17b Test Bank 1 Fall 2006 Chapter 17

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17b Test Bank 1 Fall 2006

Chapter 17

1. Which of the following was true of the American railroad industry in the last half of the 1800s?

a. Almost $2 billion had been invested in railroads by 1877.

b. The eastern part of the United States was served by half a dozen major trunk lines.

c. Three transcontinental routes spanned the country.

d. The railroads were funded completely by private investors in the United States and Europe.

e. George Pullman had invented the air brake to make rail travel safer.

2. By the 1880s, larger railroads were using what method to cut down on competition?

a. rebates

b. pools

c. price wars

d. consolidation

e. hostile takeovers

3. The founder of Standard Oil Company was

a. Andrew Carnegie.

b. John D. Rockefeller.

c. J.P. Morgan.

d. Jay Gould.

e. Henry Flagler.

4. Which of the following was true of American steel-making?

a. The best process for producing steel rails was the open-hearth method.

b. The Bessemer process eventually supplanted the open-hearth method.

c. Steel production rose to 10 million tons by 1900.

d. The dominant figure in the steel-making industry before 1900 was John D. Rockefeller.

e. all of the above

Immigrants to America in the 1870s generally

a. found work in the cities of the Northeast and the West.

b. developed distinctive ethnic communities in the country's larger cities.

c. came from the British Isles, Germany, and the Scandinavian countries.

d. both a and b

e. both b and c

6. Industrialization brought harsh working conditions to most workers, and

a. close to 50,000 workers died in industrial accidents each year.

b. children worked in factories where conditions were unsafe and unhealthy.

c. factory owners often fired anyone trying to unionize.

d. steelworkers worked sixteen hour days on a regular basis.

e. hours worked by employees declined from sixty-five to sixty, with a resultant drop in real wages.

7. The Knights of Labor pushed for

a. government regulation of industry.

b. social security benefits for workers.

c. strong child labor laws.

d. a redistribution of wealth in America.

e. all of the above

8. Who said, "From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever"?

a. Geronimo

b. Chief Joseph

c. Sitting Bull

d. Crazy Horse

e. Quanah Parker

9. Mining camps became notorious for their

a. bitter relationships between workers and mine owners.

b. prostitutes.

c. violence.

d. pollution of the land.

e. all of the above

10. Farm life on the Great Plains was hardest on

a. children.

b. women.

c. horses.

d. cattle.

e. the elderly.

11. Which of the following describes cotton production in the South after the Civil War?

a. After slavery came to an end, plantation owners gradually turned to less labor intensive crops.

b. Sharecropping and tenant farming replaced slavery as the preferred method of obtaining labor, and this meant that many people in the South were both poor and likely to remain so.

c. The price of cotton climbed throughout the 1890s, encouraging even more people to get involved in raising cotton.

d. While world cotton production rose overall, the number of bales produced each year in the United States actually declined slightly.

e. Cotton crops frequently failed, due to lack of rainfall or some other natural disaster, with the result that cotton farmers were usually far in debt to local bankers.

12. When Americans debated the protective tariff in the late 1800s, they were actually debating

a. which political party was better prepared to lead the country.

b. whether America should have a role in international affairs.

c. the size and role of the federal government.

d. whether industrialization or agriculture would be better for the country.

e. the degree to which American goods could compete with foreign wares.

13. The popular evangelist Billy Sunday gained fame first as

a. a Pony Express rider.

b. a Chautauqua speaker.

c. an artist of Western subjects.

d. a baseball player.

e. a scientist.

14. Those who advocated a single tax in the late 1800s followed the precept of Henry George, a newspaperman who believed that one tax could generate all the money that America needed – a tax on

a. income.

b. inheritances.

c. financial holdings in excess of $1 million.

d. imported goods.

e. land values.

15. Which of the following statements is incorrect concerning American icons?

a. Emma Lazarus wrote the poem that adorns the Statue of Liberty.

b. The Statue of Liberty was sculpted by a Frenchman.

c. The Brooklyn Bridge was completed in 1883, having taken almost six years to construct.

d. A total of 11 million people used the Brooklyn Bridge during its first year in operation.

e. The Brooklyn Bridge was the world's longest suspension bridge.

16. In the case of Munn v. Illinois, the Supreme Court ruled that __________ were legal.

a. monopolies

b. regulatory commissions

c. pools

d. rebates

e. trusts

17. Andrew Carnegie worked to achieve vertical integration in his business, which meant

a. allowing blacks the same access to jobs as whites.

b. working hard to continually become more productive.

c. controlling all aspects of an industry.

d. building ever larger and taller buildings.

e. both b and c

18. Many people associated the Haymarket affair with labor violence, resulting in

a. losses in membership for most unions.

b. a purge of union radicals from leadership positions.

c. a complete restructuring of the unions so they would seem more orderly.

d. the outlawing of national unions.

e. both a and c

19. The Homestead Act of 1862 was designed to

a. provide settlers with 640-acre tracts of land.

b. encourage settlers to move to the West by providing financial assistance for their move.

c. allow individuals to claim and eventually purchase 160-acre tracts of land.

d. encourage western settlement as a means of solving lingering problems with the Plains Indians.

e. both b and c

20. Women's clubs in the 1880s appealed to

a. middle-class women.

b. working women.

c. black women.

d. immigrant women.

e. wives of politicians.
Chapter 18

1. New arrivals from Europe in the late 1800s came with "cultural baggage." Which of the following accurately describes typical attitudes and behaviors of such groups?

a. Greeks came from fishing backgrounds, so they often gravitated to coastal areas where they could find similar work.

b. Jews became merchants and shopkeepers, because they had been relegated to those types of jobs in Europe.

c. Bohemians and Slovaks forbade their womenfolk to work in other people's homes as domestic help.

d. Greeks found it acceptable for women to work as domestic help.

e. Italians wanted to be sure they had enough to provide for their families, so they were more than willing to work long hours, even at the expense of family life.

2. Jane Addams and other settlement workers in America's cities

a. believed that older immigrants could not be helped much to acculturate, so they concentrated on the younger generation.

b. sought to help immigrants truly integrate into the dominant culture.

c. sometimes behaved in paternalistic ways toward those they were helping.

d. both a and c

e. both b and c

3. Whites in the South demonstrated their feelings of racial superiority to blacks by

a. passing laws to keep black children from learning to read and write.

b. crossing the street when they met blacks on the sidewalk.

c. refusing to call blacks either "Mr." or "Mrs."

d. refusing to have black women work inside their homes.

e. all of the above

4. In Victorian society, with its strict moral code, entertainment was centered in

a. the church.

b. the school.

c. group activities that segregated the sexes.

d. the home.

e. Saturday picnics.

5. In Looking Backward, Edward Bellamy struck a chord with Americans who were

a. adherents of the Social Gospel.

b. unhappy with the impersonal nature of industrialization.

c. upset with the direction the government was moving.

d. uncomfortable with the frantic pace of their lives.

e. all of the above

6. Which of these states allowed women to vote in the 1890s?

a. California

b. Oregon

c. Colorado

d. New York

e. Florida

7. The Treaty of Reciprocity was a trade agreement between the United States and

a. Canada.

b. Cuba.

c. the Philippines.

d. China.

e. Hawaii.

8. Charles W. Macune was president of the Alliance movement in

a. Texas.

b. Kansas.

c. Oklahoma.

d. Nebraska.

e. Missouri.

9. Andrew Carnegie resorted to the use of this group to put down a strike at his steel plant.

a. Grantham Mercenaries

b. Pinkerton detectives

c. Knights of Labor

d. the Grangers

e. none of these

10. Chicago's tremendous growth in the late nineteenth century can be attributed to

a. the Great Fire of 1871.

b. its stockyards.

c. its railroads.

d. its variety.

e. all of the above

11. Critics of political machines charged that

a. political bosses were unconcerned about helping ordinary people.

b. political bosses held too many official positions within their cities.

c. the machines were filled with graft and corruption.

d. cities run by political machines failed to provide basic services for their residents.

e. all of the above

12. Anti-Semitism referred to prejudice against

a. Slovaks.

b. Jews.

c. Romanians.

d. Russians.

e. Muslims.

13. The result of reciprocity agreements with Latin American countries was

a. a decrease in trade for the United States.

b. no change in the amount of trade that occurred between the two regions.

c. an increase in trade but an attendant increase in inflation.

d. an increase in American exports.

e. an overall decrease in imports.

14. The McKinley Tariff of 1890 removed the duty-free status of

a. Caribbean rum.

b. Hawaiian sugar.

c. Indian tea.

d. Chinese silks.

e. England's wool.

15. To expand the currency and reduce the burden of debt owed by ordinary Americans, the Populists proposed the introduction of

a. paper currency.

b. low interest loans.

c. more frequent interest rate changes.

d. farm subsidies.

e. free coinage of silver.

16. Most "new immigrants" to the United States in the late 1800s

a. were from Southern and Eastern Europe.

b. entered the United States at Boston Harbor.

c. were quickly assimilated into the dominant society.

d. were from Northern and Western Europe.

e. both a and b

17. Victorian society was characterized by

a. the fad of bicycling, which led women to begin wearing trousers.

b. a lower divorce rate, as men became more committed to their marriage vows.

c. an expectation that women would remain "pure" and chaste, and would reserve sexual relations solely for the creation of children.

d. all of the above

e. none of the above

18. Captain Alfred T. Mahan, a leading American imperialist, pushed the United States government to

a. construct a strong army.

b. build a canal across Mexico.

c. curtail foreign commerce.

d. build a strong navy.

e. both a and c

19. Which of the following was not a complaint of farmers?

a. The price of farm products was declining.

b. Railroads discriminated against farmers in favor of middlemen and manufacturers.

c. Farmers wanted more currency in circulation.

d. Farmers wanted to reduce the number of farmers and farms.

e. The cost of moving crops to market was too high.

20. The purpose of the proposed subtreasury plan was to

a. give farmers help in getting bank loans.

b. manipulate the prices of farm crops.

c. put farmers on the boards of local banks.

d. provide financial assistance to farmers during lean years.

e. none of the above

Chapter 19

1. The 1894 mid-term election has been described as a "realigning" election, because when Republicans took so many positions from Democrats, it signaled

a. a Republican presidential victory in 1896.

b. control for the Republicans that would last until the Great Depression.

c. the end for the Populists.

d. all of the above

e. both a and b

2. Which of these became more determined because of the economic hard times of the 1890s?

a. Populists

b. reform movements

c. Social Gospel

d. Alliance Movement

e. federal government

3. Who campaigned as "The Advance Agent of Prosperity"?

a. Mark Hanna

b. Grover Cleveland

c. William McKinley

d. William Jennings Bryan

e. Eugene V. Debs

4. When the Maine exploded in Havana Harbor in 1898, the United States

a. moved closer to war with Spain.

b. believed that the Cubans had caused the explosion.

c. lost over 200 American lives.

d. both a and b

e. both a and c

5. The actions of Commodore Dewey in the Philippines

a. had little effect on the outcome of the war.

b. were designed to neutralize the Philippines so that Hawaii could be annexed.

c. showed the strength of the Spanish fleet.

d. provided the U.S. with an unexpected prize of war – the Philippines itself.

e. made it easier for America to deal with the Filipinos after the war ended.

6. The Teller Amendment stated that the U.S. had no plans to

a. take over the Philippines.

b. fight Spain over Cuba.

c. turn Cuba into an American colony.

d. invade Hawaii.

e. all of the above

7. Theodore Roosevelt became McKinley's running mate after the current vice president

a. resigned after being implicated in a railroad kickback scheme.

b. converted to the Democratic party.

c. resigned to become governor of New Jersey.

d. died just a year before the election.

e. was assassinated.

8. This stated that Cuba would not be allowed to ally itself with a foreign power other than the United States:

a. Teller Amendment

b. Platt Amendment

c. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty

d. Lodge Amendment

e. Zimmerman Treaty

9. Hawaii was actually annexed by the United States

a. through a legislative resolution in Congress.

b. by means of a treaty of annexation.

c. with the full support of the Hawaiian people.

d. before the war with Spain began.

e. only after peace terms with Spain had been defined.

10. The Boxer Rebellion in China

a. lasted from 1898 to 1900.

b. led to the deaths of over 200 American soldiers.

c. was aimed exclusively at Americans.

d. was led by China's emperor.

e. was put down by a multinational armed force.

11. After the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act,

a. the economy rebounded almost immediately.

b. businesses continued to close.

c. prosperity returned by the beginning of the following year.

d. Congress found it necessary to lower tariffs anyway.

e. both b and d

12. In the Pullman Strike of 1894, which of the following occurred?

a. Only a few of the nation's railroads became involved, but even that number worried the president.

b. The president obtained a court injunction to halt the strike because it was interfering with interstate commerce.

c. The Democratic party became unified behind the right of workers to strike.

d. Eugene V. Debs went to jail for violating a court injunction in the strike, but the Supreme Court overturned his conviction.

e. Strikers turned many Americans against them when they reacted violently, destroying railroad property and equipment.

13. John Dewey of Chicago became famous for his work in

a. public education.

b. settlement houses.

c. Illinois politics.

d. mathematics.

e. developing the assembly line.

14. Which of the following best describes Booker T. Washington?

a. He believed in fostering the most talented young people within the black community, as a means of demonstrating to whites what blacks could accomplish.

b. Though considered "accommodationist" by some blacks, Washington continued secretly to fund court challenges to segregation.

c. His position that blacks should not actively rebel against white mistreatment brought significant changes in the way blacks were treated in the South.

d. Whites were so pleased with his attitude that they offered to fund the Tuskegee Institute, but Washington refused their money.

e. Washington made one public attempt to speak out strongly to whites about black injustices, in a speech made in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1895, but when whites turned a deaf ear, he reverted to his former stance.

15. In the presidential election of 1896, William Jennings Bryan

a. did well in the Northeast and the Midwest.

b. campaigned in the traditional way, remaining close to home most of the time.

c. asserted that the tariff would restore prosperity to the country.

d. ran on a platform that called for free coinage of silver.

e. held the lead well into October, but lost momentum just before the November election.

16. When Jacob Coxey and his "army" of unemployed reached Washington in the spring of 1894, President Cleveland

a. agreed to put them to work building roads.

b. provided food for the men but then sent them home.

c. refused to speak with the group, labeling them "rabble."

d. allowed police to beat and arrest Coxey.

e. none of the above

17. The 1894 Congressional elections signaled a significant political adjustment, as

a. Democrats became more unified and won many Congressional seats.

b. Republicans gained control of American politics, a situation that would last for years.

c. Populists were able to send more representatives to Washington than ever before.

d. Populists decided to join the Republicans in preparation for the 1896 election.

e. the Democrats were joined by many Populists.

18. The majority of reform movements were centered in

a. the South.

b. California.

c. urban areas.

d. New York.

e. the Midwest.

19. In the landmark 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court

a. struck down the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.

b. upheld segregation.

c. banned strikes involving interstate commerce.

d. declared the all-white primary illegal.

e. banned segregation in interstate travel.

20. The United States dealt with all of the following diplomatic conflicts in the 1890s except

a. intervention to support a democratic revolution in Santa Domingo.

b. recognition of the Hawaiian revolutionary government that had overthrown Queen Liliuokalani.

c. a dispute over the Venezuelan boundary.

d. a revolution by the Cubans against Spanish rule.

e. the formal annexation of Hawaii.

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