Educational Attainments As per the 2001 census, the literacy rate is 29.37 % and during 2008, it has been increased to 41% out of which the male literacy rate is 55.14 % and female literacy is 28.91%. The total educational aspects are being looked after under the DPEP & SSA by the Education Department and the SC & ST Department.
As per the validated and updated Child Tracking Systems (CTS) 2007 database, the total out of school children (all category) within the age group(5-14) years of the district is 10,516, out of which there are 4616 nos. of minority out of school children who are directly deprived of Education. The district has a population of 5, 18,837, out of which 1, 77,265 nos. are Christian and 376 nos. are Muslims. The percentage of minority is 33.78%. In blocks like Gumma, Nuagada and Mohana, the percentage of minority is more than 50%. This action plan for minority is mainly focusing on the blocks where the numbers of minority children are high. The detail block-wise and category-wise breakup, where minority students are high against the total child population within the age group (5-14) years of the district, has been reflected in Annexure-A. The percentage of out of school children of the district against the total child population of 1, 03,099 is 9.80 % (All category), whereas the percentage of out of school children (minority) only is 22.33 %.
There are remote and inaccessible pockets where opening of regular schools are not feasible. To achieve the super goal of Multi Sectoral Development Action Plan for the minorities of Gajapati, education plays an important role for their overall development and progress. Providing educational facilities through Model Residential Schools at different block headquarters is highly essential. On priority basis, we have proposed to take up four blocks namely, Mohana, Gumma, Nuagada and R. Udayagiri, where large numbers of minorities live
The objective of the plan is to address the problems of the children living in remote and scattered school- less habitations; those who are below poverty line and those who could not receive any proper educational facility.
(i) Educational Institution including technical institution.
Number of Govt. College : 02
Number of Pvt.Women’s College : 01
Number of Pvt. College : 08
Number of Medical College : Nil
Number of Pvt. ITI Centres : 02
Number of Vocational Institutes : 01
Number of Pvt. Engineering College : 01
(ii)Number of High Schools in Gajapati Revenue District.
1. Govt. High Schools. 13 01 14
2. New Govt. High Schools. 12 -- 12
3. Aided High Schools. 01 01 02
4. Block Grant (Partly Aided High 05 -- 05
5. Un-Aided Recognized High 09 02 11
6. High Schools managed by 01 -- 01
7. Aurobindo Integral Education 01 -- 01
8. Saraswati Vidya Mandir 01 -- 01
9. T.R.W. High Schools. 07 04 11
10. Permitted/ Unrecognized 07 -- 07
11. Jawahar Navodya Vidyalya. 01 -- 01
12. Sanskrit College. 01 -- 01
59 08 67
Health & Family Welfare
The focus on health sector has always been on improved access to health care. Both the Central and the State Govt. are making constant endeavours to provide adequate quantative and qualitative health care. The table indicated below shows the status of health in the Gajapati District.
Population of (0-6) years
Crude Birth Rate
Crude Death Rate
Infant Mortality Rate
55/1000 Live Birth
Total Infant death during the year 2006-07
Total Maternal Death during 2006-07
Maternal Mortality rate
Live expectancy at birth
Couple protection rate
44% of eligible couple
The table indicates the health centers of the Districts.
In order to provide common minimum health care facilities to the tribal and the people belonging to the minority communities, and people inhabiting in the inaccessible areas, the district administration has given more emphasis to reduce IMR, MMR etc.
Infrastructure of Social Welfare (ICDS)
ICDS is functioning in all the Blocks of this DISTRICT TRIBAL EDUCATION SOCIETY
At present 755 AWC are functioning in the District including Additional AWC and 492 Mini AWC
124 nos of AWC are without buildings in this District.
Block Existing Additional Total Existing Additional Total
1. Gumma 93 12 105 30 31 61
2. Rayagada 92 01 93 61 63 124
3. R.Udayagiri 68 20 88 12 - 12
4. Nuagada 71 01 72 97 8 125
5. Mohana 120 88 208 118 10 128
6. Kasinagar 66 - 66 - 38 38
7. Gosani 121 02 123 - 24 24
This District has proposed to construct 47 nos of AWC in Mohana Block and one AWC in Gosani Block for 2008-09. Similarly 103 nos of Mini AWC have been taken up for construction. The Block Wise Detail Estimate has been annexed in the Priority Action Plan.
5. CHAPTER-V - Livelihood
AGRICULTURE & ALLIED ACTIVITIES (b) Natural Resource base: Land & its Quality
The major part of the district has hilly terrains and undulated topography, which is inhabited by the tribal. The soil quality is alluvial, brown; land laterites, clay loam, sandy loam and red soil. The geographical formation of the district is Alluvial, brown land Laterites, Gondowanas, Newer Dolerites and Archon, comprising igneous and metamorphic rocks.
Land Use Pattern Paddy is the main crop in the Kharif season. Besides Paddy, other major crops grown are Maize, Cotton, Sugarcane and vegetables. In the Rabi season, pulses, oilseeds like groundnut, sunflower, Niger and vegetables are cultivated in the Irrigated pockets.
Areas under principal crops cultivated are shown below.
Name of the Crops
Area cultivated (In ha.)
: Land use pattern in the district
Heads of classification( ha)
Total Geographical Area (Ha)
Forests ( Ha)
Land put in non agricultural use( Ha)
Barren and uncultivable land( Ha)
Permanent pastures and other gazing land
Land under miscellaneous tree corps ( Ha)
Cultivable waste( Ha)
Fallow and other than cultivable land( Ha)
Net sown area
Area sown more than once
Source: District Agriculture Office
Horticulture The soil and climate is suitable for plantation and there is a great potential for horticulture development in the district. More than 60% of lands are situated in hilly terrain, which has been treated as high lands, mainly suited for horticulture plantation, and rest of the cultivable land belongs to the category of medium lands and low lands
Livestock Traditionally the chores related to care and management of livestock, in livestock owning households is shared between the man and woman in the family. Milking of milch animals, grazing of animals in commons or forests, movement of animals to market and handling of animals for A.I or health camps are the chores for men while women attend to fowls, pigs, goats, stall feeding of animals and cleaning. Next to crop production, animal husbandry is the most important income generating activity that supports livelihood. Household incomes from different species of livestock and their produces vary with the species farmed, but add up to more then 30% of the total income. Regarding milk production, the GGGMU Berhampur plays a vital role. It has established many numbers of MPCS in this district and they are providing interest free dairy loans to the pouring members of the society.
Under different anti-poverty programmes, different banks of this district are supplying dairy animals, goats, poultry and bullocks to the needy tribal farmers.
In Gajapati district, there are 10 veterinary dispensaries, one veterinary hospital and one KV block. Out of 10 VDs, 6VDs are doing AI activities including KV block at Paralakhemundi. There are 47 LACs functioning in the district, out of which 35 LACs have Livestock Inspectors and the rest LACs are vacant. 23 LACs are doing AI activities and rest are normal LACs. In most of the VD, this has not been repaired since many years and some LAC buildings are also in defunct condition, which require immediate repair.
Generally in a Veterinary Dispensary, all the animal husbandry activities are done, like AI Treatment, Castration, Vaccination, De-worming Health camps, Fodder Raising. Other AH activities are carried on along with the above mentioned animal husbandry activities. Under VD, LACs are functioning and they are performing AH activities by giving door-to-door services to the farmers in the rural areas. Livestock Inspector s serve as the grass root level workers.
Livestock resources in the district
Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005, www.gajapati.nic.in,
Department of Animal Husbandry
Milk, meat and egg production in the district( 2004)
Quantity in MT
Total Milk production
103.26( Lakh numbers)
Source: District statistical Hand Book: 2005
In order to develop the inland water resources and economic status of the fisher Community, a new Fish Farmers Development Agency (FFDA) had been created in the district having its Regd. No. 30/93-94. The Collector, Gajapati is the Chairman of F.F.D.A. It is functioning along with the Departmental office since 8.11.1995.
The ‘Fish Farmers Development Agency’ is included under different schemes. Creation of new water area through excavation of new tanks, conversion of derelict water bodies by renovation, technical guidance to fish farmers through training are the main functions under these schemes. Subsidy for excavation and renovation of tanks with pisciculture and stipend for under-going training under F.F.D.A. is provided through this scheme to the beneficiaries.
The total forest area is of 2,301.98 sq. km of which of 437.52 sq. km is reserve forest. The major forest products are Timber, Bamboo, Hill Broom, Patala Garuda, Soap nut, B. Kaliakhali, Marsinga leaf, Dhatuki flowers, Kochila seeds, Genduli gum, Siali leaves and Kathalai etc.
Paralakhemundi Forest Division extends over entire Gajapati District and part of Ganjam District. Hence the geographical area of Gajapati District is same as the District area i.e. 3,850 Sq.Km.
The Paralakhemundi Forest Division consists of 7 ranges i.e. Devagiri, Ramagiri, Kashinagar, Mohendra, R.Udayagiri, Mohana and Chandragiri.The forests In Paralakhemundi Forest division has one of the richest harvests in flora and fauna. This Division is situated in the border of the neighbouring state Andhra Pradesh. It has excessive biotic pressure and is also very prone to theft of timber and fire woods. Most of the forests are not being depleted and degraded for which special care and special efforts need be made for replenishment of the same at the earliest.
This Division also includes some famous historical places such as Mohendragiri, Taptapani, and Gondahati etc. which are also being maintained for posterity.
The World famous Lakhari Valley has been declared as wildlife elephant sanctuary during the year 1985, which needs special attention for restoration to its original form.
Flora and Fauna. Paralakhemundi forests are rich with a wide range of timbers, medicinal plants, herbs, shrubs and a variety of faunal growth. The rich source of animals includes Tiger, Elephant, Sambhar, Spotted Deer, Black buck, Barking Deer etc.
It was proposed to take up the works in Government land/community land with consultation to V.S.S. during 2006-07 under this Division as per priority projects given by DFO detailed in priority action Plan.
The mountains contain no exploitable mineral of economic value. However, the major economic minerals in the district are granite decorative stones found in some part of the Paralakhemundi Tahasil. Mining activities should be upgraded to the status of manufacturing industry wherein mineral processing up to certain stages could be undertaken in the district itself. The only mining potential in the district is Granite
As most of the granite deposits are located in densely populated tribal habitations, thus there is required to put in place the consideration of ecological balance and displacement of the tribal population while exploiting the mineral resources in the district
The river Vansadhara and Mahendratanaya are two important rivers of Gajapati district. The river Vansadhara originates from Lanjigarh area of Kalahandi district and passes through Kashinagar block and flows southwards along the borderline of Gajapati district. The river Mahendratanaya has originated from the Mahendragiri range and flows in the westward direction through Rayagada block and then to southward direction through Gosani block. Another river Badanadi flows through western part of Mohana block.
(a) Net Cultivated, Irrigated, Double/Multiple cropped, Cultivable Wasteland, Wasteland and Forest etc.
Area in Ha.
Name of the block
Net Cultivated Area
Double/ Multiple crop area
Cultivable waste land
Barren/ Uncultivable waste land
6. CHAPTER-VI - Employment Status
Employment in Agriculture
Agriculture plays a vital role in the socio economic development of this district. . Besides paddy, sugar cane, ragi, pulses, oil seeds and cotton are grown to some extent. It provides employment to the labour force apart from other allied activities.
Employment in Animal Husbandry and Fisheries
Apart from Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Fisheries provide enormous employment scope to the rural people. Rearing of animals like goats, sheeps, cows and buffalos etc. are not only the occupation of the poor people, but also these have been their common practice since long. Most of the tribals live on rearing goatery. OMFED has been supporting market linkages in respect of diary and its products. So far as the fishery sector is concerned, the employment ratio is very negligible as the district is surrounded by hilly terrains and mountains. The scope of pisciculture is limited to only two blocks i.e. Gosani & Kasinagar
Employment in Mining and Forestry based Activities
The district is covered by dense forest, plateau mountains slopes, shoring hill tops. The major forest products are timber, bamboo, hill brooms, siali leafs, kendu leafs and tamarind etc, Most of the tribals depend upon collection and selling the minor forest products in the nearby weekly hats. The above products are the backbone of the tribal people in terms of their daily livelihood. Taking into account this aspect, many SHGs have been formed and assisted under SGSY and SCA to TSP scheme for collection, value addition and marketing at better price. Apart from this, hilly brooms and khalli stitching activities have been given priority by the District Administration. Different basic orientation and skill development trainings are also being imparted to upgrade their skills of production and marketability. The employment in mining is negligible in this district so far. There is not availability of mines in this district. So its role in providing employment is nil.
Employment in Rural Industries and Other Manufacturing Units
This district is dominated by the primitive tribals surrounded with rural areas. Cashew production and manufacturing is main rural industry in this district. It gives suitable chance of employment in the rural areas. Other industries like jute, dal-processing, stone quarrying, Khalli stitching also provide employment scopes in this district. Similarly, industrial activities in the major forest products, like timber, bamboo, hill brooms, patala-garuda soaps, nut, B.KaliaKhalli, Margosingha leaf, Horn work, joi-khadi bag, cane, Gonjapa card and patta chitro mukha, siali-leaf plate and Tibetan woolen carpets contribute some employment opportunities to the rural poor.
Except a few agro-processing units, there is no major industry in this district. However, some activities of cottage industries like Horn work, Jaikhadi bag, Cane & Bamboo work, Ganjappa Card & Pattachitra Mukha, Broom work & Siali leaf plate making and Tibetan Woolen Carpet contributes some place in the cottage industries of the district. Rs. 10.00 lakhs has been programmed for adjustment of subsidy for establishment of 4 nos. of crusher units in the rural areas to meet demand of building materials. The subsidy will be adjusted as per REGP guidelines with the help of banks.
Employment in Services and Other Activities
So far as the service and other activities are concerned, this district lags behind in terms of employment in service sector like roads, railway communications etc. However, the people of this district are getting employment opportunities in infrastructure sectors like water supply, electricity, roads, housing and services through banks with self employment along with training through banks, and the Govt. and Non-Govt. organizations.
Employment / Unemployment Scenario: Seasonality and Issues
Out of the total population of 518837 (approx), 275534 persons are employed fully and partly which constitutes 53% and 243303 (approx) are unemployed occupying 47%. There are different reasons for employment and seasonality of employment. It is a fact that this is dominated by agriculture. Out of the total geographical area of 3850.00 sq.kms, only about 30% are arable in nature. Under agriculture, the farming community and agriculture labourers get employment for about 2 to 3 months under this sector, rest of the year they remain without work.
It happens due to seasonality of agriculture sector. Inadequate storage facility for strong surplus of horticulture and agriculture production, lack of awareness among the farmers is the main reason for seasonal unemployment. The major issues of concern are as follow: -
Natural calamities by drought, flood and cyclone along with other undesirable consequences.
Lack of marketing of the agricultural products.
Illiteracy and poverty among majority of the tribal people.
Skill-enhancement training in electrical, plumber, fitter, tailoring, DTP etc. should be taken-up to challenge unemployment both in rural as well as urban areas. Migration from the district outside areas and the state should be checked by creating productive assets like providing horticulture farms, forest resources and irrigation potentials to private lands; thereby restoration of jobs can be positively achieved which will increase employment opportunities in the district. Illiteracy is main hindrance in the development and employment generation in the district, basically among the women workforce. This should be reduced to bring them to the mainstream of the society.
Creating jobs for rural youth in establishing internet based information kiosks in urban, semi-urban and rural locations in the district. This not only provides self employment opportunities but also to establish much needed IT infrastructure in the district for e-governance to reach the people.
Tourism will spur opportunities in other business avenues as well, like transportation, hospitality services, retail and mobile markets etc. It also helps in generating employment in small scale services like care hire, tourist guide services, hotels and eateries.
(vii) Migration Pattern
Gajapati is a hilly district having no major industrial establishment. The inhabitants of this district are mainly depending on agriculture and minor forest produces for their livelihood. Since the district is industrially backward, the working class people of the district are in regular habit of going outside of the state at their will and pleasure for better employment and for earning more wages. The migrant workers used to go to Arunanchal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, Rajasthan, and Andhra Pradesh at any time in the Year and come back as per their own convenience.
CHAPTER-VII Physical Infrastructure Potential
Paralakhemundi town is situated on the axis of State Highway No.17, connecting Berhampur at one end and Gunupur and Rayagada on the other. Berhampur is situated at 120 Kms. from this place and other urban nuclei like Gunupur and Rayagada are distanced at 60 & 120 KMs respectively. The nearest National Highway (N.H–5) junction is at around 40 KMs. from this place. There was a narrow gauge railway line (called Naupada-Gunupur Rail line) running through this town. The work of its conversion to broad gauge is on.
(b) The surface status of Rural Roads in the district is as follows:
No of roads
Details of CD works
(b) Banking:-There are about 37 Nationalized Bank as well as Regional, Rural bank Branches in Gajapati District. Out of which, there are 22 commercial Banks and 10 Regional Rural Branches, 4 Cooperative Banks and one OSCARD Bank. The details of Bank Branches are given below.
Name Of the Bank
No. of Branches
Bank Of Baroda
Punjab National Bank
State Bank Of India
United Bank Of India
Rushikulya Gramya bank
Berhampur Central Co-op. Bank
(C)BLOCK WISE LIST OF BANK BRANCHES (COMMERCIAL, RRB,) IN GAJAPATI DISTRICT
Gajapati District is a Naxal infested district. This Plan has been prepared with the objective to bridge the critical gaps in implementation of developmental Schemes and Programme between what has been done and what should have been done, or what should be done as well as highlighting additional requirements to ensure synergy in the development process of the district.
Steps have been taken to prepare the perspective district plan so as to enable some of the comparatively backward tribal areas to come up to the state/national level status of achievements.
Some key Livelihood Sectors like Health ,Drinking water, Social Welfare and Connectivity programmes have been identified to earmark sustainable economic growth of the minorities.
Under Skill Development Programme, efforts will be made to involve participation of PRI members, NGOs and block officials in developmental activities. An inventory of such groups especially from vulnerable segments of the society will be initiated to meet their specific training needs under the existing schemes.
This district has rich horticulture potential. The climate is suitable for cultivation of Orange, Mango, Pineapple, K-Lime, Guava, Turmeric, Casuarinas etc. Individual and group financing under existing schemes/programmes such as NHM, SGSY, PMRY, special self-employment programmes of ITDA, OTELP (Orissa Tribal Empowerment and Livelihoods Programme) REGP will be dovetailed to take up large scale cultivation. A proposal is afoot to set up a juice factory at Mandalsahi of Rayagada tribal block and ORMAS has volunteered to take care of marketing.
While according priority to connectivity sector, aspects of security, growth centers, marketing facilities, education and health centers have been taken into consideration. The provision of access entitlements of rural minorities will enable them to market their produce in remunerative price and thereby encourage them to abandon Poddu cultivation.
Irrigation being another lead sector, it will be given due emphasis to exploit ground and surface water potential through Check Dam, Minor Irrigation Projects and Water Harvesting Structures/Diversion Weirs etc.
Availability of safe drinking water is an acute problem in rural areas as most of the villages are located in hill-top slopes where people mostly depend on sanitary wells and traditional water sources like springs and hill streams chuas/nallahs. In certain areas, sinking of tube well is difficult due to inaccessibility and non-availability of ground water. In order to provide safe drinking water due care has been given to cover maximum number of villages under rural pipe water supply scheme mostly through gravity flow water supply and tube wells.
The Minor Irrigation projects constructed during the pre-independence period by the Maharaja of Paralakhemundi have for the present 1767.76 hects. Command area. Most of the projects have irrigation potential but due to lack of maintenance, the effective irrigation area is gradually reducing. It is, therefore, proposed to restore and renovate the resources to stabilize irrigation to the tail and ayacut area by bridging the critical gap under Perspective Plan for which MIPs have been programmed to be renovated and maintained.
Investment in irrigation sector will ensure Pisciculture, Horticulture and Agriculture in the proposed ayacut areas and will boost progressive and sustainable development. Perennial sources in hilly regions will be tapped on priority basis and thereby the surrounding wasteland will be reclaimed.