1 Phonetics as a branch of linguistics

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ekz fonetika
Assimilation is the adaptive modification of a consonant by neighboring sound:

eighth - at three

alveolar [t] becomes dental [Ɵ]

Accommodation is the adaptation of sounds combinations of vowel-consonants type and consonant-vowel type:

never - man (consonant-vowel type)

nasal pronunciation of vowels

больно - конь - думать

Labialization of consonants is before labialized vowels.

Vowel reduction is a quantitative or qualitative weakening of vowels in unstressed positions:

board - blackboard

man - postman

Elision is a complete loss of sounds, both vowels and consonants. In informal speech we can lose many sounds. The process cannot be neglected in defining the

phonemic status of speech sounds. These phenomena represent the economy of energy from the part of the speaker. Usually the listener doesn’t even notice this

because these changes don’t influence the meaning. The target of listener is usually to understand the meaning but sometimes the meaning can also be influenced,

for example [z] can represent has, is, does, plural, possessive, third person singular. Now let us consider which qualitative characteristics of consonants can

be changed in connected speech. Consonants can be modified according to the place of articulation: assimilation takes place when a sound changes its character

in order to look like a neighboring sound and the characteristic which is involved in this is almost always a place of articulation:

        1. eighth - at the - said that

[t] [d] alveolar + [Ɵ] [ð] interdental = dental [t] [d]

Partial regressive assimilation

        1. tree - true - dry - dream

[t] [d] alveolar + post alveolar [r] = post alveolar [t] [d]

Partial regressive assimilation

        1. horseshoe - this shop

[s] [z] alveolar + [ʃ] post alveolar = post alveolar [s] [z]

Complete regressive assimilation

        1. graduate - congratulate - did you - could you

[t] + [j]; [d] + [j] = affricates [ʧ] [ʤ]

Partial regressive assimilation

        1. symphony

[m] bilabial + [f] labiodentals = [m] labiodentals

Partial regressive assimilation

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