And hellenic colonization

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Basic Roman Chronology of events and monuments (Please consult the photocopied page fr. Picard, G., Living Architecture: Roman)


Roman Sculpture: emphasis on portrait


life size or larger sculpture :

1. whole body or just bust

2. material used

a. marble

b. bronze


statuettes and figurines

1. usually whole body

2. material used

a. marble

b. bronze

c. ivory

d. terra cotta


general classification

1. deities

a. some are copies of original Greek sculpture

b. some are original Roman work

c. some basic statues and statuettes that fall under this category

1) gods

a) Zeus (Jupiter): elderly man w. an eagle

b) Apollo

- god of music and also of the rising sun

- young man w. long hair and often w. a lyre

c) Hermes (Mercury)

- messenger of gods, protector of travellers

- young man w. traveller’s hat w. wings, sandals w. wings, money


d) Dionysus (Bacchus): an inebriate w. wine, grapes and vine leaves

e) Asclepius

- god of healing

- elderly man, upper body usually naked, w. a long walking stick

f) Dioscouros: young man w. pointed scull cap

g) foreign gods

- Horus: Egyptian, fertility, w. cornucopia

- Attis: Phrygian

- Mithras: Persian

- Men: Anat., moon god

2) goddesses

a) Athena (Minerva)

-goddess of intellect and intelligence

-young woman w. aegis a. helmet, shield a. sword

b) Aphrodite (Venus)

- goddess of beauty and love

- esp. upper part of body shown naked, w. mirror, w. Eros,

sometimes w. shield because of husband Hephaistos (Vulcan),

god of blacksmiths and lover Mars (Ares), god of war

c) Artemis (Diana)

- goddess of wild nature, associated w. the moon, twin of Apollo

- young woman shown as huntress w. quiver, arrows, sometimes w.

deer and dogs

- of Ephesus

- w. high polos on head

- fertility symbols

- lions (attribute animals of Cybele)

- deer (huntress Artemis)

- lots of necklaces, etc.

d) Hygeia

- goddess of health

- daughter of Asclepius, god of healing

- shown w. snake

e) Nemesis

- goddess of retributive justice

- w. griffon

f) three graces (Charites): three maiden together

- Aglaia (Brilliance)

- Euphrosyne (Joy)

- Thalia (Bloom)

g) foreign

- Isis

- Egyptian goddess of motherhood

- w. cornucopia (fertility) a. knot across her breast

- usually shown enthroned

2. mythological figures

a. Marsyas: Phrygian Silenus w. Horsetail

b. Meleagros : hunter

c. Heracles: hero/lion’s skin and club, 12 labours

3. individuals

a. official people

1) emperors : in various form

a) cuirass : wearing military outfit (esp. Trajan and Hadrian)

b) priest : Roman emperors are chief priests and they are deified

after death

2) empresses

3) priests (wearing priestly outfit and crown w. busts)

4) priestesses (draped in mantles, w. long necklaces)

5) nobility (eg. Plancia Magna, fr. Perge)

6) individuals unidentified (no name inscribed and features unknown,

but still the real features shown)


Roman reliefs


as part of architectural decoration

1. doorways

2. windows

3. in frieze form around enclosed areas









the Acropolis

1. Romanized slightly (esp. the gymnasion), mostly remains Hellenistic

2. Trajanaeum/Temple of Trajan

a. on a high podium

b. Corinthian order

c. now restored


lower city

1. theatre

2. Serapeion/Temple of Serapis


outside the lower city

1. tumuli: artificial burial mounds

2. Asclepion

a. named after Asclepius, god of healing

b. healing place using some therapeutic methods

c. general plan and architectural features

1) Via Tecta: colonnaded street fr. Pergamon leading to Asclepion

(Roman Imperial Period)

2) propylon (monumental entrance)

a) rectangular courtyard

b) commissioned by Claudius Charax, in the reign of Emp.

Antoninus Pius (138-161 AD)

c) niches on either side for worship

3) the Emperor’s room: to the north of the propylon

a) rectangular

b) also used as a library

c) there are inscriptions about the library

4) Temple of Asclepius

a) round building

b) small replica of Pantheon

c) erected by Consul L. Cuspius Pactumeius Rufinus

d) about 150 AD

e) south of the propylon

5) building for medical treatment

a) round

b) south of the Temple of Asclepius

c) two storeyed

d) w. six apses inside

6) colonnades on north, west and south

7) theatre

a) built on a slope in the Greek style

b) seating 3500 people

c) west end of North Stoa

8) tunnel

a) leading to treatment room

b) going diagonally, starting somewhere at the centre of the square





1. large square palaestra

2. monumental façade at the end of the palaestra restored (west end)

3. pool behind the façade

4. dedication

a. Empress Julia Domna (wife of Septimus Severus)

b. to their sons

1) Caracalla

2) Geta: in 211-212 AD his name is erased, because he was murdered

(Publius, part of his name still remains)


synagogue: the largest in the ancient world

1. south side of the palaestra

2. a long basilical edifice

3. entrance hall at the back

4. long hall

a. altar opposite the entrance

b. floors: decorated w. mosaics

c. walls: decorated w. opus settile (piece work, done by different shaped

geometric pieces)


Ephesus: general plan and important buildings


along the cardo

1. Vedius gymnasion

2. stadion

3. harbour gymnasion and baths

4. theatre gymnasion

5. theatre

6. Temple of Serapis

8. Celsus Library

a. erected 110 AD

b. by Consul Gaius Julius Aquila

c. as a Heroon

d. for his father Gaius Julius Celsus Polemaenus Aquila (buried in a

lead casket within a marble sarcophagus in a niche)

e. architectural aspects

1) monumental façade restored (was in relatively good shape after the

reading room burned in antiquity)

2) second storey as a balcony in the reading room

3) books and scrolls kept in niches

4) wall on either side of the entrance: cuts the noise from the busy street

5) a pool made in front of the library, after the destruction of the reading

room (about) 400 AD) (beautiful façade would reflect in the pool)


along the Decumanus maximus

1. Scholastica baths

2. Hadrian’s Temple

a. Corinthian order

b. Hadrian Period: 117-138 AD

3. a rich house known as “the House on the Slope”

a. built on five terraces

b. each terrace a storey

c. used for many generations

4. Trajan’s fountain (Trajan Period 98-117 AD)

a. originally a colossal statue of Trajan stood in the middle of the façade

b. now only the base, the feet and a globe remains

5. Prythaneion: the town hall of autonomous Ephesos

6. State Agora

7. Odeion

8. private baths

9. East Gymnasion

10.Magnesian Gate


Miletus: original name Millawanda (in Hittite times, 2nd millennium BC),

home town of Hippodamos, the architect who finally perfected the

regular city building in grill plan


main harbour area

1. Roman baths to the east of the harbour

2. to opotropaic lions protecting the harbour entrance

3. Harbour Monuments

a. large Harbour Monument

1) three stepped round base

2) inscription: prob. erected in honour of Augustus on the occasion

of the victory of Actium, 31 BC

3) some reliefs of tritons (minor sea gods) still lying around

4) concave triangular base

5) ship form

6) trophy at the top

b. small Harbour Monument

1) portion of the base remains

2) concave, three sided monument

3) second half of 1st century AD (Flavian Dyn.)

4) modelled after the large one

4. synagogue

a. behind the harbour monuments, southwest of harbour

b. basilical form (central nave and two aisles on either side)

5. Harbour Stoa: south of the harbour

6. small market place

a. enlarged in Hellenistic and Roman times

b. surrounded by shops

c. behind the Harbour Stoa

7. North Agora

a. behind the Harbour Stoa

b. enlarged in Hellenistic and Roman times

8. Harbour Gateway: southeast of harbour

9. Delphinion: southeast of harbour

10. Processional Road

11. Capito baths and gymnasion

12. Temple of Asclepius (?) and sanctuary of imperial cult (?)

13. Bouleuterion: erected 175-164 BC (Hellenistic)

a. propylon

b. colonnaded courtyard

c. roofed auditorium (seating up to 1500)

14. Nymphaion

a. opposite the Bouleuterion

b. 2nd century AD

c. monumental three storeyed building

d. rich architectural decoration

15. North Gate

16. South Agora

a. enormous courtyard

b. erected in Hellenistic times, enlarged in Roman times

17. storage building: to the west of the South Agora

18. Heroon

19. Serapis Temple

20. Faustina Baths

a. erected by Faustina II; wife of Emp. Marcus Aurelius (161-180 AD)

b. well preserved/mainly Corinthian order

c. does not conform to the Hippodamian plan

d. statues of muses in niches (now in the Museum)

e. statues of river god and lion in their original positions in the

three-roomed frigidarium


Area around the second harbour

1. theatre: to the northeast

a. Hellenistic (four phases)

b. enlarged in Roman times (seating cap. 15.000)

2. stadion: south of harbour

a. 150 BC (Hellenistic)

b. altered in Roman times

c. gates in east and west

3. West Agora

4. Temple of Athena


Aspendus: ancient name Estwediya (derived fr. the name of King Asitawada/Late

Hittite, 8th cent. BC)


remains of the city: all Roman, no trace of earlier remains found so far



1. the building

a. entirely built on barrel-vaulted substructures

b. also rests partly on a hillside (conforming to old Greek tradition)

c. paradoi (side entrances)

1) not diagonal but parallel to the auditorium in the Roman fashion

2) roofed, also a Roman aspect

d. one horizontal diazoma at the cavea

e. colonnaded arcade at the top of the cavea, Roman aspect

f. stage building

1) scaenae frons (façade)

a) in very good condition

b) cutting the theatre completely from the outside world

c) five doors giving entrance to the proscenium

2) proscenium: platform in front of the façade where the performance

takes place

2. designed by architect Zeno, son of Theodorus

a. inscription giving the information

b. during the reign of Marcus Aurelius (161-180 AD)

c. dedicated by two brothers (Greek and Latin inscr.)

1) Curtius Crispinus / “to the gods of the country and to

2) Curtius Auspicatus / the imperial house”




important architectural features of the city

1. outer city

a. main gate: the East Wall

b. city fountain/Nymphaion

1) outside the main gate

2) Antonine Period (138-192 AD)

3) large basin and three tiered façade behind it

a) lower tier w. three niches and spouts in good condition

b) statues and reliefs found now in the museum

c. colonnaded street

d. baths near the agora (now a museum)

e. Agora: 2nd cent. AD

1) monumental entrance

2) large square area

3) surrounded by colonnades and shops

4) now only the foundation walls remaining

5) round temple remains at the centre (Tyche: (Fortuna) the city


6) public lavatory in the northwest corner

f. theatre: mid 2nd cent. AD

1) built on barrel vaulted substructures (Roman)

2) cavea and orchestra exceeding a semicircle (in the Greek tradition)

3) arcades outside: two-tiered, superimposed

4) stage building

a) skene: three-tiered w. niches, columns, statues and reliefs

b) proscenium: above the level of the orchestra

g. monumental gate: between the theatre and the baths

1) arched

2) giving access to the inner city

2. inner city

a. Dionysus Temple: next to the theatre

b. colonnaded street continuing fr. the monumental gate until the harbour

c. harbour baths /

d. Temple of Apollo / all near

e. Temple of Athena / the harbour

f. Temple of Men (the Anatolian Moon God) /



1. water supply comes mostly fr. the mountains

2. conveyance of water

a. outside the city

1) natural beds and canals carved into rocks on mountains

2) in the plains

a) tunnels

b) open canals

c) aqueducts

d) bridges on naturally flowing rivers (Nadas Bridge: in its Seljuk

and Ottoman form, still in use)

b. within the city

1) hole in the city wall for the entrance of the pipe: east wall, to the north

2) aqueduct

a) running somewhat parallel to the north wall

b) restored by a wealthy citizen: 3rd cent. AD

- Lollianos Bryonianos

- Quirinia Patra (wife)

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