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---Ext. Solves Warming


Clean energy is key to reduce emissions and solve warming

IEA 12 – (2012, International Energy Agency, “Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 Pathways to a Clean Energy System,” http://www.iea.org/Textbase/npsum/ETP2012SUM.pdf)

Technologies can and must play an integral role in transforming the energy system. The 2012 edition of Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP 2012) shows clearly that a technological transformation of the energy system is still possible, despite current trends. The integrated use of key existing technologies would make it possible to reduce dependency on imported fossil fuels or on limited domestic resources, decarbonise electricity, enhance energy eciency and reduce emissions in the industry, transport and buildings sectors. This would dampen surging energy demand, reduce imports, strengthen domestic economies, and over time dramatically reduce greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. The ETP 2012 2°C Scenario (2DS) explores the technology options needed to realise a sustainable future based on greater energy eciency and a more balanced energy system, featuring renewable energy sources and lower emissions. Its emissions trajectory is consistent with the IEA World Energy Outlook’s 450 scenario through 2035. The 2DS identifi es the technology options and policy pathways that ensure an 80% chance of limiting long-term global temperature increase to 2°C - provided that non-energy related CO2 emissions, as well as other greenhouse gases, are also reduced.

Investing in clean energy makes economic sense – every additional dollar invested can generate three dollars in future fuel savings by 2050. Investments in clean energy need to double by 2020 (Chapter 4). Achieving the 2DS would require USD 36 trillion (35%) more in investments from today to 2050 than under a scenario in which controlling carbon emissions is not a priority. That is the equivalent of an extra USD 130 per person every year. However, investing is not the same as spending: by 2025, the fuel savings realised would outweigh the investments; by 2050, the fuel savings amount to more than USD 100 trillion. Even if these potential future savings are discounted at 10%, there would be a USD 5 trillion net saving between now and 2050. If cautious assumptions of how lower demand for fossil fuels can impact prices are applied, the projected fuel savings jump to USD 150 trillion.

Clean tech expansion overcomes all barriers to solving warming – even allows treaties

Popp 08 – (2008, David, PhD, Associate Professor of Public Administration and a Senior Research Associate in the Center for Policy Research, the Center for Environmental Policy Administration, and the Center for Technology and Information Policy, at the Maxwell School of Syracuse University. He is also a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research, “International Technology Transfer for Climate Policy,” Center for Policy Research. Paper 4, http://surface.syr.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1003&context=cpr)

However, climate policy is complicated by the fact that GHG emissions reductions are a public goodthey benefit everyone, not just the local citizenry. Given this, it is less likely that developing countries will move as quickly to regulate CO2 emissions as they did in the cases of SO2 , NOX , and lead. Moreover, developing countries are more likely to accept moderate emissions reductions that could be met by improved efficiency (such as China’s climate strategy discussed in the introduction), as the adoption of energy efficiency technologies provides secondary benefits to these countries.



Technological change can also help alleviate the problem of incomplete participation in climate treaties. The standard presumption is that when only some countries commit to reducing carbon emissions, high-carbon industries will migrate to non-participating countries, resulting in carbon leakage, an increase in CO2 emissions in the non-participating countries in reaction to the reduction in emissions by the more strictly regulated countries. Golombek and Hoel (2004) noted that, in the countries committed to carbon reductions, induced technological change will lower abatement costs, which may be sufficient to encourage non-participating countries to reduce their carbon emissions as well. Golombek and Hoel also found the level of environmental R&D in the non-participating country to be important. If the non-participating country is already performing environmental R&D, increases in environmental R&D in the participating country may crowd out R&D in the non-participating country, mitigating the benefits of spillovers. However, if the nonparticipating country was not doing environmental R&D, as is the case in most developing countries, spillovers will lead to lower emissions. This work is theoretical in nature, and suggests directions for future research. In particular, estimating the magnitude of each effect (technology transfer vs. leakage) would help policymakers better understand the risks (or lack thereof) of incomplete participation.

Clean tech is integral to stabilizing the climate

Popp 08 – (2008, David, PhD, Associate Professor of Public Administration and a Senior Research Associate in the Center for Policy Research, the Center for Environmental Policy Administration, and the Center for Technology and Information Policy, at the Maxwell School of Syracuse University. He is also a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research, “International Technology Transfer for Climate Policy,” Center for Policy Research. Paper 4, http://surface.syr.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1003&context=cpr)

As the economies of developing countries grow, greenhouse gas emissions from these countries will continue to rise. Curtailing growth in these countries is not a viable alternative. The diffusion of clean technologies will play a vital part in any climate stabilization strategy. This study reviews the literature on transfer of environmentally-friendly technologies and discusses how the lessons from this research can inform climate policy. A key point is that technology diffusion is gradual. The process of diffusion of climate friendly technologies and policies in developing countries is no different from what has already occurred with other environmental policies, such as for sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) emissions and leaded gasoline. Early adoption of policy by developed countries leads to the development of new technologies that make it easier for developing countries to reduce pollution as well. Some technologies, such as those that enhance energy efficiency, will diffuse to developing countries even without the aid of policy prescriptions such as the CDM. This is important for assessing the potential emissions reductions of proposed CDM projects. While often frowned upon by environmental advocates, globalization, that is, the opening up of economies to international competition, plays an important role in moving clean technologies to developing countries. Clean technologies are first developed in the world’s leading economies, and developing countries gain access to them through international trade and foreign investments. These countries then adopt environmental regulations more quickly than they otherwise would. Finally, the absorptive capacity of nations is important. The technological skills of the local workforce enable a country to learn from, and build upon, technologies brought in from abroad.


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