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Seafloor Topography Backlines Overfishing Module – backlines



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Seafloor Topography Backlines



Overfishing Module – backlines



Collapse of Fish Stocks Coming

( ) Indian Ocean will see increased global competition for fish stocks. The impact will be collapse of fish stocks.



Rumley ‘9

(et al; Dr. Dennis Rumley is an Associate Professor at the University of Western Australia.[1] He gained a PhD in political geography at the University of British Columbia. He is chairperson of the Indian Ocean Research Group Inc. He is also Chief Editor of the Routledge international journal - Journal of the Indian Ocean Region. Fisheries Exploitation in the Indian Ocean: Threats and Opportunities – From Chapter One – “FISHERIES EXPLOITATION IN THE INDIAN OCEAN REGION” – p. 3-5)


Seven states — China, Peru, India, Indonesia, the United States, Japan and Chile — referred to here as the seven "fisher states" take in nearly two-thirds of the world's total fish capture (Halweil 2006). Furthermore, over the next fifteen to twenty years, two states — Japan (60.2 kilograms) and China (35.9 kilograms) — and two regions — Southeast Asia (25.8 kilograms) and the European Union (23.7 kilograms) — are projected to consume the largest amounts of fish per capita (World Bank 2004, p. 8). Apart from the two Indian Ocean "fisher states" (India and Indonesia), these other states and regions are increasingly unable to meet the growing demand within their own national jurisdictions and thus there will likely be greater pressure on fish stocks in the Indian Ocean. As a result, the Indian Ocean is becoming a more intense arena for conflict and competition over extraregional demands for increasingly scarce fish resources. Unfortunately, however, the current status of Indian Ocean fish stocks "signal little room for further expansion, in addition to the possibility that some, if not most, stocks might already be overexploited" (De Young 2006, p. 13). The social, environmental, economic, and political outcomes of this dilemma are likely to be far-reaching and thus will necessitate careful regional and extraregional management.

Overfishing = Brink now

( ) overfishing on the brink of erupting in the Indian Ocean.



Gray-Block ‘13

Aaron Gray-Block is a Media Relations Specialist at Greenpeace International – “Ending the overfishing crisis” – Greenpeace International – April 18, 2013 – http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/news/Blogs/makingwaves/ending-the-overfishing-crisis/blog/44812/


An estimated 24% of the global tuna catch comes from this ocean alone, but the Indian Ocean and the tuna stocks within it are coming under increasing pressure as more and more vessels join the hunt in this multi-billion dollar fishery. Fishing vessels from wealthier distant nations such as France, Spain, Taiwan, Korea, China, Japan and elsewhere take close to 50% of the tuna catch, using destructive fishing techniques such as purse seines with Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs). This type of fishing results in a high level of bycatch of sharks, rays, turtles, whales and dolphins and juvenile tuna. Long-line fishing, also common in the Indian Ocean, has similar problems and is in need of urgent reform.

A-to Aquaculture checks overfishing

( ) Aquaculture not sufficient – must check overfishing and risk massive food insecurity.



Cantaloube ‘12

This piece was jointly released and is technically ascribed to the entire staff of BirdLife Europe. BirdLife Europe is a Partnership of 49 national conservation organisations and a leader in bird conservation. It is present in 48 countries including all EU Member States. With more than 4.100 staff in Europe, 2 million members and tens of thousands of skilled volunteers, BirdLife Europe, together with its national Partners owns or manages more than 6,000 nature sites totalling 320 000 hectares. – Elodie Cantaloube, Media and Communication Assistant at BirdLife Europe – “Stand up against overfishing – call for sustainable fisheries” – June 14th – http://www.birdlife.org/europe-and-central-asia/news/stand-against-overfishing-%E2%80%93-call-sustainable-fisheries


Every year, around 90 000 tons of fish are captured in the oceans. More than 90% of the 10 most captured fish species are dangerously at risk of extermination and around 50% of commercial species are threatened. Even if aquaculture has permitted to compensate for the stagnation in the catch of wild fish and meet the fast increasing demand for fish, it is far from being a sustainable system: as most commercially farmed fish are carnivores they are fed on wild caught fish. For example, it takes 5kg of wild fish to produce 1kg of farmed salmon. Numerous scientific and marine experts have already rung the alarm bell about overfishing: if we continue to exploit fisheries at the current rate, in 2048 there won’t be any more fish left to catch in most of the world’s oceans. The EU is currently negotiating a major reform of the Common Fisheries Policy. EU governments must show the courage to break with their failed policies and ensure an end to over fishing. Fisheries must be regulated so that we don’t catch fish faster than they can reproduce and so that fishing techniques do not cause significant harm to marine ecosystems (for example by killing non target species or destroying sea bottom habitats). Our long-term food security, our oceans and the marine wildlife depend of it. Urgent action is needed!

( ) Aquaculture not sustainable. It can only fill gaps through practices that kill fish stocks.



Sustainable Business ‘12

Internally quoting Danielle Nierenberg, co-author of the report and director of Worldwatch’s Nourishing the Planet project – “Aquaculture Rises Another 6% in 2011” – SustainableBusiness.com – 8/28/2012 http://www.sustainablebusiness.com/index.cfm/go/news.display/id/24019


While aquaculture does help address the problem of overfishing, it creates different sustainable business challenges. "Growth in fish farming can be a double-edged sword," says Danielle Nierenberg, co-author of the report and director of Worldwatch’s Nourishing the Planet project. "Despite its potential to affordably feed an ever-growing global population, it can also contribute to problems of habitat destruction, waste disposal, invasions of exotic species and pathogens, and depletion of wild fish stock."

( ) Aquaculture doesn’t check – can’t keep up and excess overfishing hampers breeders.



Einhorn ‘13

Bruce Einhorn – “Farm-Raised Tuna May Not Be the Answer to Overfishing” – Bloomberg Businessweek – January 08, 2013 – http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-01-08/farm-raised-tuna-may-not-be-the-answer-to-overfishing


The price is about symbolism: The 222-kilogram (489 pound) tuna is big—big enough for 10,000 pieces of sushi—but that’s not unusual for bluefin. An averageAtlantic bluefin can weigh over 500 lbs. and the Pacific and Southern Ocean bluefin are hefty, too. As such an outsized fish, bluefin easily capture media attention at the Tsukiji auction. However, they also are more vulnerable than smaller fish to environmental disasters such as the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. And because of the fish’s popularity among sushi lovers, overfishing of bluefin “has almost led to its extinction,” according to the World Wildlife Foundation. You might think that aquaculture is the answer. Farm-raised salmon is common in the U.S. A decade ago, few Americans ate tilapia, but now the white fish is a favorite of the food industry, thanks to farms in China and other countries. Bluefin are much bigger than those other fish; as a result, they are much harder to breed on farms. Most bluefin are either caught in the wild (in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Southern oceans) or captured as small fish and raised on fish ranches. However, catching bluefin tuna when they’re young and then raising them on giant fish farms just makes the problem worse, according to Seafood Watch, the Monterey Bay Aquarium’s program focusing on ocean sustainability. “All populations of bluefin tuna are being caught faster than they can reproduce,” the California aquarium says on its website. “Bluefin is being further depleted by ranching operations that collect small bluefin and raise them to full size to sell primarily to the sushi market.” Seafood Watch has “Avoid” recommendations for both wild-caught and ranch-raised bluefin, and the Monterey organization isn’t the only group critical of the bluefin industry. The Environmental Defense Fund has an “Eco-Worst Choice” grade for all types of bluefin tuna. The EDF also warns about the health dangers of elevated levels of mercury and PCBs in the fish. “Adults and kids should not eat at all,” the organization warns. For years, people in the fish industry have been pursuing the elusive goal of breeding bluefin completely on farms, from eggs all the way to mature fish. Clean Seas Tuna, an Australian aquaculture company, has been one of the leaders in efforts to breed tuna; Time included the company’s breeding tank in the magazine’s “50 Best Inventions of 2009.” However, Clean Seas announced right before Christmas that it was suspending its breeding program for southern bluefin tuna (SBT). “The volume and quantity of fertilised eggs produced to date has been disappointing compared to other seasons,” the company said in a statement to the Australian stock exchange. “Whilst the Company continues to believe in the commercialisation potential of the successful closure of the SBT lifecycle, investment beyond the Company’s current financial resources will be required for this goal to be achieved.” Clean Seas stock traded at 2 Australian dollars in 2008 and now trades at 2 Australian cents.

A-to “Info not enough – countries won’t coop”

( ) Countries aren’t unwilling to cooperate on overfishing.



Potgieter ‘12

Prof. TD (Thean) Potgieter is currently Chief Director Research and Innovation at PALAMA (Public Administration Leadership and Management Academy). His previous appointment was as Director of the Centre for Military Studies, Faculty of Military Science, Stellenbosch University. He is also the Secretary-General of the South African of Military History Commission and is the recipient of a number of academic and military awards. “Maritime security in the Indian Ocean: strategic setting and features” – Institute for Security Studies – PAPER 236 – AUGUST 2012 – http://www.issafrica.org/uploads/Paper236.pdf



Because of the growth in global prosperity and technological advances, competition for resources in and under the oceans, specifically energy and protein, is intensifying. World energy consumption is growing significantly, particularly in Asia and the Middle East. The fast-growing Indian and Chinese economies are forecast to be the key energy consumers in the future. As national efforts to control energy sources and to secure energy shipments are increasing, some observers contend that energy competition may result in conflict. However, a counter view is that it is in the common interest of the powers concerned to maintain a stable trading environment.40 Fishing is important to Africa. Annual catches account for over seven million tonnes and have an export value of about $2 700 million. The industry provides income to roughly 10 million people and fish is an important and often cheap source of protein, providing 22 per cent on average in Africa and rising to as high as 70 per cent in some instances.41 The example provided by the Southern African Development Community (SADC) is noteworthy, even though Namibia and Angola are not part of the Indian Ocean region. Income generated by fisheries is highest in South Africa and Namibia, which are advantaged by the cold Benguela current. In the case of Namibia, fishing contributes between 5 per cent and 10 per cent of GDP, compared to around 3 per cent in Tanzania and Madagascar (Figure 1). Tuna fishing is of particular importance in the western Indian Ocean, where catches are more than three times that achieved in the east. The processed value of catches in the west is estimated at €2 000 and €3 000 million a year. The Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of SADC countries that are part of the IOR overlap with the tuna fishing area, and many French and Spanish vessels are fishing here under negotiated access rights in accordance with agreements between the EU and individual states. Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing is a major international problem as it is estimated that 75 per cent of global fishing stocks are already fully exploited or overexploited. The culprits are often ‘seasoned and sophisticated foreign-flagged operators’ that decimate ocean resources and also venture into coastal waters where they compete with local subsistence fishermen for depleted resources. But foreigners are not the only problem, since local fishermen often under- or misreport catches and use illegal fishing gear, or employ dynamite or poison fishing since these methods are more lucrative than traditional methods. African countries, which often lack the ability to patrol their own waters, are the worst hit and they therefore suffer serious economic losses and protein shortages. Somali pirates have claimed, and a number of analysts have repeated this, that illegal fishing was an underlying cause and the justification for piracy. Though some of the early incidents may have been a form of coast-guard action against large-scale poaching, pirate behaviour has not been consistent with this contention and profit is without doubt the motive. Nevertheless, the notion of acting against illegal fishing contributes to the pirates’ local legitimacy and probably adds to the difficulties of fighting it. Though the scale and impact of IUU fishing differs across the region, it is a pressing concern all round. Even countries as far apart as South Africa and Australia have cooperated in this sphere. In April 2001 the Australian government requested South African assistance to intercept a Spanish trawler, the Sao Tomé, that had been fishing illegally in the Australian EEZ. Two vessels of the South African Navy (SAS Protea and SAS Galeshewe), with an Australian team on board, intercepted the poacher about 400 km south of Cape Agulhas with the unarmed Australian civil patrol vessel Southern Supporter still in hot pursuit. Two years later, during a similar operation, the SAS Drakensberg and the Antarctic exploration vessel SA Agulhas assisted with the interception of another trawler, the Viara I. General Peter Cosgrove, Chief of the Australian General Staff, emphasised the ‘wonderful spirit of cooperation’ between the defence forces, which had ensured an effective outcome.43 In the south-west Indian Ocean and Southern Ocean sophisticated IUU fishing operators have decimated Patagonian toothfish stocks. After it became evident early in 1996 that lucrative catches of Patagonian toothfish were possible, many trawlers hurried to participate in the ‘rush’. Catch rates were between 15 and 20 tonnes a day and sold for between $10 and $20/kg, in some cases even $26. Britain quickly clamped down on illegal fishing around her southern dependencies, after which much of the focus moved to the fishing grounds around the South African Prince Edward Islands and later to the French-controlled Crozet archipelago, Kerguelen Island and the Australian Heard and McDonald Islands. By the end of 1996, 40 to 60 vessels were fishing around the Prince Edward Islands. Of these, only five were licenced to catch toothfish (Figure 2). The South African authorities soon enforced strict controls against landing illegal toothfish in South Africa, but the effect was merely that the shore-based operations moved to Port Louis in Mauritius, Maputo and Beira in Mozambique, and Walvis Bay in Namibia. The loss to South Africa was estimated at over R3 000 million at the time.44 Because of the high levels of IUU fishing, the stock never recovered. Some illegal fishing is still reported in the area. Coming at a time when the SA Navy had not yet acquired its new frigates, South Africa had no high-seas fishery patrol capacity and there were thus no patrol vessels operating in the rough sub-Antarctic waters for any extent of time. Aerial patrols were conducted and some suspect vessels were photographed in the Prince Edward Islands EEZ, but their excuse was usually that they exercised the right of innocent passage. Vessels need to be boarded if proof of illegal activities is to be obtained, requiring ocean-going vessels with sufficient endurance and sea-keeping capability. Though countries bordering the eastern Indian Ocean and South China Sea experience pressing maritime security concerns such as smuggling, trafficking and pollution, IUU fishing is perhaps the more important concern for these states. For centuries the sea has provided sufficient fish stocks and abundant employment opportunities, but this has changed as a result of growing populations and improved fishing technology. With intense competition for fish stocks, IUU fishing is massive, with unregistered and foreign vessels plundering the seas. Foreign fishing vessels often intrude into rich regional fishing grounds, making them attractive targets for pirates. According to a May 2004 statement by the Director of the North Sumatra Fishery Office, an estimated 8 000 fishing boats or two-thirds of the province’s fishing fleet were not operating because of the threat of piracy. The Indonesian government estimates that losses resulting from IUU fishing are around $4 000 million a year, which is substantial when compared to the estimated cost of piracy worldwide.46 Ironically, the states that are most adversely affected by IUU fishing in the Indian Ocean can hardly afford to suppress it.
(note: I.U.U. = an acronym for “Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing”)

A-to Fish stocks = resilient

( ) Resilience only works if accompanying with a time-out for recovery. The squo won’t do that.



Neubauer ‘13

(et al; Philipp Neubauer – Holds a Ph.D. in Quantitative Marine Ecology from Victoria University of Wellington – which he earned in 2011. At the time of this writing he was with the Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, Science, Vol. 340 no. 6130 – April 19th 2013 – pp. 347-349 – DOI: 10.1126/science.1230441)


Recovery of overexploited marine populations has been slow, and most remain below target biomass levels. A key question is whether this is due to insufficient reductions in harvest rates or the erosion of population resilience. Using a global meta-analysis of overfished stocks, we find that resilience of those stocks subjected to moderate levels of overfishing is enhanced, not compromised, offering the possibility of swift recovery. However, prolonged intense overexploitation, especially for collapsed stocks, not only delays rebuilding but also substantially increases the uncertainty in recovery times, despite predictable influences of fishing and life history. Timely and decisive reductions in harvest rates could mitigate this uncertainty. Instead, current harvest and low biomass levels render recovery improbable for the majority of the world’s depleted stocks.

( ) Resilience doesn’t mean limitless.



MOHAMED ‘12

AMINA MOHAMED, deputy executive director of the U.N. Environment Programme – “Q&A: Protecting Oceans Equals Protecting Our Planet” – Inter-Press News Service – May 9th – http://www.ipsnews.net/2012/05/qa-protecting-oceans-equals-protecting-our-planet/

Q: What specific messages do you plan to convey regarding the world’s oceans at Expo 2012? A: Coasts and oceans are resilient but have their limits, and so if millions of tourists enjoy them every year and if limited fish stocks are over-fished, we need to give them time to recover. Care and sustainable use can make a difference.

( ) Resilience only works when paired with better policy – only the Aff does that.



Neubauer ‘13

(et al; Philipp Neubauer – Holds a Ph.D. in Quantitative Marine Ecology from Victoria University of Wellington – which he earned in 2011. At the time of this writing he was with the Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, Science, Vol. 340 no. 6130 – April 19th 2013 – pp. 347-349 – DOI: 10.1126/science.1230441)


Our analysis suggests that the majority of stocks are resilient to moderate overfishing and have a good chance of recovering within 10 years if fishing pressure is reduced rapidly and substantially once a stock has been determined to be depleted (B ≈ 0.5 × BMSY). For many currently depleted stocks, however, rebuilding efforts have been slow to be enacted, and continued overfishing has led to their collapse. At present, a third remain collapsed. Even if fishing mortality rates were reduced to FMSY, recovery would likely take several decades for many of these stocks (Fig. 3B). Regardless of their depletion level, at current fishing mortality rates, recovery to BMSY remains a distant target for the majority of stocks that are now depleted (n = 62 stocks in our analysis). Only 23% of these stocks are fished below FMSY, and only 10% are fished below 0.5FMSY. Recent evidence that production from wild-capture fisheries around the world could be increased were these stocks to be rebuilt (5, 6) should provide an economic incentive to implement policy and management decisions that accelerate and expand rebuilding efforts.

A-to Alt Cause – Pollution kills Fish

( ) Other sectors have changed course, but overfishing is the hold-out that’ll push us too far.



Tulloch ‘9

Internally quoting Ben Halpern, a scientists from the Zoological Society of London – James Tulloch – Editor at Allianz – Allianz November 18th – 2009 – http://www.conocimiento.allianz.com.ar/?513/climate-change-and-overfishing-top-threats-to-oceans



The future looks bleak, but there is hope. “Oceans are resilient, says Halpern, “if we act soon they can recover.” Dead zones can be eliminated. Whales and seals hunted to near extinction did recover once protected. Some sectors are acting. Merchant shipping is cutting the risk of oil spills by banning single-hulled ships from 2010, and trying to reduce the spread of invasive species via ballast water. More stubborn is the fishing industry. The obvious answer is to fish less. As The Economist magazine points out, “nothing did so much good for fish stocks in northern Europe in the past 150 years as the Second World War”. Trawlers stuck in port allowed fisheries to revive. Abolishing government subsidies for fishing, and for trawler fuel, is one strategy. Individual transferable quotas, or ‘catch shares’, is another, giving partial ownership of a fish stock. This has worked in Iceland, New Zealand, and the western United States. “Fishers become very interested in making sure the stock is healthy and sustainable when their income depends on it,” says Halpern. It could also protect stocks in developing countries from marauding foreign factory ships. Marine reserves are a proven solution, argues Norris. “We have to move from hunter-gatherer mode to having the oceans more tightly managed.” Coral reef reserves in Indonesia and Kenya, and kelp forest reserves in New Zealand and South Africa, have successfully revived biodiversity. They would also maintain the seas as effective carbon sinks, says the United Nations, which wants a global ‘Blue Carbon’ regime (like REDD for forests) to protect ecosystems like mangroves and salt marshes. The oceans can no longer be a free-for-all. A combination of preservation, regulation, and ownership—‘marine planning’ or ‘ecosystem managementis the best bet to save our seas. Otherwise the places where life started will become lifeless.




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