1 Phonetics as a branch of linguistics

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ekz fonetika
Manner of articulation is also changed as a result of assimilation.

9. The notion of articulatory basis. Its difference in English and Russian.

The differences in the articulation of sounds in different languages are explained by the fact, that each language has it's own tendencies and most of articulation, which form the articulation basis of the language.

The articulation basis of the language is all the articulatory habits, characteristic of all the native speakers of the given language.

The main peculiarities of the English articulation basis are:

1) the tongue is broadened and flattened;

2) the tip is slightly hollowed out and slightly drawn back from the teeth;

3) the lips are neutral, they are deliberately neutralized and spread, the upper lip is tense.






Near the teeth reach, apical position of the tongue

Tends to move to the upper front teeth, it's dorsal position

Tip of the tongue

Tends to occupy more retraced, more flat and lower positions, than in the articulation of the Russian consonants


The bulk of the tongue

Voiceless consonants in final positions are strong, while voiced consonants are weak and partially devoiced, e.g. kept, bag

Voiced consonants are impossible in final positions and voiceless consonants are weak (sonorants - exception)

Voice/voiceless distinction



In the articulation of the similar English sounds the protrusion does not take place [o,o:,u,u;]

The lips are deliberately protruded and rounded, especially [a,o]


The tongue is slightly drawn back

The tongue occupies mostly the front part of the mouth

The place of the tongue

Although not very tense objectively, English vowels seem tense in comparison to Russian vowels, because in English an unstressed vowel does not always differ in quality from a stressed one, e.g. [ou]open, window

In Russian an unstressed vowel is always short, lax and different in quality from the same vowel in a stressed syllable


Vowels differ in length. There are historically long and short vowels. The length of vowels can differenciate words, e.g.bit - beat

In Russian vowels differ in quality, but not in quantity. They may be pronounced in a longer way for purposes of emphasis, but the length of vowels doesn't differenciate words with different meanings

Difference between vowels

10. L.V. Scherba classifies the pronunciation errors as phonological and phonetic.

1. If a foreigner mispronounces the invariant feature of the allophone(in this case one allophone is replaced by another allophone of a different phoneme) , he makes a phonological mistake and it prevents understanding

For example if the vowel i(долгий) in the word beat becomes slightly more open, more advanced or no longer diphthongized this word can be perceived as bit.

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