Aristotle – “A change in the state of the soul results in a change in the state of the body and a change in the state of the body results in a change in the state of the soul.” Science



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Anterior Longitudinal Ligament

  • anterior aspect of vertebral bodies and IVD

  • axis to first sacral segment

Posterior Longitudinal Ligament

  • attaches axis (continuous with the Tectorial membrane) to the first sacral segment

  • inside of the neural canal

  • attaches body to body and IVD’s

Interspinous Ligament

  • connects adjacent spinous processes


Supraspinous Ligament N 146

  • attach the tips of the spinous processes, C7 to S1

Ligamentum Nuchae N14/16

  • superior continuation of the supraspinous ligament

  • triangular in shape

  • attaches to the EOP and the median nuchal line, posterior tubercle of the atlas, and spinous processes of the cervical vertebrae

Ligamentum Flavum

  • connects adjacent lamina, one on each side, elastic ligament

Supraspinous Ligament

  • attach the tips of the spinous processes, C7 to S1

Ligamentum Nuchae

  • superior continuation of the supraspinous ligament

  • triangular in shape, attaches to the EOP and the median nuchal line, posterior tubercle of the atlas, and spinous processes of the cervical vertebrae

Ligamentum Flavum

  • connects adjacent lamina, one on each side, elastic ligament

The Rib Cage

Sternum – “dagger” N 171

  • Manubrium – superior portion

  • Jugular notch

  • clavicular notch – where the clavicle articulates

  • costal notch

  • manubriosternal joint - sternal angle, Angle of Louis ( can see it when you look laterally )- heart just deep to this

  • Body of the Sternum

  • 6 Costal notches

  • Xiphoid Process – starts out cartilaginous

  • 7 ribs total attach to the sternum

Sternum has articulations ribs

Manubrium 7 4

Body 14 12

Xiphoid 1 0



  • Costal Margin - fusion of cartilage of ribs 8,9,10 ( vertebrochondral ribs )

  • Costal Angle - formed by the 2 costal margins

Ribs N 170

  • 12 pairs of ribs

  • Ribs 1 thru 7 - Vertebrosternal ( True ) ribs

  • Ribs 8 thru 10 - Vertebrochondral ( False ) ribs – these do not attach directly to the sternum, but through a cartilaginous attachment.

  • Ribs 11 and 12 - Floating ribs – no attachment on one side

NOTE: all 12 ribs articulate directly with the body of the sternum ( via their costal cartilage )

  • Components of a typical rib

  • Head

  • Body – main portion

  • Tubercle

  • Costal groove – posterior inferior surface of rib, distinguishes L from R rib , houses intercostal vein, artery, and nerve.

  • Neck

  • Intercostal space

  • Angle

  • Costochondral joint

The Appendicular Skeleton

CH. 7, p. 169 - 188



The Pectoral Girdle

p. 169 - 172



The Clavicle - Collar Bone – superior surface is smooth

  • Acromial Extremity - lateral end – articulates with the acromion of the scapula

  • Coronoid Tubercle - coracoclavicular ligament

  • Sternal Extremity – medial end, large round, knob like

  • Costal Tuberosity - costoclavicular ligament

  • Groove for the Subclavius muscle N 391

The Scapula

  • Spine of the scapula

  • acromion - lateral end of spine is enlarged – separates the 2 fossa below

  • Fossae of the Scapula

  • supraspinous fossa - supraspinatus m.

  • infraspinous fossa - infraspinatus m.

  • subscapular fossa – anterior surface – subscapularis muscle originates here

  • Glenoid cavity N 392

  • Articulates with head of humerus to make the shoulder joint

  • supraglenoid tubercle - long head of biceps brachii m.

  • infraglenoid tubercle - long head of triceps brachii m.

  • Coracoid process - 3 muscles attach here N 393

  • Margins (borders) of the scapula

  • lateral border (axillary margin)

  • medial border (vertebral margin)

  • superior border

  • suprascapular notch - scapular notch - suprascapular nerve

  • Angles of the Scapula

  • inferior angle

  • medial angle

  • superior angle

Neck

The Humerus

  • Head

  • Anatomic neck ( where the joint capsule attaches ) vs. surgical neck ( humerus would be removed here )

  • Greater tubercle

  • Lesser Tubercle

  • Intertubercular groove – bicipital groove

  • Deltoid Tuberosity – midshaft on the anterior surface – deltoid muscle inserts here.

  • Radial groove - spiral groove - musculospiral groove - radial nerve – located below the deltoid tuberosity. A midshaft break of the humerus oftentimes is along this groove, and the radial nerve can be damaged.

  • Medial epicondyle - flexors of carpus and digits

  • Lateral epicondyle - extensor muscles of the carpus and digits originate here

  • Medial and lateral supracondylar crests

  • Trochlea – “pulley” – articulates with the ulna

  • Capitulum –articulates with the radius – trochlea and capitulum together make up the

distal condyle

  • Coronoid fossa – anterior distal aspect of the trochlea

  • Olecranon fossa – posterior aspect of the trochlea.

To tell a L bone from a R, orient it in 3 planes, proximal/distal; medial/lateral; anterior/ posterior.

The Ulna

  • Olecranon process - elbow

  • Semilunar notch - trochlear notch – hinge joint

  • Coronoid process – sits in olecranon fossa when arm is extended

  • Ulnar tuberosity ­– distal to coronoid process on the anterior surface.

  • Radial notch - on lateral surface, where the head articulates with the radius (L/R distinguishing factor!)

  • Styloid process

  • Interosseous margin – membrane or ligament attaches here.

  • Posterior border of ulna - separates forearm into flexor and extensor compartment N 409

The Radius

  • Head

  • Radial tuberosity

  • Styloid process - distal

  • Ulnar notch – distal – where the ulna articulates

  • Grooves on the posterior surface

  • groove for ECRL (Extensor carpi radius longus ) and ECRB mm.

  • dorsal tubercle

  • groove for the Ex Pollicis Longus m.

  • groove for the Ex Dig. And Ex. Indicis mm

The Carpus N 422

  • Proximal Row of Carpal Bones - medial to lateral

  • Pisiform - sesamoid bone in the tendon of Flexor Carpi Ulnaris m.

  • Triquetral - triangular bone

  • Lunate - articulates with radius

  • Scaphoid bone - navicular bone, articulates with radius

  • Distal Row - medial to lateral

  • Hamate bone - hamulus “hammer” – has a hook on it

  • Capitate - Os Magnum – largest bone of the carpi

  • Trapezoid - Lesser multangular

  • Trapezium - Greater multangular

Mnemonic how to remember the carpal bones from proximal medial to distal lateral

Please Take Larry Shopping – He Came To Town

Pisiform Triquetral Lunate Scaphoid – Hamate Capitate Trapezoid Trapezium

X-rays of carpals are difficult to interpret



Metacarpal Bones and Phalanges

  • Metacarpal bones

  • Base

  • Body

  • Head

  • Phalanges

  • Proximal, middle and distal phalanx on 4 digits, but not the thumb.

  • Digits are numbers form lateral to medial, 1-5

The Pelvic Girdle

  • Formed by two Ossa Coxae - hip bones

  • Greater pelvis (false) - superior to pelvic brim

  • Lesser (true) pelvis - inferior to brim of pelvis

  • Pelvic Brim - sink

  • Pelvic Inlet – hole through the brim

Bones of the Pelvis

p. 177 - 180

Ilium

  • External surface

  • Iliac crest - ( holds up the bikini! )

  • anterior superior iliac spine and anterior inferior iliac spine

  • posterior superior iliac spine ( locate dimples!) and posterior inferior iliac spine

  • Gluteal Lines - lateral aspect of ilium, “glutes” attaches here.

  • Iliac Fossa - medial

  • Greater Sciatic Notch - posterior

  • Auricular Surface for the sacrum – medial articulation with auricular surface of sacrum

  • Iliac tuberosity

  • Inguinal ligament - pubic tubercle to ASIS

Ischium N 453

  • Spine of the Ischium

  • Ischiatic tuberosity – sitting on it! Hamstring muscle originates here.

  • Lesser Sciatic Notch

  • Body

  • Ramus (“bridge ) of the Ischium – connects body to pubic bone

Pubis

  • Superior Pubic Ramus

  • pubic tubercle

  • pecten pubis – line

  • obturator groove

  • Inferior Pubic Ramus

  • Symphysis

  • Obturator Foramen –in life, this hole is covered by membrane

  • Acetabulum – “cup of vinegar” N 453

  • acetabular notch – inferior surface

  • acetabular fossa

  • lunate surface – moon like rim around the surface

  • Sex related differences in the pelvis

Page 332 – pelvic differences

Male pelvis female pelvis

Narrow, straight broad, flared out

Heavy light

Rough smooth

Heart shaped oval to round

Deep relatively shallow

Pubic symph angle <=90 >90 degrees

Larger pelvic outlet



Wider inlet
The Femur N 455

  • Head –large, prominent

  • fovea capitis

  • Neck

  • Greater and lesser trochanter

  • Shaft – diaphysis, bows anteriorly

  • Linea aspera – pectineal line

  • Gluteal tuberosity - third trochanter

  • Epicondyles

  • Adductor tubercle – adductor m. attaches here

  • Condyles – point posteriorly

  • Intercondylar fossa

  • Popliteal fossa

  • Patellar surface

The Tibia – shin bone N 478

  • Medial Condyle - proximal

  • Lateral Condyle

  • Gerdy’s tubercle – on the anterior lateral aspect of tibia - insertion of the iliotibial tract

  • Tibial Plateau

  • Intercondylar eminence

  • Medial and lateral intercondylar tubercle – menisci attach here

  • Tibial Tuberosity – Quadriceps femoris attaches here

  • Shaft

  • Interosseous crest - lateral

  • Medial Malleolus – distal medial aspect – ankle bone

  • Inferior Articular surface – articulates with tarsus

  • Fibular notch

The Fibula

  • Head

  • Interosseous border - medially

  • Lateral Malleolus – distally, little fossa on it, posterior medial aspect (L/R distinguishing factor!)

The Tarsal Bones ( 7 )

  • Talus - pulley shaped, articulates with distal tibia and fibula

  • posterior process

  • groove for the FHL m.

  • medial and lateral tubercles

  • Calcaneus - heel bone

  • tuberosity

  • sustentaculum tali – “balcony”, supportive to talus, points medially (L/R distinguishing factor!)

  • groove for the FHL m.

  • Navicular

  • Cuboid - groove for the peroneus longus m.

  • Cuneiform bones – 3 – they make an arch

Metatarsals and Phalanges N 488

  • Metatarsals - numbered from medial to lateral [ carpals lateral to medial!!!]

  • base, body, head

  • Mt 5 has a tuberosity on its base

  • Phalanges

  • proximal, middle and distal

  • Hallux has only two phalanges

Arches of the Foot

  • Longitudinal Arch – toes to heel

  • medial portion is more elevated than lateral portion. The talus is the keystone of the medial portion and the cuboid is keystone for the lateral portion.

  • Transverse Arch –from medial to lateral

  • extends across the width of the foot. Formed by the calcaneus, navicular, cuboid and all 5 Metatarsal’s.

Terms for 1-28-99

Tracheostomy – Formation of an opening into the trachea

Tracheotomy – The operation of opening into the trachea

Cystocenthesis – puncture of a cyst, or bladder

Pneumoconiosis – inflammation commonly leading to fibrosis of the lungs caused by the inhalation of dust

Apnea – absence of breath

Rhinoplasty – nose job

Atelectasis –Absence of gas from a part or the whole of the lungs, due to failure of expansion or resorption of gas from the alveoli.

Epistaxis – nose bleed

Embolism – Obstruction or occlusion of a vessel by an embolus

Aphonia – loss of the voice as a result of disease or injury of the organ of speech
Arthrology

CH. 8, p. 192 – 225

Terms for this section

Symphysis – grown together, fused

Synostosis - osseous union between the bones forming a joint.

Synchondrosis - a union between two bones formed either by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage.

Synarthrosis – a joint that does not permit movement between the articulating elements

Amphiarthrosis – symphysis

Diarthrotic – relating to 2 joints

Arthrology – study of joints

Joints ( SAVE THESE NOTES FOR BOARDS IN UPPER TRIs!)


  • Definition of a joint – AKA articulation, arthrosis: a place where two or more bones come together. There may or may not be movement there. A joint’s primary purpose is movement, but it doesn’t have to be.

  • Kinesiology - the study of the mechanics of motion, biomechanics, study of the movement of joints. The motion present is largely determined by the structure of the articular surfaces.

Classification of Joints

According to the type of material that holds the bones together and the method used to unite the boney components. What holds the bones together, what method is used to hold them together?



Synarthrosis – ( “to join”)

  1. Fibrous joints - joined by fibrous connective tissue – no joint cavity

  1. suture - found only in the skull – there are over 30 in the skull – they are classified by how they overlap {bone-fibrous tissue-bone}

  • serrate suture - most common - sawlike interlocking articulations

  • squamous - edges overlap – pterion/asterion

  • plane - edges are smooth and do not overlap – maxilla/palatine – often disappear later in life by fusing  bony fusion = synostosis

  1. syndesmosis – “joined by a ligament”

a ligament is a CT structure that connects bone to bone

  1. single ligament or interosseous ligament - FCT sheet between two bones

  2. ( tympanostapedial )

  3. between the radius and ulna

  4. interspinous ligament – between the spines of the vertebrae

  5. between tibia and fibula


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