surprises once in a while, which is kind of sad, when you think about it. Government people in the disaster business and American Red Cross relief workers who deal with victims of these storms see this sense of surprise on people's faces all the time.
A tornado watch or a warning?
Don't confuse a "watch" with a "warning." There is a big difference. Here is what they are about:
Tornado Watch: When National Weather Service forecasters issue a Tornado Watch, they are making a forecast that tornadoes are possible in your area. It's time to remain alert to signs of approaching storms and to make sure that you are prepared for an emergency.
Tornado Warning: This is an emergency message. A tornado has been sighted in your area, or weather radar indicates one is present. Now is the time to get to safety, to put your emergency plan into action.
Tornado do's — and don'ts!
The National Weather Service and the American Red Cross have put together these basic tips about tornado safety:
Seek shelter immediately, preferably underground in a basement, or in an interior room on the lowest floor such as a closet or bathroom.
Stay away from windows.
Get out of your car or your mobile home and seek shelter in a sturdy structure. In the open, lie flat in a ditch or depression.
Protect your head from flying debris.
Do not try to outrun a tornado in your car.
Do not seek shelter under a bridge over overpass. The idea that these are safe shelters is just plain wrong.
A monsoon is a seasonal change in the direction of the prevailing, or strongest, winds of a region. Monsoons cause wet and dry seasons throughout much of the tropics. Monsoons are most often associated with the Indian Ocean.
Monsoons always blow from cold to warm regions. The summer monsoon and the winter monsoon determine the climate for most of India and Southeast Asia.
The summer monsoon is associated with heavy rainfall. It usually happens between April and September. As winter ends, warm, moist air from the southwest Indian Ocean blows toward countries like India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. The summer monsoon brings a humid climate and torrential rainfall to these areas.
India and Southeast Asia depend on the summer monsoon. Agriculture, for example, relies on the yearly rain. Many areas in these countries do not have large irrigation systems surrounding lakes, rivers, or snowmelt areas. Aquifers, or supplies of underground water, are shallow. The summer monsoon fills wells and aquifers for the rest of the year. Rice and tea are some crops that rely on the summer monsoon. Dairy farms, which help make India the largest milk producer in the world, also depend on the monsoon rains to keep cows healthy and well-fed.
Industry in India and Southeast Asia also relies on the summer monsoon. A great deal of electricity in the region is produced by hydroelectric power plants, which are driven by water collected during the monsoons. Electricity powers hospitals, schools, and businesses that help the economies of these areas develop.
When the summer monsoon is late or weak, the regions economy suffers. Fewer people can grow their own food, and large agribusinesses do not have produce to sell. Governments must import food. Electricity becomes more expensive, sometimes limiting development to large businesses and wealthy individuals. The summer monsoon has been called Indias true finance minister.
Heavy summer monsoons can cause great damage. Residents of such urban areas as Mumbai, India, are used to the streets flooding with almost half a meter (1.5 feet) of water every summer. However, when the summer monsoon is stronger than expected, floods can devastate the region. In cities like Mumbai, entire neighborhoods can be drowned. In rural areas, mudslides can bury villages and destroy crops.
In 2005, a strong monsoon devastated western India. As the summer monsoon blew in from the southwest, it first hit the state of Gujarat. More than 100 people died. Then, the monsoon rains hit the state of Maharashtra. Flooding in Maharashtra killed more than 1,000 people. On July 26, 2005, the city of Mumbai, Maharashtra, received almost a meter (39.1 inches) of rain.
The Indian Oceans winter monsoon, which lasts from October to April, is less well-known than its rainy summer equivalent. The dry winter monsoon blows from the northeast. These winds start in the air above Mongolia and northwestern China.
Winter monsoons are less powerful than summer monsoons in Southeast Asia, in part because the Himalaya Mountains prevent much of the wind and moisture of the monsoons from reaching the coast. The Himalayas also prevent much of the cool air from reaching places like southern India and Sri Lanka, keeping them warm all year. Winter monsoons are sometimes associated with droughts.
Not all winter monsoons are dry, however. Unlike the western part of Southeast Asia, the eastern, Pacific coast of Southeast Asia experiences its rainy season in the winter. The winter monsoon brings moist air from the South China Sea to areas like Indonesia and Malaysia.
The Asian-Australian monsoon, which includes the Indian Ocean, stretches from northern Australia to Russias Pacific coast. This huge monsoon wind system then stretches into the Indian Ocean. Finally, it reaches its end on the Indian coast of Africa.
Monsoon winds exist in other parts of the world, too. The North American monsoon happens once a year, usually in the middle of summer. Warm, moist air from the Gulf of California blows northeast, while warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico blows northwest. These two winds meet over the Sierra Madre Occidental mountains in central Mexico. The monsoon brings moisture to the mountain ecosystem before continuing north to the U.S. states of Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas.
The North American monsoon can be a natural aid to firefighters. Summer temperatures in Arizona regularly reach more than 100 degrees Fahrenheit, making wildfires difficult to contain. The North American monsoon is also the primary water source for most desert ecosystems in the region. However, it can also confuse and interrupt daily life for people and businesses not used to dealing with heavy rain.
What are the signs that we are having an El Nino year?
Why do El Nino’s have a reputation of being a natural disaster?
What areas are hard hit by El Nino storms? What areas see milder winters?
What benefit does an El Nino have on the Atlantic Ocean?
Look at figure 2 and describe the weather pattern for El Nino.
What are the signs we are having a La Nina year?
Describe how a La Nina changes weather patterns.
Compare and contrast El Nino and La Nina.
Look at figure 4 and describe the weather pattern for La Nina.
When is hurricane season?
What are the conditions needed to form a hurricane?
What are the developmental stages of a hurricane?
What is a storm surge?
How are hurricanes categorized and named?
Why are tornadoes so devastating?
Where is tornado alley?
What are the key ingredients for a tornado?
What are the tornado do’s and don’ts?
Describe a summer and winter monsoon.
Describe other monsoons.
21. Biogeochemical cycles describe the movement of certain elements (typically bound with other elements in compounds) through Earth’s atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere. These elements and their compounds are necessary components of all life, and because they cycle, they can be used repeatedly by new generations of organisms. Each biogeochemical cycle has different pathways with various reservoirs (sources and sinks) where elements may reside for days or millions of years.
(a) The atmosphere is one important carbon reservoir.
(i) Describe a biological process by which carbon is removed from the atmosphere and converted to organic molecules.
(ii) Describe a biological process by which carbon is converted from organic molecules to a gas and returned to the atmosphere.
(b) Oceans and terrestrial systems are also important carbon reservoirs.
(i) Explainhow atmospheric carbon is incorporated into two oceanic sinks.
(ii) Identify one terrestrial sink, other than fossil fuels, that stores carbon for thousands to millions of years.
(c) The burning of fossil fuels has been shown to increase the concentration of carbon in the atmosphere. DiscussTWO other human activities that increase the concentration of carbon in the atmosphere.
(d) Identify an environmental problem that results from elevated atmospheric carbon concentrations.
Discuss one consequence of the problem you identified.
(e) Phosphorus is another element important to all organisms.
(i) Describe one major way in which the phosphorus cycle differs from the carbon cycle.
(ii) Identify one reason that phosphorus is necessary for organisms.