1. The "classical" von Neumann architecture consists of main memory

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Course 1.
1. The classical von Neumann architecture consists of main memory, a central-processing unit (CPU) or processor or core, an interconnection between the memory and the CPU Stored program cocept: a program must be in main memory in order for it to be executed. a key elem of the Von Neumann arhitecture The 8086 microprocessor has two main execution units the execution unit (EU) - executes the instructions the bus interface unit (BIU) - responsible for fetching instructions from memory and decoding them. It also manages data transfer between the microprocessor and memory or IO devices.
4. Control bus used by the CpU to communicate with devices that are contained between the computer.
5. Peripheral devices=hardware components which provides a computer with additional functionality. Peripheral devices are addressed using IO (Input/Output) addresses or ports. These addresses are distinct from memory addresses and allow the CPU to communicate with peripherals by sending or receiving data through designated ports or interfaces. EX Serial interface 8250; Parallel interface 8255.

8080: bit data bus, bit address bus.

8086: bit data bus, bit address bus (although it could effectively address up to 1 MB of memory.

80286: bit data bus, bit address bus (capable of addressing up to 16 MB of memory in protected mode.

80486: bit data bus, bit address bus (capable of addressing up to 4 GB of memory.
Pentium III bit data bus, bit address bus (although it effectively utilized 32 bits for addressing inmost systems.
• Pentium IV bit data bus, bit address bus (although some variations supported a 36- bit physical address extension. Memory is organized into banks to increase capacity, enable efficient parallel access, facilitate memory management, and enhance overall system performance.
8. Signals on the control bus include Memory Read/Write, Interrupt Request, Clock Signals, Bus
Request/Grant, Reset, and IO Operation Control Signals.
9. Fetch Retrieving the next instruction from memory. Execute Carrying out the decoded instruction's operation using the CPU's functional units.
10. With 20 bits, you can address 2^20 memory locations = 1 megabyte (MB) of memory. With 32 bits, you can address 2^32 memory locations 4 gigabytes (GB) of memory.

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