Annotated bibliography


Bratter, J., & Eschbach, K. (2006). ‘What about the couple?’ interracial marriage and psychological distress. Social Science Research, 35(4), 1025-1047. [20] pp



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Bratter, J., & Eschbach, K. (2006). ‘What about the couple?’ interracial marriage and psychological distress. Social Science Research, 35(4), 1025-1047. [20] pp.

In the article What about the couple? Interracial marriage and psychological distress by Jennifer Bratter and Karl Eschbach explore the association between racial composition of couples that is, whether they interracial or homogamous and the psychological distress of their members, as measured in a screening scale for the non-specific psychological distress.

The main points in the article, were that interracial couples continue to experience disapproving reactions from family, friends and acquaintances. The researchers stated that that ethnographic studies of African American-white interracial couples find that some couples limit their contact with extended family members because of the family’s disapproval (Batter & Schacht, 2006). Gender plays a role among married persons, women have higher rated of psychological distress than men. It could be linked to gender differences in role obligations such as spouse, paid worker, and parent. Batter and Eschbach stated that for women in interracial marriages, in these roles stresses may be enhanced because of reduced social support and perceived disapproval from friends and family. (Batter & Eschbach, 2006).

The purpose of the study is to explore the association between racial and ethnic composition of couples, specifically racial difference versus sameness, and the psychological distress in a range that indicates a risk for an affective disorder. The researchers used a five-year pool of data from the National Health Interview Survey to compare the odds of distress for interracial vs. same race married/cohabiting adults. The findings they found were that interracial marriage is associated with increases in severe distress for Native American men, white women, and for Hispanic men and women married to non-white spouses, compared to endogamous members of the same groups. Higher rates of distress are observed for intermarried persons with African American or Native American husbands or wives, and for women with Hispanic husbands.

The article helped me understand the the association between racial and ethnic composition of interracial couples. It also helped me understand the psychological effect of racial intermarriage, as well as the set of issues concerns how background characteristics influence psychological health, particularly in social and economic standing and acculturation, vary between intermarried and endogamous persons for different racial groups. Socio-economic differences between intermarried and endogamous unions rise distress rated for intermarried African Americans and Hispanics and lower for Whites and Asians.

In my opinion, the article did articulate useful information for my capstone but I liked how I was able to highlight statistical and historical information that would be an essential part of my capstone. The article stated in 2000, 10% of white and 4% of African American respondents to the General Social Survey supported laws banning interracial marriage. In 1998, 38% of voting South Carolinians supported the position to retain the (legally unenforceable) clause in the state constitution that forbids interracial marriages. I found this to be useful because my ideal focus on on interracial marriages and being able to come across statistical information really helps in forming my literature review. When a White woman chooses to marry a Black man, this theory indicates that she is essentially moving down the hierarchical social ladder.



Bell, G., & Hastings, S. (2015). Exploring parental approval and disapproval for black and white interracial couples. The Journal of Social Issues, 71(4), 755-771 [14] pp.

In the article ExplGiba oring parental approval and disapproval for black and white interracial couples by Gina Bell and Sally Hastings examine parental approval and disapproval messages and their impact on interracial couples. The authors were specifically interested in the communication of the parental support and disapproval and the myriad ways in which such messages may impact Black and White interracial couples in the United States.

The main points were that interracial couple both experience public disapproval and illustrate that not all couples experience parental disapproval. However, couples with dual parental approval were less bothered by negative outside experiences than were one-sided approval couples. Also that the importance of parental approval messages and high light the destructive nature of disapproval messages with regards to the interracial couple’s face needs.

The purpose of the study is to examine couples’ experiences of parental approval and disapproval, and their impact on Black and White interracial couples. Independence theory and Facework provided the theoretical frameworks guiding this study. Interdependence theory shows promise in better understanding interaction between family members and romantic partners and offers a language to discuss family interactions. In the article, face plays an important role in maintaining and manage relationships. Facework can be explained as the process by which individuals prevent the loss of face for themselves as well as their partner during communication.

The article helped me understand how the lack of family support regarding interracial relationships undermines functional family communication. This study finds that parental disapproval simply removes the solid foundation of societal support that dual approval couples experience when facing society. Societal disproval of the couple is compounded by strained relationships within one’s immediate social circle.

In my opinion, the article was useful in several ways because it helped me understand the increasingly common phenomenon of interracial relationships, but more important the research that draws the attention to the growing realization that prejudice continues to be produced and reproduced in public and private spaces through every day interpersonal communication in the United States. For Black and White interracial couples, parental biases for or against interracial dating are very personal for individuals in the romantic couple.

Conger, S. (2014). An Examination of Perceived Discrimination and Stress in Interracial Relationships. n.p.: ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

In the article An Examination of Perceived Discrimination and Stress in Interracial Relationships by Sharon Conger examines the increase in stress for White women in interracial relationships with Black men due to perceived racial discrimination that may they have experienced. The purpose of the study was to conduct a cross-sectional, quantitative, nonprobability survey to examine the problem of potential stress experienced by White women when faced with perceived discrimination because of the social perceptions about their racial discrimination.

The main points were that status exchange theory indicates that the change in status that White women in interracial relationships wit Black men experience may cause increased stress due to the awareness of racial attitudes and racial discrimination.

Based on the study and using a theoretical framework consisting of status exchange theory and the stress process model, it is hypothesized that White women in interracial relationships with Black men did not experience stress due to racial discrimination prior to the relationship.



The article helped me that understand that stress is related to racial discrimination of interracial couples involving White women and Black men can be a problem; and that there is a potential increase in stress due to perceived racial discrimination that the White women may never have experienced before. White women in intimate interracial relationships with Black men experience a significant increase in stress from perceived racial discrimination after being in the relationship compared to before they were involved in a relationship. That status exchange theory indicated that the change in status White Women in interracial relationships with Black men experience may cause increased stress due to the awareness of racial attitudes and racial discrimination.

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