July 16 Russo-Persian War (1826-1828): The Persian army invaded the Russian-owned Talysh Khanate.
Sep 26, The Persian cavalry was routed by the Russians at the Battle of Ganja in the Russian Caucasus.
1827 Oct 20, British, French and Russian squadrons entered Navarino, Greece, and destroyed most of Egyptian fleet.
1828 Feb 21 Russo-Persian War (1826-1828) Persia signed the Treaty of Turkmenchay.
1828 Apr 26, Russia declared war on Turkey to support Greece's independence.
May The Russian army occupied Wallachia.
June Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829): The Russian armed forces crossed into Dobruja, an Ottoman territory.
1828 Russia conquered the Armenian provinces of Persia,
1829 Feb 11, Alexander Griboyedov Russian diplomat was beheaded by a mob attack on the Russian embassy in Tehran.
1829 Sep 14 Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829): Treaty of Adrianople signed, ceding eastern shore of Black Sea and mouth of Danube to Russians.
1829 Nov 20, Jews were expelled from Nikolayev and Sevastopol, Russia.
1830 Nov 29 Nov Uprising: A group of Polish nationalists attacked Belweder Palace, the seat of the Governor-General.
1831 Jan 25 Nov Uprising: An act of the Sejm dethroned Nicholas from the Polish crown.
Jan 29 Nov Uprising: A new government took office in Poland.
Feb 4 Nov Uprising: Russian troops crossed the Polish border.
Feb 20, Polish revolutionaries defeated the Russians in the Battle of Growchow.
Feb 25, The Polish army halted the Russian advance into their country at the Battle of Grochow.
May 26, Russians defeated the Poles at battle of Ostrolenska.
Sep Battle of Warsaw (1831): The Russian army captured Warsaw, ending the Nov Uprising.
1832 Feb 26, The Polish constitution was abolished by Czar Nicholas I.
1833 May 2, Czar Nicholas banned the public sale of serfs.
1835 Trinity Cathedral in St. Petersburg, Russia, was consecrated.
1836 The Gendarmerie of the Internal Guard was spun off as the Special Corps of Gendarmes.
1837 In St. Petersburg Alexander Pushkin, was killed in a duel with his wife's suitor, D'Anthes, a French nobleman.
1840 Aug 15, English Lt. Shakespear began a 500-mile trek with 416 freed Russian slaves to Russian Fort Alexandrovsk on Caspian Sea.
1840 Nov 3, Lt. Shakespear reached St. Petersburg, Russia, where Czar Nicholas thanked him for freeing Russian slaves from Khan of Kiva.
1841 Alexander II married Maria of Hessen-Darmstadt (Maria Alexandrovna). The marriage produced seven children.
1849 Jun 17, Russian troops invaded Hungary.
Aug 9, Russian forces defeated the Hungarians at the Battle of Temesovar.
Aug 11, Lajos Kossuth, pres of Hungary, abdicated in favor of Gen. Gorgey as Russia intervened in Hungarian rev.
Aug 13, Hungary’s Gen. Gorgey surrendered to the Russian forces. Russia gave Hungary back to Austria.
1852 Dec Ottoman sultan confirmed the supremacy of France and the Catholic Church over Christians in the Holy Land.
1853 July 3 Russia invaded the Ottoman provinces of Wallachia and Moldavia.
Sep 20, The Allies defeated the Russians at the battle of Alma on the Crimean Peninsula.
Oct 4 Crimean War: The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia.
1854 March 28 Crimean War: Britain and France declared war on Russia.
Aug Crimean War: In order to prevent the Austrian Empire entering the war, Russia evacuated Wallachia and Moldavia.
Oct 25, Charge of the Light Brigade
Nov 5, The British and French defeated the Russians at Inkerman, Crimea.
In northern Russia Solovki monks fought off a British naval siege.
1855 Feb 18 Nicholas died. His son, Alexander II, became tsar.
Sep 10, Sevastopol, under siege for nearly a year, capitulated to the Allies.
Nov 26, Allies captured of the Malakoff fortress in Sevastopol.
1856 Feb 29, Hostilities in Russo-Turkish war ceased.
March 30 Crimean War: The Treaty of Paris was signed, officially ending the war.
Black Sea was demilitarized. Russia lost territory it had been granted at the mouth of the Danube, abandoned claims to protect Turkish Christians, and lost its influence over the Danubian Principalities.
Apr 29, A peace treaty between England and Russia was signed.
In Alaska the Russian occupants of the Batzulnetas outpost were massacred by natives.
1857 The last military settlements were disbanded.
1857 Sep 23, The Russian warship Leffort disappeared in the Finland Gulf in a storm; 826 died.
1858 May 28 The Treaty of Aigun was signed, pushing the Russo-Chinese border east to the Amur river.
1858 Jul 2, Czar Alexander II freed the serfs working on imperial lands.
1859 Imam Shamil (1797-1871), Caucasian (Chechen) warrior, surrendered and became an honorary captive of Alex II.
1859 Muslim North Caucasus region of Chechnya was incorporated into the Russian empire.
1860 Russian pioneers founded Vladivostok.
1860 Oct 18 The Convention of Peking transferred the Ussuri krai from China to Russia.
1861 Feb 27, In Warsaw, Russian troops fired on a crowd protesting Russian rule over Poland. Five marchers were killed.
1861 March 3 Emancipation reform of 1861: Alexander issued a manifesto emancipating the serfs.
1863 Jan 22 Jan Uprising: An anti-Russian uprising began in Poland.
1864 Jan 1 Zemstva were established for the local self-government of Russian citizens.
1864 Mar 2, Russian Czar Alexander II upheld reforms in Poland that gave landholders ownership of their lands.
May 1 The Russian army began an incursion into the Khanate of Kokand.
May 21 Caucasian War: Alexander declared the war over.
Aug 5 Jan Uprising: Romuald Traugutt, the dictator of the rebellion, was hanged.
Nov 20 Judicial reform of Alexander II.
1867 The conquered territories of Central Asia became a separate Guberniya, the Russian Turkestan.
March 30 Alaska purchase: Russia agreed to the sale of Alaska to US of America.
1865 Mar 1, Anna Paulowna Romanova (70), great monarch of Russia, died.
1865 June 17 The Russian army captured Tashkent.
1866 Apr 16, Karakozov attempted to assassinate Tsar Alexander II of Russia.
Dec 4, Wassily Kandinsky (d.1944), Russian artist, was born. He is credited with the invention of abstract art.
1867 Feb 15, Fyodor Dostoevsky married his stenographer Anna Snitkina in St. Petersburg.
1867 Mar 29, US purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million dollars. [see Mar 30]
1867 Oct 18, US took formal possession of Alaska from Russia.
1868 May 18, Nicholas II, the last Russian czar, was born.
1868 The Khanate of Kokand became a Russian vassal state.
1869 Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev (1834-1907), Russian chemist, formulated the periodic table of elements .
1870 Municipal dumas were established.
1871 Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleyev developed the periodic table listing the elements in 1871.
1872 Jan 12, Russian Grand Duke Alexis began a gala buffalo hunting expedition with Sheridan and Custer.
1873 The Narodnik rebellion began.
The Emirate of Bukhara became a Russian protectorate.
May 18 Khiva was captured by Russian troops.
Aug 12 A peace treaty was signed that established the Khanate of Khiva as a quasi-independent Russian protectorate.
1874–81 Growing anti-government terrorist movement and government reaction.
1876 March The Khanate of Kokand was incorporated into the Russian Empire.
April 20 April Uprising: Bulgarian nationalists attacked the Ottoman police headquarters in Oborishte.
May Alexander signed the Ems Ukaz, banning the use of the Ukrainian language in print.
July 8 A secret treaty for division of Balkans between Russia and Austria-Hungary, depending on outcome of local revolutionary movements.
Dec 6 Kazan demonstration: A political demonstration in front of Kazan Cathedral in Saint Petersburg marked the appearance of the revolutionary group Land and Liberty.
1877 Feb The Trial of the 193 occurred, punishing the participants of the Narodnik rebellion.
Mar 4, The Russian Imperial Ballet staged the first performance of Tchaikovsky’s incomplete ballet "Zwanenmeer" (Swan Lake) in Moscow.
April 24 Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878): Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire.
Nov 17, Russians launched a surprise night attack that overran Turkish forces at Kars, Armenia.
Dec 14, Serbia joined Russia in war on Turkey.
1877-1878 The Russo-Turkish War.
1878 March 3 Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878): The Treaty of San Stephano was signed, concluding the war
July 13 Congress of Berlin: Treaty of Berlin, imposed on Russia by West, divided Bulgaria into Eastern Rumelia and Principality of Bulgaria.
1879 Aug Land and Liberty split into the moderate Black Repartition and the radical terrorist group People's Will.
1880 Feb 17, Tsar Alexander II of Russia survived an assassination attempt.
Apr 26, Mikhail Fokine (d.1942), choreographer, founder of modern dance, was born in Russia.
Jul 6, Russia’s Tsar Alexander II, less than a month after Tsarina Maria's death on June 8, formed a morganatic marriage with his mistress Princess Catherine Dolgoruki, with whom he already had three children. A fourth child would be born to them before his death.
Aug 6 Special Corps of Gendarmes and Third Section were disbanded; their functions transferred to new Department of State Police.
1881 March 10 Alexander was assassinatedl. His son, Alexander III, becomes tsar.
Apr 27, Pogroms against Russian Jews started in Elisabethgrad.
Sep 21 Persia officially recognized Russia's annexation of Khwarazm in the Treaty of Akhal.
1882 May 15, May Laws: Czar Alexander III banned Jews from living in rural Romania.
1882 In Russia the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society was founded to support Russian pilgrimages to the Holy Land.
1883 Mar 13, Sergei Degaev (26) shot and killed Lt. Col. Georgii Sudeikin, security chief of Czar Alexander III.
1883 First Russian Marxist group formed.
1884 Alexander III commissioned jeweler Carl Gustavovich Faberge (1846-1920) to make an Easter egg for the Empress.
1885 Mar 30, In Afghanistan, Russian troops inflicted a crushing defeat on Afghan forces Ak Teppe
Apr 10, A report from Russia said 7 soldiers were killed during a rebellion at the garrison in Tiflis (Tbilisi, Georgia). On April 17 it was reported that 315 soldiers were killed in a fight between mutineers and loyal troops.
April 23 The Fundamental Laws were issued, reaffirming the autocratic supremacy of the tsar.
The First Duma was called.
May 10, Russia's Duma (Parliament) met for the 1st time.
July 21 The First Duma was dissolved.
July 23 The Constitutional Democratic party (Kadets) issued the Vyborg Manifesto, calling on the Russian people to evade taxes and the draft. All signatories to the Manifesto lost their right to hold office in the Duma.
Nov 9 A decree by Prime Minister Pyotr Stolypin signaled the start of the Stolypin reform, intended to replace the obshchina with a more progressive, capitalist form of agriculture.
1907 Feb 9 secret police units of the MVD Department of State Police were unified under the authority of the new Okhrana.
Feb 18, 600,000 tons of grain was sent to Russia to relieve the famine there.
Feb 20 Second Duma began. The Kadets dropped seats, benefiting the RSDLP and the Socialist-Revolutionary Party.
Mar 1, There were only 15,000 Jews left in Odessa, Russia.
Mar 5, The 2nd Russian Duma, which included 7 Lithuanians, began work. The Duma stayed in session until June 15.
Mar 22, Russians troops completed the evacuation of Manchuria in the face of advancing Japanese forces.
June 3 The Second Duma was dissolved.
Nicholas changed the electoral law and gave greater electoral value to the votes of nobility and landowners.
Jun 16, The Russian czar dissolved the Duma in St. Petersburg.
Jun 26, Russia’s nobility demanded drastic measures to be taken against revolutionaries.
Aug 31, England, Russia and France formed their Triple Entente.
Nov 1 The Third Duma began.
Nov 26, The Russian Duma lent support to Czar in St. Petersburg, who claimed that he had renounced autocracy.
Stalin (1879-1953) organized an armed robbery on 2 coaches.
Britain and Russia carved Iran into spheres of influence.
1908 Feb 14, Russia and Britain threatened action in Macedonia if peace was not reached soon.
Apr 5, Japanese Army reached the Yalu River as the Russians retreated.
Jun 8, King Edward VII of England visited Czar Nicholas II of Russia in an effort to improve relations.
Sep 9, Russia grabbed part of Poland.
1909 Mar 26, Russian troops invaded Persia.
1910 Jan 21, A British-Russian military intervention took place in Persia.
1910 The State Duma in St. Petersburg was abolished.
1911 Mar 20, Russian Premier Stolypin resigned in St. Petersburg.
Sep 14, Stolypin assassination attempt at Kiev opera house.
Mendel Beilis was tried on charges of killing a Russian child to extract its blood for baking Passover matzos.
Russia exported 13.7 million tons of grain while some 30 million of its peasants suffered from famine.
1912 April 4 Lena goldfields massacre: The Russian army fired on a crowd of striking miners, killing 150.
May 5, The Soviet Communist Party newspaper Pravda began publishing.
June 9 The Third Duma ended.
Nov 15 The Fourth Duma was called. Bolshevik/Menshevik split final.
Nov 24, Austria denounced Serbian gains in the Balkans.
1913 Nov 26, Russian kingdom forbade Polish congregation of speakers.
1914 Jan 16, Maxim Gorky was authorized to return to Russia after an eight year exile for political dissidence.
Mar 17, Russia increased the number of active duty military from 460,000 to 1,700,000.
June 28 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand:
July 23 World War I: Austria-Hungary issued the July Ultimatum to Serbia,
Jul 25, Russia declared that it would act to protect Serbian sovereignty.
July 28 World War I: Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
July 30 World War I: Russia mobilized its army to defend Serbia.
Jul 31, German Kaiser Wilhelm II threatened war and ordered Russia to demobilize.
Aug 1, Germany declared war on Russia at the onset of World War I.
Aug 2, Russian troops invade Eastern Prussia.
Aug 6, Austria-Hungary declared war against Russia and Serbia declared war against Germany.
Aug 20, German forces occupied Brussels, Belgium, during World War I.
Aug 20, Russia won an early victory over Germany at Gumbinnen.
Aug 27, 2nd day of battle at Tannenberg: Germany bombed Usdau.
Aug 29, 4th day of Tannenberg: Russian Narev-army panics, Gen Martos caught.
Aug 31, Germany defeated Russia at the battle at Tannenberg. Some 30,000 Russians died.
Sep 1, Russia renamed St. Petersburg to Petrograd.
Sep 5 First Battle of the Marne began during World War I
Oct 29 Turkish fleet including 2 German cruisers stormed Black Sea and bombarded Odessa, Sevastopol, Theodosia.
Nov 2, Russia declared war with Turkey. [see Oct 29]
Nov 25, Hindenburg called off Lodz offensive 40 miles from Warsaw.
1915 Jan 31, Germans used poison gas on the Russians at Bolimov.
Feb 7, Field marshal Paul von Hindenburg moved on Russians at Masurian Lakes.
Feb 21, The 20th Russian Army corps surrendered.
May 2 Gorlice-Tarnów Offensive: The German army launched an offensive across the length of the Eastern Front.
Jun 22, Austro-German forces occupied Lemberg on the Eastern Front as the Russians retreated.
Aug 4 Gorlice-Tarnów Offensive: Germany conquered Warsaw.
Aug 23, Czar Nicolaas II took control of the Russian Army.