A ───═══─── aave. Abbreviation for African American Vernacular English. Abbreviation. Absolute

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Parts of Speech.
Passy, Paul-Edouard. See Phonetics. IPA.
Patient. See Case. Semantics.

Paul, Hermann.
Pauwasi Languages.
Peba-Yaguan Languages.
Pedagogical Grammar.
Peirce, Charles Sanders.
Penutian Languages.
Perception. See Speech Perception.
Perfective. See Aspect.
Performance. See Psycholinguistics. Sociolinguistics. Acquisition of Language. Neurolinguistics.
Performative. See Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics
Perlocutionary Act. See Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics.
Philology. See History of Linguistics. Historical Linguistics.
Philosophy of Language.

  • Overview.

  • Explanation in Linguistics.

  • Names and Natural Kinds.

  • Propositions.

  • Temporality.

  • Descriptions.

Phonemic Systems.
Phonesthetics. See Sound Symbolism.

  • Phonetic Universals.

  • Overview.

  • History of the Field.

  • Phonetic Transcription.

Phonological Change. See Language Change.
Phonological Derivations.

  • Cycle.

  • Rule Ordering in Phonology.

Phonological Features.
Phonological Processes.

  • Assimilation.

  • Dissimilation.

  • Metathesis.

  • Long Distance Processes.


  • An Overview.

  • American Structuralist Phonology.

  • European Structuralist Phonology.

  • Prosodic Phonology.

PHONOTACTICS. See Lexical Phonology. Sentence Phonology.
Phrase Structure.
Pidgins and Creoles.
PIKE, Kenneth.
Pitch. See Phonetics.
Pitch-Accent. See Intonation. Metrical Phonology.
Platoid Languages.
PLAY. See Verbal Play.
Plural. See Number.
Poetics. See Linguistics and Literature. Ethnopoetics. Discourse.
Polarity. See Negation. Semantics.
POLITENESS. See Address. Register and Style.
Polynesian Languages.
Polysemy. See Semantics. Lexicography.
Popolocan Languages.
Port Royal.
Possible Worlds. See Philosophy of Language. Semantics. Modality.
Postpositions. See Adpositions.
Pott, August Friedrich.
Power and Language.
Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics.

  • Pragmatics.

    • Overview.

    • Implicature.

    • Presupposition.

    • Speech Acts.

    • Cooperative Principle.

    • Applied Pragmatics.

  • Contextual Semantics.

    • Indexicals.

    • Context and Quantification.

PRAGUE SCHOOL. See History of Linguistics.
Predicate Nominals and Adjectives.
Prefix. See Affixation.
Prepositions. See Adpositions.
Prescriptive Grammar.
PRESUPPOSITION. See Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics.
Principles and Parameters.
PRINTING. See Typography.

Orthography. Writing and Written Language.
Pro. Notation for Pronoun. See Formal Grammar. Pronouns.
Pro-drop. See Formal Grammar. Pronouns.
Processing. See Psycholinguistics.

Parsing. Neurolinguistics. Speech Perception. Computational Linguistics.
Progressive. See Aspect.
PROCLITICS. See Clitics.
Production. See Psycholinguistics. Computational Linguistics. Discourse. Functional Linguistics.
Projection. See Formal Grammar. Phrase Structure.
Pronominalization. See Pronouns.

  • An Overview.

  • Pronominals.

Proper Nouns. See Philosophy of Language.
Propositions. See Philosophy of Language. Semantics.
Prosodic Phonology.
Prosody. See Intonation.
Proto-language. See Historical Linguistics. Comparative Method. Reconstruction.
Prototype. See Semantics. Metaphor and Semantics.

  • An Overview.

  • Comprehension.

  • Production.

  • Mental Lexicon.

  • Pragmatics and Conversation.

Psychotherapy and Language. See Institutional Linguistics.


Quantitative Linguistics. See Mathematical Linguistics.
Quantifiers. See Logical Form. Philosophy of Language. Semantics. Formal Grammar. Anaphora. Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics.
Quechuan Languages.


Ramu Languages.
Rask, Rasmus.
Reading. See Discourse. Text. Writing and Written Language.
Reanalysis Rules.
Reciprocals. See Anaphora.


  • Internal Reconstruction.

  • Semantic Reconstruction.

  • Syntactic Reconstruction.

  • Stylistic Reconstruction.

Recoverability. See Deletion.
Recursion. See Mathematical Linguistics. Phrase Structure.
REFERENCE. See Semantics. Philosophy of Language. Anaphora. Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics.
Reflexives. See Anaphora.
Register and Style.
Rejang-Baram Languages.
Relative Chronology. See Historical Linguistics.
Relative Clauses.
Relativity. See Linguistic Relativity. Benjamin Lee Whorf.
Relevance Theory. See Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics.
Representation. See Formal Grammar. Philosophy of Language. Psycholinguistics. Neurolinguistics. Computational Linguistics. Semantics.
Rheme. See Information Structure.
RHETORIC. See Text. Discourse. Information Structure. Linguistics and Literature.
Rhyme. See Syllable.
Rhythm. See Metrical Phonology.
Ritual Language.
Robins, R.H.
Romance Languages.

Romanian. See Rumanian.
ROOT. See Stem and Root.
Rotuman-Fijian Languages.
Rule-Ordering. See Phonological Derivations. Formal Grammar.


S. Notation for Sentence. See Phrase Structure.
Saharan Languages.
Salishan Languages.
Salivan Languages.
Sama-Bajaw Languages.
Sami. See Uralic Languages.
Sandhi. See Sentence Phonology.
Sangir-Minahasan Languages.
Santa Cruz Languages.
Santa Isabel Languages.
Sapir, Edward.
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis. See Linguistic

Sarmi-Yotafa Languages.
Scaliger, Julius Caesar.
Scandinavian Languages.
Schizophrenia and Language.
Schleicher, August .

Schuhardt, Hugo.
Scope. See Semantics. Anaphora. Logical Form. Formal Grammar. Philosophy of Language.
Scripts, Frames, and Schemas.
Scripts. See Writing and Written Language.
SELECTION. See Subcategorization and Selection.
Semantic and Lexical Change. See Language Change.
Semantic Field. See Semantics.
Semantic Role. See Semantics. Transitivity and Voice. Case.
Semantic Primitives. See Semantics.
Semantic Reconstruction. See Reconstruction.

  • Overview.

  • Sense, Denotation, Reference, Extension, and Intension.

  • Connotation.

  • Properties and Relationships.

  • Semantic Primitives.

  • Semantics and Syntax.

  • Prosody and Meaning.

  • Formal Semantics.

  • Cognitive Semantics.

  • Stereotype Semantics.

  • Prototype Semantics.

Semitic Languages.
Senagi Languages.
Sense. See Semantics. Philosophy of Language.
Sentani Languages.
Sentence. See Clause.

Sentence Phonology.

  • Overview.

  • Boundary and Juncture.

Senufo Languages.
Sepik Languages.
Sepik-Ramu Languages.
Serial Verb. See Clause.
Sex and Language. See Sociolinguistics.
Siassi Languages.
Siberian Languages .
Sievers, Eduard. See Phonetics.
Sign. See Semiotics. Semantics.
Sign Language.

  • An Overview.

  • Phonology.

Signal. See Semiotics. Speech Recognition.
Sinhalese-Maldivian Languages.
Sino-Tibetan Languages.
Siouan Languages.
Situation Semantics. See Semantics.

Skeleton. See Autosegmental Phonology.
Sko Languages.
Slavic Languages.
Social Dialectology. See Social Variation.
Social Variation.

  • Social Dialects.

  • Social Constructionism.

Sociolect. See Social Variation. Sociolinguistics.

  • Overview.

  • Sociology of Language.

  • Communicative Competence.

  • Language Variation and Change.

  • Language and Gender.

  • Sociohistorical Linguistics.

Sociology of Language. See Social Variation. Sociolinguistics. Anthropological Linguistics.
Songhai Languages.
Sonority. See Autosegmental Phonology. Metrical Phonology. Syllable.
SOUND CHANGE. See Language Change. Historical Linguistics.
Sound Shift. See Historical Linguistics. Language Change.
Sound Symbolism.
Sound System. See Phonology.
Source. See Case. Semantics. Grammatical Relations. Translation and Interpretation.
Source Feature. See Phonological Features. Mathematical Linguistics. Speech Recognition.
South American Languages.
South Asian Languages.
South Bantoid Languages.
South Bird's Head Languages.
South Caucasian Languages.
South Halmahera-West New Guinea Languages.
South Indo-Aryan Languages.
South Mangyan Languages.
South Mindanao Languages.
South Philippine Languages.
South Sulawesi Languages.
South Vanuatu Languages.
Southeast Asian Languages.
Southeast Maluku Languages.
Southeast Solomons Languages.
Southwest Pama-Nyungan Languages.
Speaker Recognition.
Specific Language Impairment.
Specifier. See Formal Grammar. Phrase Structure.
Spectrograph. See Phonetics.

Speech. See Phonetics.
Speech Acts. See Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics.
Speech Community.
Speech Errors. See Psycholinguistics.
Speech Perception.
Speech Production. See Psycholinguistics.
Speech Recognition. See Mathematical Linguistics. Phonetics.
Speech Synthesis.
Split Ergative. See Case. Grammatical Relations. Transitivity and Voice.
S-Structure. See Levels of Representation.
Standard Language. See Sociolinguistics. Speech Community. Social Variation. Language Planning. Prescriptive Grammar.
Standardization. See Sociolinguistics. Speech Community. Social Variation. Prescriptive Grammar.

Statistical Computing. See Computational Linguistics.
Statistical Linguistics.
Stative. See Semantics. Case. Grammatical Relations. Transitivity and Voice.
Stem and Root.
Stereotype Semantics. See Semantics.

Stratificational Grammar.
STRESS. See Syllables. Metrical Phonology.
STRUCTURALISM. See History of Linguistics. Phonology. Saussure.
Stylistic Rules.
Stylistics. See Linguistics and Literature.
Subcategorization and Selection.
Subjunctive. See Mood.
Subordination. See Clause.
Substrate. See Sociolinguistics. Pidgins and Creoles. Social Variation.
Subtiaba-Tlapanec Languages.
Suffix. See Affixation.
Sulawesi Languages.
Sumatra Languages.
Sundic Languages.
Suprasegmentals. See Phonology. Phonetics. Intonation.
Surface Structure. See Levels of Representation. Formal Grammar. Transformations.
Sweet, Henry. See Phonetics.
Switch Reference. See Clause.
Syllabary. See Writing Systems.


  • Syllables and Stress in Phonetics.

  • Syllables in Phonology.

SYMBOLS. See Semantics. Sound Symbolism. Semiotics.
Synchronic Linguistics. See Saussure. Historical Linguistics.
Syncope. See Phonological Processes.
Syncretism. See Lexemes. Stem and Root. Words.
Synonymy. See Semantics.
Syntactic Change. See Language Change.
Syntactic Features.
SYNTAX. See Formal Grammar. Functional Linguistics. Morphology.

Typology and Universals. See also Various Theories of Grammar.
Synthetic Languages. See Functional Linguistics.
Systemic Grammar .



t. Notation for Trace. See Traces.
Tacanan Languages.
TAG. Abbreviation for Tree-Adjoining Grammar.


Tai Languages. See Tai-Kadai Languages.
Tai-Kadai Languages.
Teberan-Pawaian Languages.

  • Definition.

  • Expression.

Testing. See Language Testing.

  • Overview.

  • Anthropological Aspects.

  • Text Understanding.

  • Applied Aspects.

    • Writing Research.

    • Reading Research.

    • Contrastive Rhetoric.

TEXT LINGUISTICS. See Text. Discourse. Linguistics and Literature.
Theme. See Information Structure. Case. Semantics.
Thematic Relations. See Case. Transitivity and Voice. Semantics.
Thematic Roles. See Case. Transitivity and Voice. Semantics.
Theta Roles. See Case. Transitivity and Voice. Semantics. Subcategorization and Selection. Formal Grammar.
Tiers. See Autosegmental Phonology.
TIME. See Tense. Philosophy of Language.
TIMING. See Coarticulation and Timing. Autosegmental Phonology. Metrical Phonology.

Timor-Alor-Pantar Languages.
Timor-Flores Languages.
Tivoid Languages.
Tocharian Languages.
Token. See Statistical Linguistics.
Tomini Languages.

  • Phonetics.

  • Phonology.

  • Downstep and Downdrift.

Topicalization. See Discourse. Information Structure. Functional Linguistics.
Topics. See Discourse. Information Structure. Functional Linguistics.
Torricelli Languages.
Totonacan Languages.
TRANSCRIPTION. See Discourse. Phonetics. IPA.
Trans-Fly-Bulaka River Languages.
TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR. See Formal Grammar. Principles and Parameters. Minimalist Program.

Transformations .
Transitivity and Voice.

  • Overview.

  • Passive.

Translation and Interpretation.
Trans-New Guinea Languages.
Tree. See Phrase Structure.
Tree-Adjoining Grammar.

Trubetzkoy, Nikolai.
Truth. See Semantics. Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics.
Truth-Conditional Semantics. See Semantics.
Tukanoan Languages.
Tungusic Languages.
Tupian Languages.
Turama-Kikorian Languages.
Turkic Languages.

Turn-Taking. See Conversation Analysis. Discourse.
Type. See Statistical Linguistics. Formal Semantics.
TYPOLOGY. See Functional Linguistics.

Typology and Universals. Historical Linguistics. Languages of the World.
Typology and Universals.


Ubangi Languages.
Ukaan-Akpes Languages.
Unaccusative. See Case. Transitivity and Voice. Grammatical Relations.
Unbounded Dependency. See Phrase Structure. Reflexive. Anaphora.
Underextension. See Acquisition of Language.
Underlying Form. See Levels of Representation. Formal Grammar.
UNDERSPECIFICATION. See Generative Phonology. Markedness. Lexical Phonology.
UNIVERSALS. See Formal Grammar. Typology and Universals. Phonetics.

Acquisition of Language.

Psycholinguistics. Functional Linguistics. Neurolinguistics. Historical Linguistics.
Uralic Languages.
URARTIAN. See Hurrian and Urartian.
Uru-Chipaya Languages.
Usage. See Sociolinguistics. Lexicography.
Uto-Aztecan Languages.



Valency. See Case. Transitivity and

Voice. Subcategorization and Selection.
Variable. See Formal Grammar. Semantics. Phrase Structure.

Sociolinguistics. Social Variation. Anaphora. Philosophy of Language. Mathematical Linguistics.
Variation. See Sociolinguistics. Dialectology. Areal Linguistics.

Historical Linguistics.
VERBAL ART. See Ethnopoetics.
Verb Chaining. See Clause.
Verbal Play.
Vernacular. See Sociolinguistics.
Viet-Muong Languages.
VOCABULARY. See Lexicon. Semantics. Lexicography.

Voice. See Phonology. Phonetics. Phonological Features. Transitivity and voice.

Voice Onset Time (VOT). See Phonetics. Speech Perception.
Voice Quality.
VOT. Abbreviation for Voice Onset Time.
Vowel Harmony. See Consonant Harmony nd Vowel Harmony.
VOWELS. See Phonetics. Phonology. Phonological Features.
VP. Notation for Verb Phrase. See Phrase Structure.
Vygotsky, L.S.


Wakashan Languages.
Wallis, John.
West Barkly Languages.
West Bomberai Languages.
West Chadic Languages.
West Malayo-Polynesian Languages.
West Papuan Languages.
Wh-. Notation for information-question forms. Wh-form, Wh-word.
Whitney, William D.
Whorf, Benjamin Lee.
Whorfian Hypothesis. See Linguistic Relativity. Benjamin Lee Whorf.
Wide Grassfields Languages.
Williams Syndrome and Down Syndrome. Cognitive: Constraints on Language.
Wissel Lakes-Kemandoga Languages.
Witotoan Languages.
WORD CLASSES. See Parts of Speech.
Word Grammar.
Word Order.
Word-and-Paradigm Model.
World View. See Linguistic Relativity.
Wororan Languages.
Writing and Written Language.

  • Overview.

  • Written Language and Linguistic Theory.

  • Writing Systems.

  • Writing vs. Speech.

  • Orthography.

    • Overview.

    • Planning.

  • Neurological Aspects.



X-Bar Theory. See Formal Grammar. Phrase Structure. Principles and Parameters. Minimalist Program. Autosegmental Phonology.


Yanomam Languages.
Yiddish. See German. Germanic Languages.
Yucatec Mayan.
Yuin-Kuric Languages.
Yukian Languages.
Yuulngu Languages.



Zamucoan Languages.
Zaparoan Languages.
Zapotecan Languages.
Zipf’s Law. See Mathematical Linguistics. Statistical Linguistics.

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