Whap – Era 1 & 2 Packet

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WHAP – Era 1 & 2 Packet

Must Know Dates for Era 1 & 2
c. 8000 B.C.E. Beginnings of agriculture

c. 3000 B.C.E. Beginnings of Bronze Age-early civ’s

c. 1300 B.C.E. Iron Age

6th C B.C.E. Life of Buddha, Confucius, Laozi

5th C B.C.E. Greek Golden Age – philosophers

403-221 B.C.E. China’s Era of Warring States

323 B.C.E. Alexander the Great dies

221 B.C.E. Qin Dynasty unified China

184 B.C.E. Fall of Mauryan Dynasty

32 C.E. Beginnings of Christianity

180 End of Pax Romana

220 End of Han Dynasty

312 Emperor Constantine converts to Christianity

333 Roman capital moved to Constantinople

4th C Beginning of Japanese invasion of (rest of) China/ Beg. of Trans-Saharan Trade Routes

476 “Fall” of Rome

527 Justinian rule of Byzantine Empire

550 Fall of Gupta Dynasty/Empire

Part One: First Things First, Beginnings in History (to 500 BCE)

  1. What do B.C.E., C.E., and B.P. stand for? (6)

  2. What are these acronyms used? (6)

Persian Charts



Mohenjo-Daro/Harappa (Indus Valley)









Greek City States

Roman Empire




Ch 1: First Peoples; First Farmers (to 4,000 BCE)


Venus Figurines (15)

Paleolithic (20)

Animistic (23)

Neolithic (26)

Domestication (27)

Fertile Crescent (31)

Diffusion (34)

Bantu (35)

Metallurgy (38)

Pastoralism (39)

Guiding Questions – No Guiding Questions for this chapter.
Ch 2: First Civilizations (3,500 BCE-500 BCE)


Civilization (62)

Norte Chico (63)

Indus Valley Civ (66)

Xia Dynasty (67)

Shang Dynasty (67)

Zhou Dynasty (67)

Olmec (68)

Uruk (69)

Ziggurat (69)

Epic of Gilgamesh (70)

Mohenjo Daro & Harappa (70)

Teotihuacan (70)

Code of Hammurabi (71)

Patriarchy (73)

Mandate of Heaven (77)

Cuneiform (79)

Hieroglyphs (79)

Pictographs (79)

Quipu (79)

Mesopotamia (80)

Egypt (80)

Babylonia (83)

Hebrews (86)

Phoenicians (86)

Hittites (87)

Chariots (87)

Book of the Dead (98)

Guiding Questions

  1. In what ways was social inequality expressed in early civilizations? (71)

  2. How did Mesopotamian and Egyptian patriarchy differ from each other? (74)

  3. Describe how Mesopotamian trade expanded (85)

  4. Describe how Egyptian trade expanded. (86)

What was Egypt’s relationship with Nubia? (87)


The Epic of Gilgamesh (Doc 2.1)

  1. How would you define the Mesopotamian ideal of kingship?

  2. What understanding of the afterlife does the epic suggest?

  3. What philosophy of life comes across in the Gilgamesh story?

  4. How does the Epic of Gilgamesh portray the gods and their relationship to humankind?

The Law Code of Hammurabi (Doc 2.2)

  1. What can you infer from the code about the kind of social problems that afflicted ancient Mesopotamia?

  2. How would you define the principles of justice that underlay Hammurabi’s code?

  3. In what different ways might 21st century observers and those living at the time of Hammurabi assess that system of justice?

Book of the Dead (Doc 2.4)

  1. What is the Negative Confession? (Briefly describe and give examples.)

Visual Sources: Describe the Olmec Heads (78)

Pg. 64-65: Olmec, Yucatan Peninsula, Norte Chico, Andes Mountains, Egypt, Nile River, Mesopotamia, Sumer, Babylon, Tigris & Euphrates River, Indus Valley, Harappa, Mohenjo Daro, Indus River, Shang, Yellow River

Part Two: Second-Wave Civilizations in World History (500 BCE-500 CE)

Ch 3: State and Empire in Eurasia/North Africa (500 BCE-500 CE)

Persia (120)

Achaemenid Dynasty (120)

Satraps (121)

Persepolis (122)

Classical Greece (122)

Athens (125)

Greco-Persian Wars (125)

Golden Age of Greece (126)

Peloponnesian War (126)

Alexander the Great (126)

Hellenistic Era (128)

Rome (129)

Patricians & Plebians (130)

Punic Wars (130)

Pax Romana (133)

Age of Warring States (133)

Qin Dynasty (133)

Shihuangdi (133)

Great Wall of China (135)

Han Dynasty (136)

Wudi (138)

Germanic Peoples (139)

Mauryan Empire (142)

Ashoka (142)

Gupta Empire (142)

Guiding Questions

  1. How did semidemocratic governments emerge in some of the Greek city-states? (124)

  2. Describe the cultural interaction and blending that occurred as a result of Alexander’s conquests. (129)

  3. How did Rome grow from a single city to the center of a huge empire? (130)

  4. How did women’s roles in Rome change? (132)

  5. Why was the Chinese empire able to take shape so quickly, while that of the Romans took centuries? (133)

  6. Why were the Roman and Chinese empires able to enjoy long periods of relative stability and prosperity? (136)

  7. Describe how Christianity was absorbed in Rome. (136)

  8. Describe how Buddhism was absorbed in China. (137)

  9. What internal and external factors led to the fall of the Roman Empire? (139)

  10. What internal and external factors led to the fall of the Han Dynasty? (139)

  11. Why were centralized empires so much less prominent in India than in China? (141)


Pericles – Funeral Oration (Doc. 3.1)

Aelius Aristides – The Roman Oration (Doc. 3.2

The Writings of Master Han Fei (Doc. 3.3)

Ashoka – The Rock Edicts (Doc. 3.4)

Visual Sources:

The Behistun Inscription (Vis. 3.1)

Qin Shihuangdi Funerary Complex (Vis. 3.3)

Augustus (Vis. 3.4)

Pg. 121: Persia, Royal Road, Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, Caspian Sea, Black Sea

Pg. 127: Alexander’s Empire, Anatolia, Macedonia, Assyria, Bactria, Hindu Kush, Caucasus, Himalayas

Pg. 131: Roman Empire, Gaul, Rome (City), Carthage

Pg. 135: Han Empire, Qin Empire, Xiongnu, Gobi Desert

Pg. 142: Mauryan Empire, Gupta Empire, Pataliputra, Bay of Bengal

Ch 4: Culture and Religion in Eurasia/North Africa (500 BCE-500 CE)

Legalism (169)

Confucianism (169)

Filial Piety (170)

Daoism (172)

Hindusim/Vedic Religion (174)

Vedas (174)

Caste System (175)

Laws of Manu (176)

Buddhism (176)

Theravada Buddhism (178)

Mahayana Buddhism (179)

Mahabharata & Ramayana (179)

Bhagavad Gita (179)

Zoroastrianism (181)

Parthian & Sassanid Dynasties (181)

Judaism (182)

Socrates (184)

Hippocrates (185)

Plato (185)

Aristotle (186)

Christianity (188)

Theodosius (191)

Syncretism (4-a)

Guiding Questions

  1. Why has Confucianism been defined as a “humanistic philosophy” rather than a supernatural religion. (169)

  2. In what ways did Buddhism reflect Hindu traditions, and in what ways did it challenge them? (177)

  3. What new emphases characterized Hinduism as it responded to the challenge of Buddhism? (179)

  4. In what ways was Christianity transformed in the five centuries following the death of Jesus? (188)

  5. Describe the spread of Christianity. (189)

  6. Describe the spread of Buddhism. (192)

  7. Describe the hierarchy that developed within Christianity. (193)


Confucius – The Analects (Doc. 4.1)

Bhagavad Gita (Doc. 4.2)

Plato – Apology (Doc. 4.3)

The Gospel of Matthew (Doc. 4.4)

Visual Sources:

Footprints of the Buddha (Vis. 4.1)

A Gandhara Buddha (Vis. 4.2)

A Bohisattva of Compassion (Vis. 4.3)

The Chinese Maitreya Buddha (Vis. 4.4)

Pg. 191: Spread of Buddhism, Spread of Christianity

Ch 5: Society and Inequality

Wang Mang (221)

Scholar-gentry (221, 224)

Yellow Turban Rebellion (223)

Aryans (225)

Jati (227)

“Three Obediences” (234)

Ban Zhao (235)

Empress Wu (236)

Euripides (238)

Guiding Questions

  1. How did Greco-Roman slavery differ from that of other classical civilizations? (230)

  2. In what ways did the expression of Chinese patriarchy change over time, and why did it change? (234)

  3. How did the patriarchies of Athens and Sparta differ from each other? (237)


Ban Zhao – Lessons for Women (Doc. 5.1)

Livy – History of Rome (Doc. 5.3)

Visual Sources:

A Domestic Shrine (Vis. 5.4)

The Cult of Dionysus (Vis. 5.5)

Ch 6: Commonalities and Variations in Africa and the Americas (500 BCE-1200 CE)

Meroe (265)

Axum (268)

Popol Vuh (273)

Teotihuacan (275)

Chavin (278)

Moche (279)

Wari (281)

Bantu Migrations (282)

Chaco Canyon (286)

Cahokia (288)

Eurocentrism (6-a)


Inscription on a Stone Throne (Doc. 6.2)

Rufinus – On the Evangelization of Abyssinia (Doc. 6.3)

Cosmas – The Christian Topography (Doc. 6.4)

Visual Sources:

Shield Jaguar and Lady Xox (Vis. 6.1)

The Presentation of Captives (Vis. 6.2)

A Bloodletting Ritual (Vis. 6.3)

The Ball Game (Vis. 6.4)

Pg. 266: Africa, Niger Valley, Egypt, Axum, Nubia, Ethiopia, Bantu, Zimbabwe, Sahara, Berbers, Kalahari Desert, Trans-Saharan Trade

Pg. 273: Mesoamerica, Maya, Teotihuacan, Yucatan Peninsula

Pg. 278: Andes Civ., Wari, Moche & Chimu

Pg. 286: North America, Pueblo, Mound Builders, Cahokia

WHAP – Era 3 Packet

Must Know Dates for Era 3: 600-1450

622 Founding of Islam

c. 730 Printing invented in China

732 Battle of Tours

c. 900 Decline of classical Maya

1054 Great Schism in Christian Church

1066 Norman conquest of England

1071 Battle of Manzikert

1095 1st Crusade

1206 Chinggis Khan begins Mongol conquests

1258 Mongols sack Baghdad, end Abbasids

1271-1295 Marco Polo’s travels

1279-1368 Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty in China

1324 Mansa Musa’s pilgrimage/hajj

1325-1349 Travels of Ibn Battuta

1347-1348 Bubonic plague in Europe

1368-1644 Ming Dynasty

1405-1433 Zheng He’s voyages

1438 Rise of Inca Empire

1453 Fall of Constantinople

PERSIAN Charts (Set these up before you start the Unit and fill them out as you read)


Sui Dynasty

Tang Dynasty

Song Dynasty

Umayyad Dynasty

Abbasid Dynasty


Ming Dynasty

Ch 7: Commerce and Culture (500-1500)

Silk Roads (318-324)

Camels (319)

Silk (319)

Cotton (320)

Monasteries (322)

Venice (325)

Indian Ocean Sea Roads (325-328)

Junks (326)

Astrolabe (326)

Magnetic Compass (327)

Angkor Wat (331)

Swahili City-States (332)

Ibn Battuta (333)

Great Zimbabwe (334)

Trans-Saharan Trade (335-337)

Caravans (335)

Timbuktu (337)

Vikings (338)

Mesoamerican Trade (341)

Inca Roads (341)

Quipu (341)

Xuanzang (344)

Marco Polo (347)

Globalization (7-a)


Pg. 317: Silk Roads

Pg. 325: Indian OceanTrade Routes, Monsoons, Calicut, Malacca

Pg. 329: Khmer Empire, Funan, Angkor, Champa, Java

Pg. 333: Swahili Coast, Great Zimbabwe

Pg. 336: Ghana, Mali, Gao, Timbuktu, Fez, Trade Route

Guiding Questions

  1. Describe the spread of religion as a result of trade. (322-323, 327-334)

  2. What was the impact of disease along the Silk Roads? (323)

  3. How did the Sea Roads differ from the Silk Roads? (325)

  4. List and briefly describe the states that arose in western and central Sudan. (335)

  5. In what ways did networks of interaction in the Western Hemisphere differ from those in the Eastern Hemisphere? (338)


Marco Polo - The Travels of Marco Polo (Doc. 7.2)

Ibn Battuta - Travels in Asia and Africa (Doc. 7.3)

Visual Sources:

Greek Culture, Buddhism, and the Kushans (Vis.7.4)

Islam, Shamanism, and the Turks (Vis. 7.5)
Ch 8: East Asian Connections (500-1300)

China’s Golden Age (366)

Sui Dynasty (367)

Tang Dynasty (367)

Song Dynasty (367)

Hangzhou (369)

Footbinding (371)

The Middle Kingdom (373)

Xiongnu (374, 518)

Tribute System (374)

Jurchen (375)

Silla Dynasty (377)

Shotoku Taishi (381)

Bushido (382)

Shinto (383)

Heian Period (383)

The Tale of Genji (383)

Champa Rice *

Printing (387)

Gunpowder (387, 491)

EmperorWendi (390)

Guiding Questions

  1. In what ways did women’s lives change during the Tang and Song dynasties? (371)

  2. How did the Chinese influence the steppe nomads? (376)

  3. How did the steppe nomads influence the Chinese? (376)

  4. How did China influence Korea? (377)

  5. How did China influence Vietnam (379)

  6. How did China influence Japan? (381)

  7. Describe the spread of Chinese technological innovations. (384)

  8. What facilitated the rooting of Buddhism within China? (388)


Shotokuu- The Seventeen Article Constitution (Doc 8.1)

  1. What elements of Buddhist thinking is reflected in this document?

  2. What elements of Confucian thinking is reflected in this document?

  3. What elements of Legalist thinking is reflected in this document?

  4. What can you infer about the internal problems that Japanese rulers faced?

  5. Why do you think Shotoku omitted any mention of traditional Japanese gods or spirits or the Japanese claim that their emperor was descended from the sun goddess Amaterasu?

Sei Shonagon- Pillow Book (Doc 8.3)

  1. What impression does Sei Shonagon convey about the relationship of men and women at court?

  2. How would you describe her posture toward men, toward women, and toward ordinary people? What insight can you gain about class differences from her writing?

  3. In what ways does court life, as Sei Shonagon describes it, reflect Buddhist and Confucian influences, and in what ways does it depart from, and even challenge, those traditions?

Shiba Yoshimasa- Advice to Young Samurai (Doc 8.4)

  1. Based on these accounts, how would you define the ideal samurai?

  2. What elements of Confucian thinking can you find in these selections?

  3. What elements of Buddhist thinking can you find in these selections?

  4. What does the Imagawa letter suggest about the problems facing the military rulers of Japan in the 14th century?

Visual Sources:

A Literary Gathering (Vis 8.3)

  1. What marks these figures as cultivated men of literary or scholarly inclination?

  2. What meaning might you attribute to the outdoor garden setting of this image?

  3. Do you think the artist was seeking to convey an idealized image of what a gathering of “gentlemen” ought to be or a realistic portrayal of an actual event?

An Elite Night Party (Vis 8.4)

  1. What kinds of entertainment were featured at this gathering?

  2. What aspects of these parties shown in the scroll paintings might have caused the emperor some concern?

  3. How are women portrayed in these images?


Pg. 368: Song, Jin, Tang, Great Wall, Grand Canal

Pg. 378: Silla

Pg. 379: Vietnam, Champa

Pg. 381: Japan

Ch 9: The Worlds of Islam (600-1500)

Mecca (413)

Kaaba (414)

Muhammad (414)

Quran (415)

Umma (416)

Pillars of Islam (416)

Hajj (416)

Hijra (417)

Sharia (418)

Jizya (420)

Caliph (422)

Abu Bakr (422)

Sunni (423)

Shia (423)

Umayyad Dynasty (423)

Abbasid Dynasty (424)

Sufis (424)

Polygyny (426)

Purdah *

Hadiths (427)

Sultanate of Delhi (428)

Sikhism (430)

Timbuktu (433)

Mansa Musa (434)

Iberian Peninsula (436)

Ibn Sina (440)

House of Wisdom (440)

Guiding Questions

  1. How was Arabia transformed by the rise of Islam? (417)

  2. Why were Arabs able to build such a huge empire so quickly? (419)

  3. What accounts for the widespread conversion to Islam? (421)

  4. Describe how Persian traditions influenced Islam. (421)

  5. How did the rise of Islam change the lives of women? (425)

  6. Describe the spread of Islam to India. (428)

  7. Describe the spread of Islam to Anatolia. (430)

  8. Describe the spread of Islam to West Africa. (432)

  9. Describe the spread of Islam to Spain. (434)

  10. How did Islamic civilization contribute to ecological change? (439)

  11. What technologies diffused within the realm of Islam? (439)


The Quran (Doc. 9.1)

The Hadith (Doc. 9.2)

The Sharia (Doc. 9.3)

Inscription in Rumi’s Tomb (Doc. 9.4)

Visual Sources: Skip, we will look at other Visuals in class


Pg. 420: Spread of Islam, Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Abbasid Caliphate

Pg. 430: Sultanate of Delhi

Pg. 431: Ottoman Empire, Constantinople, Bursa

Pg. 432: Ghana, Mali, Songhay,Hausa States, Bornu, Extent of Islam by 1500, Trans-Saharan Trad

Ch 10: The Worlds of Christendom (500-1300)

Nestorian Christianity (467)

Orthodox Christianity (472)

Kievan Rus (475)

Carolingian Empire (477)

Holy Roman Empire (478)

Crusades (485)

Horse Collar (490)

Stirrup (490)

Thomas Aquinas (495)

Feudalism (10-a)

Guiding Questions

  1. Describe Ethiopian Christianity (468).

  2. What groups had been attacking Europe between c. 700-1,000? (480)

  3. How did climate change after 750? (480)

  4. How did more land become available? (480)

  5. What opportunities did the Christian Church offer to women? (483)

  6. What technologies were borrowed from other groups by Europeans? Who did they borrow them from? (490)

  7. Why was Europe unable to achieve the political unity that China experienced? What impact did this have on the subsequent history of Europe? (492)


Gregory of Tours- History of the Franks (Doc 10.1)

  1. According to Gregory, what led to the conversion of Clovis?

  2. What issues are evident in the religious discussions of Clovis and his wife, Clotilda?

  3. Notice how Gregory modeled his picture of Clovis on that of Constantine, the famous Roman emperor whose conversion to Christianity in the 4th century gave official legitimacy and state support to the faith. What message did Gregory seek to convey in making this implied comparison?

  4. How might a modern secular historian use this document to help explain the spread of Christianity among the Franks?

Pope Gregory- Advice to the English Church (Doc 10.2)

  1. What can we learn here about the religious practices of the Anglo-Saxons from Bede’s account?

  2. In what specific ways did the pope urge toleration? Why did he advocate accommodation or compromise with existing religious practices? (Keep in mind that the political authorities in England at the time had not yet become thoroughly Christian.)

  3. What implications might Gregory’s policies have for the beliefs and practices of English converts?

Charlemagne- Capitulary on Saxony (Doc 10.3)

  1. What does this document reveal about the kind of resistance that the Saxons mounted against their enforced conversion?

  2. How did Charlemagne seek to counteract that resistance?

  3. What does this document suggest about Charlemagne’s views of his duties as ruler?

Willibald- Life of Boniface (Doc 10.4)

  1. What practices of the Hessians conflicted with Boniface’s understanding of Christianity? How did he confront the persistence of these practices?

The Leechbook (Doc 10.5)

  1. How might Pope Gregory, Charlemagne, and Boniface have responded to the cures and preventions described in the Leechbook?

  2. What do these documents (10.4 and 10.5) reveal about the process of conversion to Christianity?

Visual Sources:

Christ Pantokrator (Vis 10.1)

  1. What historical background is given (pg. 508) regarding this Icon?

  2. How does this image portray Jesus as an all-powerful ruler?

  3. Which features of this image suggest Christ’s humanity and which might portray his divinity?


Pg. 471: Byzantine Empire, Persians, Bulgars, Constantinople, Ostrogoths, Lombards, Franks, Visigoths, Vandals

Pg. 475: Carolingian Empire, Normandy, Papal States, Saxony, Umayyad Caliphate, Magyars

Pg. 481: Holy Roman Empire, Al-Andalus, Kievan Rus

Ch 11: Pastoral Peoples (1200-1500)

Xiongnu (518)

Bedouins (519)

Turkic nomads (519)

Berbers (521)

Almoravids (521)

Mongols (521)

Khanates (522)

Chinggis Khan (523)

Ain Jalut (524)

Karakorum (526)

Khubilai Khan (527)

Hulegu (529)

The Plague (537)

Pandemic (11-a)

Guiding Questions

  1. In what was did pastoral societies differ from their agricultural counterparts? (514)

  2. In what ways did pastoral societies interact with their agricultural neighbors? (516)

  3. How did Mongol rule change China? (527)

  4. How were the Mongols changed by China? (527)

  5. How was Mongol rule in Persia different from that in China? (529)

  6. Describe the Russian experience of Mongol rule. (532)

  7. How did the Mongols encourage trade? (534)

  8. Why didn’t the Mongols expand into Western Europe? (536)


The Secret History of the Mongols (Doc 11.1)

  1. What does the Secret History suggest about the nature of political authority and political relationships among the Mongols?

  2. What did Ogodei regard as his greatest achievements and his most notable mistakes?

Chinggis Khan- Letter to Changchun (Doc 11.2)

  1. Why did Chinggis Khan seek a meeting with Changum?

  2. How did Chinggis Khan define his life’s work? What is his image of himself?

  3. How would you describe the tone of Chinggis Khan’s letter to Changchun? What does the letter suggest about Mongol attituutds toward the belief systems of conquered peoples?

  4. What core Mongol values do Doc 11.1 and 11.2 suggest?

The Chronicle of Novgorod (Doc 11.3)

  1. How did the Russian writer of the Chronicle account for what he saw as the disaster of the Mongol invasion?

  2. Beyond the conquest itself, what other aspects of Mongol rule offended the Russians?

  3. To what extent was the Mongol conquest of Russia also a clash of cultures?

Epitaph for the Honorable Menggu (11.4)

  1. What does this letter suggest about Mongol attitudes to Chinese culture?

  2. What features of Menggu’s governorship did this Chinese author appreciate? In what ways did Menggu’s actions and behavior reflect Confucian values?

  3. What might inspire a highly educated Chinese scholar to compose such a flattering public tribute to a Mongol official?

  4. Why might historians be a bit skeptical about this document?

Visual Sources:

The Flagellants (Vis 11.1)

  1. What is “flagellation”?

  2. What is the significance of the Christ on the cross that precedes the flagellants?

  3. How might the flagellants have understood their own actions?

  4. Why do you think Church authorities generally opposed the flagellant movement?

Burying the Dead (Vis 11.2)

  1. How does this visual source support or contradict the written accounts excerpted from Boccaccio?

  2. How does the scene differ from what an image of a proper Christian burial might contain?

A Culture of Death (Vis 11.3)

  1. How is the status of each of the various living figures- (from left to right: the pope, the emperor, the empress) depicted?

  2. What does the white sheet around each of the death images represent?

  3. Notice that the living figures face outward toward the viewer rather than toward the entreating death figures on either side of them. What might this mean?

  4. In what ways does the portrayal of death pictured here reflect Christian views of death? In what ways does it challenge them?

In the Face of Catastrophe (Vis 11.4)

  1. Why is the death figure smiling?

  2. How are the priest and the Christ figure depicted? What possible interpretations of their gestures can you imagine?


Pg. 521: Almoravid Empire, Navarre And Aragon, Castile and Leon

Pg. 522: Mongol Empire, Great Khanate, Khanate of Jagadai, Golden Horde, Il-Khanate

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