|butcher [but∫ -ə] lightship [lait-∫ip]
mattress [mætr-is] footrest [fut-rest]
curtsey [kз:-tsi] out-set [aut-set]
In the words in the left column the sounds [t∫], [tr], [ts], [tθ] belong to one syllable and cannot be divided into two elements by a syllable dividing line.
2. Articulatory indivisibility. Special instrumental analysis shows that all the sound complexes are homogeneous and produced by one articulatory effort.
3. Duration. With G.P. Torsuyev we could state that length of sounds depends on the position in the phonetic context, therefore it cannot serve a reliable basis in phonological analysis. He writes that the length of English [t∫] in the words chair and match is different; [t∫] in match is considerably longer than |t| in mat and may be even longer than [∫] in mash. This does not prove, however, that [t∫] is biphonemic.
19. The aim of the phonological analysis is, firstly, 1) to determine which differences of sounds are phonemic and which are non-phonemic 2) to find the inventory of phonemes of the language 3) to find out the sounds as parts of language pronunciation system 4) to establish the patterns of their relationship specific to each language.
Phonology has its own methods of investigation. Semantic method is applied for phonological analysis of both unknown languages and is based on a phonemic rule that phonemes can distinguish words and morphemes when opposed to one another. It consists in systematic substitution of one sound for another in order to find out in which cases where the phonetic context remains the same such replacing leads to a change of meaning. This procedure is called the commutation test. It consists in finding minimal pairs of words and their grammatical forms. For example: pen Ben gain cane
The phonemic system of a language is patterened. It’s the aim of phonological analysis to attempt to systemize the sounds of a language. Phonology has always aimed at revealing the nature of phonemes.
Accommodation is the process of mutual influence of consonants and vowels. The modification in the articulation of a consonant under the influence of an adjacent vowel is called accommodation. In accommodation the accommodated sound does not change its main phonemic features and is pronounced slightly modified under the influence of a neighboring sound.
Here are some most common types of accomodation.
Consonants tend to be labialized when followed by a rounded (labialized) vowel: cool, pot, rude.
Vowels are slightly nazalized under the influence of the preceding or following sonorants [m] and [n]: and, nice, men, morning.
Alveolar plosive [t] in the intervocal position before unstressed vowels is replaced by a voiced tap: pretty, better.
21. syllabic structure of English words: formation, division, functions
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