Note: - vowel with the mark “:” means long vowel, and also tense vowel
- beside four round vowels (u:, , :, , :), there are three neutral vowel (, :, ) and the rests are unround vowels.
Vowels are speech sounds where the airstream escapes the vocal tract unobstructed.
Monothong is a pure vowel sound which is pronounced without changing of the position of the organ of speech throughout the duration of the vowel articulation.
Dipthong is a complex sound consisting of two vowel elements pronounced so as to form a single syllable. In the pronunciation of dipthong, the position of organ of speech starts in the position of one vowel and glides gradually to the other one.
Diphthong: Height + Pisition (1st vowel) glides to Height + Position (2nd vowel).
1. What is monophthong / diphthong?
- Monophthong: is a pure vowel sound which is pronounced wothout changing of the position of the organ of speech throughtout the duration of the vowel articulation.
- Diphthong: is a complex vowel sound consisiting of two elements pronounced so as to form a single syllable. In the pronunciation of the diphthong, the position of the organ of speech starts in the position of the first vowel and glides to gradually to the other one.
2. What are the differences between a monophthong and a diphthong? Give example
- Monophthong: is a pure vowel sound which is pronounced without changing in the position of the organ of speech throughout the duration of vowel articualtion.
- Diphthong: is a complex vowel sound consisting of two elements pronounced so as to form a single syllable. In the pronunciation of the diphthong, the position of the organ of speech starts in the position of the first vowel and glides gradually to the other one.
The differences of monophthong and diphthong lie in the number of vowel element and the position of the organ of speech during the articulation:
Number of vowel element:
Position of organ of speech
Glides gradually from the position of the first vowel to the other.
Hat /ht/ - is a monothong, a low front vowel.
Nation /nen/ - is a diphthong consisiting of and , mid front glides to high front.
3. How are English monophthong classified? Give example
English monophthong can be classified according to the followings criteria:
3. Place the member of the following vowel inventory in an appropriate place on a vowel quadrangle: [, :, , , , , :, :, , ]
See vowels chart
UNIT 4 INTRODUCTION TO PHONOLOGY
1. What is phonology?
Phonology is the description of the systems and patterna of sounds that occur in a language.
2. What is a phoneme / allophone? Prove your point of view
- Phonemes are the smallest segments of sound that can be distinguished by their contrast within words.
(Segments: are the smallest pieces of sound that are divided from a speech)
- Allophone are phonemes derived from the same phoneme in different distribution.
Eg. stop talking /= /
 and [=] are allophone of phoneme 
3. What are the differences between phonemic transcription and allophonic (phonetic) transcription? Give example
- Transcription is the use of a set of symbols representing sounds to show the sounds in written form.
There are two kinds of transcription: phonemic (broad) transcription and allophinic (phonetic or narrow) transcription.
Uses slanting bracket
Uses square bracket
Shows different phonemes that make up word. It does not show any extra features, no detail of pronunciation; therefore, we can’t look at this transcription to pronounce the word
Shows how sounds are pronounced including phonetic details (allophones)
Car /:/ - shows the phonemes involved in the word only.
Car /:/ - show both phonemes and phonetic detail. The symbol  indicates that phoneme [k] is aspirated.
4. What can be stated as necessary conditions for forming a minimal set? Give set of words to illustrate
In order to form a minimal set, we must have more than two words which are different in meaning, but they have the same number of segments and only one different segment in the same position/distribution.
Eg. bat //, but //, bet //
pad //, pat //, pan //
5. What is a minimal pair / set? Give example
- Minimal pair: is a pair of words which are different in meaning, having the same number of segments with only one different segment in the same position/distribution.
Eg. hat //, cat // - the different segment is the first one.
- Minimal set: is a set of more than two words of different meaning which have the same number of segment and only one different segment in the same position/distribution.
Eg. bat //, but //, bet // - the different segment is the middle one.
1. Which of the followings is a minimal pair?
A. cater – better B. round – bound C. rock – box
// - // // - // // - //
2. Which of the following is not a minimal pair?
A. time – mine B. table – cable C. teacher – richer
// in the first word is velarized, but // in the second word is unchanged
/l/ in the first word is dentalized, but /l/ in the second word is unchanged
/k/ in the first word is unaspirated, but /k/ in the second one is aspirated
5. What do the following formulas mean? Give example for each case.
a. [+ alveolar] [+ detal] before [+ dental]
means alveolar (/, , , , , /) will be dentalized when it stands before a dental sound (/, /).
Eg. eighth  width //
b. [+ approximant] [- voiceless] after fortis plosive
means approximant (/, , , /) will be devoiced when it stands after fortis (voiceless) plosive (/, , /).
Eg. play  cry  between [:]
c. [+ vowels] [+ nasal] before [+ nasal]
means vowel will be nasalized as standing before a nasal sound (/, , /).
Eg. ban  calm [:] bean [:]
UNIT 6 ASPECTS OF CONNECTED SPEECH
1. What is assimilation in the English language? Give example
Assimilation is a process when one sound adapts itself to the neighbouring sound so that it becomes close to the assimilating one in one or more aspects.
Eg. in the [ ] [ ]
right place [ ] [ ]
2. What is elision / liaision? Give example
Elision is the missing out of a consonant or vowel or both in informal spoken English or in rapid speech in English.
Eg. acts  - // will be disappeared in the articualtion of the word.
looked back [ ] - // will be disappeared in the articualtion of the word.
today  - // is disappeared
potato  - // is disappeared
Liaision is a phenomenon where a sound is linked to another in informal speech.
Eg. come in  set up 
3. What is the difference between progressive assimilation and regressive assimilation? Prove it.
Consider a case where two words are combined, the first word ends with a single final consonant (Cf) and the second one starts with a single initial consonant (Ci).
We have the following construction: Cf Ci
In progressive assimilation, the initial consonant (Ci) changes to become like the final consonant (Cf) in some ways, whereas (Cf) changes to become like (Ci)in some aspects in regressive assimilation.