Army 17. 1 Small Business Innovation Research (sbir) Proposal Submission Instructions



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5. Common Training Instrumentation Architecture (CTIA): http://www.peostri.army.mil/PRODUCTS/CTIA/

6. AADL Code Generation for Avionics Systems: https://insights.sei.cmu.edu/sei_blog/2015/06/aadl-code-generation-for-avionics-systems.html

7. Joint Multi-Role (JMR) Mission Systems Architecture Demonstration (MSAD) https://www.army.mil/article/158626/Joint_Multi_Role_Program_is_preparing_for_Future_Vertical_Lift_Mission_Systems_Architectures

8. Boydston, Lewis, Feiler, Vestal, “Joint Common Architecture Demonstration Architecture Centric Virtual Integration Process (ACVIP) Shadow Effort”, https://vtol.org/store/product/joint-common-architecture-jca-demonstration-architecture-centric-virtual-integration-process-acvip-shadow-effort-10125.cfm

9. James Barhorst, Boeing; Todd Belote, Lockheed Martin; Dr Pam Binns, Honeywell; Jon Hoffman, AFRL; Dr James Paunicka, Boeing; Dr Prakash Sarathy, Northrop Grumman; Dr John Scoredos, Northrop Grumman; Peter Stanfill, Lockheed Martin; Dr Douglas Stuart, Boeing; Russell Urzi, AFRL, “A Research Agenda for Mixed-Criticality Systems”, PA case number: 88ABW-2009-1383

10. Systems Architecture Virtual Integration (SAVI), http://savi.avsi.aero/

KEYWORDS: AADL, Aviation, System Integration Lab, Systems of Systems, Federated Simulations


A17-008

TITLE: Tunable Textured Composites for Lightweight Power Systems

TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Electronics

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the Announcement.

OBJECTIVE: Develop magneto-electric composites with (a) power bandwidth >10MHz; (b) core-loss scaled with frequency, flux-density, & weight/volume; (c) textured magnetization to maintain high efficiency; (d) system-driven tunable magnetization to optimize efficiency.

DESCRIPTION: Smaller size and longer mission lifetime are among the critical changes being implemented in next generation missile systems. Such efforts demand the miniaturization of launcher and/or on-board missile electronics in power systems with high power handling capability and low power consumption. Efficiency and power density should be high without compromising any transient responses due to fluctuations in the source, load, or environment.

Technologies are being addressed at all fronts - from material to component, converter, control, system architecture, and integration technology - to constantly improve the performance of the power-electronic systems. Progress being made in the design and development of tunable components utilizing magneto-electric materials with low loss and wide bandwidth indicates a potential for dramatic improvements in the efficiency and further reduction in the size of components, especially in field tunable inductors and transformers.

The observation that higher switching frequency would lead to smaller and lighter systems has driven technological advances in power materials and components. Efficiency, however, degrades with rising frequency since current magnetic technologies have been unable to tame the loss which rises with frequency as f^1.3-2 [1],[2]. Thus, while wide-bandgap semiconductors capable of switching beyond 10 MHz with low loss [3] have been demonstrated, the rate at which weight decreases with frequency needs to be significantly slower than f^-1 beyond 3 MHz to maintain a desired temperature rise. For weight to reduce with frequency as f^-1, magnetic components with loss that scales with frequency as f < 1/3 are sought. The core loss of the new materials needs to be at least about eleven times lower than that of 4F1 [4], one of the better magnetic materials (NiZn) currently being utilized. Winding loss also needs to be scaled proportionately, and heat needs to be distributed efficiently. Therefore, magnetic geometries that can be optimized to achieve low winding loss and uniform heat distribution are sought [5].

The choice of inductance affects the shapes of currents throughout the converter and, hence, converter losses. There is an optimal profile of inductance versus load current that minimizes system loss, resulting in less weight imposed by heat sinks and batteries. Such profile can be realized if the non-textured magnetization [4] in the core of a conventional inductor is replaced by a textured magnetization. Profiles of inductance versus input voltage or switching frequency can also be synthesized to maximize the efficiency. Tunability of textured magnetization offers another degree of freedom for this optimization. Texturing implies orientation of the grains along the specific crystallographic axis [6],[7]. Textured tunable inductors and transformers can substantially improve the efficiency of the power conversion circuits and result in high density integration.

This technology along with creative engineering approaches will lead to the development of a new class of battlefield electronics pushing the limits of size and weight. The pay-offs may also lead to the miniaturization of broad range of systems ranging from unmanned aerial systems to field infantry electronics providing the soldier with miniaturized weapon systems with reduced weight, size, power consumption, and cost

PHASE I: Determine the technical feasibility of the development of textured piezoelectric and magnetic materials with (a) power bandwidth exceeding 10 MHz; (b) core-loss scaled with frequency, magnetic flux density, and weight/volume so as to maintain temperature rise in reliable range; (c) system-driven textured magnetization to maintain high power conversion efficiency from nominal to light load; (d) system-driven tunable magnetization to further optimize efficiency versus operating environment. Identify magnetic geometries amenable to the synthesis of the required inductance profile, and develop methodologies for texturing and tuning the core materials to achieve the desired magnetization profile versus load, input, or frequency variations. Identify key requirements for validating the tunable components, and address performance trade-offs, limitations and compatibility issues. Required Phase I deliverables will include all records, documents, and data resulting from the design, fabrication, and testing.

PHASE II: Develop textured piezoelectric and magnetic materials and demonstrate the characteristics (a) – (d) listed above. Characterize the electrical, magnetic and thermal properties of the textured tunable components over the industrial temperature range of -40C to +85C with a wider temperature range up to full military temperature range of -55C to +125C desired. Demonstrate textured material manufacturing capability (e.g. a laser sintering approach) that can be scaled and deployed for manufacturing varying compositions. Develop a fully functional power converter utilizing textured and tunable transformer and inductor operating in the frequency range of 1 – 10 MHz. Perform comparative analysis of the new power converter architecture with respect to the traditional designs in terms of efficiency, weight and size. Required Phase II deliverables will include textured and tunable inductors and transformers, and a working prototype of the power converter for independent evaluation by Army, all records, documents, and data resulting from the design, fabrication, and testing.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Demonstrate the gain achieved in terms of lower weight and size (at least 25%) through the use of textured tunable components in power converters in non-operational and operational environments. Provide complete engineering and test documentation for the development of manufacturing prototypes. Explore the utilization of this technology not only for the efficiency of power electronics converters, but also for the development of other new power processing methodologies for weapon systems. Phase III application for army missile systems could include miniaturization of electronics in legacy programs as well as incorporation into emerging programs. The development of other military applications of this technology may include future urban warfare surveillance/reconnaissance unmanned aerial vehicles and field infantry electronics providing the soldier with miniaturized weapon systems.

REFERENCES:

1. F. C. Lee and Q. Li, "Overview of three-dimension integration for Point-of-Load converters," Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), 2013 Twenty-Eighth Annual IEEE, Long Beach, CA, USA, 2013, pp. 679-685.

2. R. Ramachandran, M. Nymand and N. H. Petersen, "Design of a compact, ultra-high efficient isolated DC-DC converter utilizing GaN devices," Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2014 - 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE, Dallas, TX, 2014, pp. 4256-4261

3. D. Reusch and J. Strydom, "Evaluation of gallium nitride transistors in high frequency resonant and soft-switching DC–DC converters," in IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 5151-5158, Sept. 2015

4. http://www.ferroxcube.com/FerroxcubeCorporateReception/datasheet/4f1.pdf

5. H. Cui, K. D. T. Ngo, J. Moss, M. H. F. Lim and E. Rey, "Inductor geometry with improved energy density," in IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 5446-5453, Oct. 2014

6. Y. Saito, H. Takao, T. Tani, T. Nonoyama, K. Takatori, T. Homma, T. Nagaya, and M. Nakamura, "Lead-free piezoceramics," in Nature, vol. 432, pp. 84-87, Nov. 2004

7. J. Ma, J. Hu, Z. Li, and C.-W. Nan, "Recent progress in multiferroic magnetoelectric composites: from bulk to thin films," in Adv. Mater., vol. 23, pp. 1062-1087, 2011

KEYWORDS: Power electronics, inductors, transformers, power converters, piezoelectric materials, magnetic materials, magneto-electric materials, textured composites


A17-009

TITLE: Long-Range Multiple Ballistic Missile Optimized Engagement in a Multi-Target Environment

TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the Announcement.

OBJECTIVE: Develop and evaluate architectures to optimize engagement and intercept of multiple threat assets by long-range ballistic missile interceptors with affordable, robust engagement algorithms.

DESCRIPTION: The proliferation of sophisticated stationary and mobile, land and sea-based threats require a review and investigation of affordable, alternative robust engagement capabilities. The precision required to provide the necessary lethality against these threats leads to interceptors using increasingly sophisticated acquisition sensors, seekers and fire control technology. The increasing technological sophistication rapidly drives increased interceptor cost. The key is to control interceptor cost by developing affordable, alternative nonconventional robust engagement capabilities. These alternative concepts include, but may not be limited to, leader-follower guided missiles, collaborative or cooperative guided missile engagements with multiple interceptors, learning algorithms for guidance of multiple missile interceptors, and optimization of multiple guided missiles for distributed lethality. These advanced guidance techniques are especially useful for multiple reasons. These include, but are not limited to, conditions: 1.) when not all engaging interceptors have sensor or signature access to its threat due to low signature, obscuration, weather or jamming; 2.) when the engaging missile interceptor’s lethality is required to be temporally or spatially coordinated; or 3.) when it would be a cost-benefit for multiple missiles in flight to their target(s) to coordinate, with each other, their current data with respect to mission objectives. Development of guidance and control techniques for a low-cost per kill fire control sensor/interceptor architecture must include identification of hardware components and software required for implementation. The use of analysis and simulation needs to be applied to illustrate and quantify performance of proposed approaches. A budget of error sources that impact miss distance must be developed and performance of a sensitivity analysis to assess critical sources of error shall be conducted. It is important to address other performance issues that are unique to the architecture.

PHASE I: Develop conceptual architectures for affordable, alternative robust guidance concepts for conducting engagement and intercept of multiple large threat assets by long-range ballistic missile interceptors. The conceptual architecture must be supported by research efforts to verify that it is superior to alternative concepts. The conceptual architecture must be composed of functional elements or subsystems defined by their input, function and output. Examples of functions, elements or subsystems may include, but not be limited to, surveillance, target acquisition, target tracking, sensor-to-interceptors communication, interceptor-to-interceptor communication, engagement algorithms, and interceptor guidance to support mission objectives. The central focus of this topic is the improvement of the mission performance at reasonable or reduced cost by implementing cooperation/coordination/collaboration techniques among the engaging missile interceptors. Completion of Phase I shall result in the definition of alternative concepts and selection of best concepts based on cost-benefit metrics.

PHASE II: Expand research of the selected best concept and mature the conceptual design into a more detailed design to include definition and specification of key elements of the architecture. A sufficiently detailed system simulation shall quantify the performance of the architecture to optimize engagement with affordable, robust engagement algorithms. Completion of Phase II shall result in a definition of multiple interceptor engagement algorithms, quantification of the engagement concept with a detailed system simulation and a plan for transition to a full-scale missile flight demonstration.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: The AMRDEC WDI Fire Support Capability Area is seeking concept papers to identify, develop, integrate and flight demonstrate emerging long-range missile system technologies in support of the Army’s Long Range Fires (LRF) combat mission. Using the Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) process, AMRDEC is inviting integration contractors to submit concept papers and subsequently, upon request by AMRDEC, to submit formal proposals. Concept papers and proposals are to be focused on the design, fabrication, integration, flight test and demonstration of those component-level and system-level technologies necessary to enhance the range, precision and/or lethality of Army LRF against stationary and/or mobile land and/or sea targets, at ranges beyond 300 km, in all operating environments. Alternative robust guidance concepts emerging from this SBIR effort can be transitioned to integration contractors for flight test and demonstration.

REFERENCES:

1. Hughes, Evan. J., “Evolutionary Guidance For Multiple Missiles”, Proceedings 15th Triennial World Congress, International Federation of Automatic Control, Barcelona, Spain, 2002

2. Anderson, M., Burkhalter, J. and Rhonald M., “Design of a Ground-Launched Ballistic Missile Interceptor Using a Genetic Algorithm”, Sverdrup Technology Inc./TEAS Group, Report, January 1999

3. Anderson, Murray B., “Genetic Algorithms In Aerospace Design: Substantial Progress, Tremendous Potential”, Sverdrup Technology Inc./TEAS Group, Report ADM001519. RTO-EN-022, June 2003

4. Shaferman, V and Oshman, Y., “Cooperative Interception in a Multi-Missile Engagement”, AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference, 2009.

5. Gaudet, B. and Furfaro, R., “Missile Homing-Phase Guidance Law Design Using Reinforcement Learning”, AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference, 2012

KEYWORDS: Leader-Follower Missile Guidance, Cooperative Missile Guidance, Collaborative Missile Guidance, Data Fusion, Genetic Algorithms, Guidance Systems, Missiles, Multi-objective Optimization


A17-010

TITLE: Ballistic Missile Defense Weather Management

TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Electronics

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the Announcement.

OBJECTIVE: Define the requirements and process for a Ballistic Missile Defense weather vulnerability assessment system applicable to air missile defense mission planning.

DESCRIPTION: It is well known that atmospheric particulates such as rain and ice affect missiles and high speed projectile performance, but because of the inability to predict how much performance is affected, flight test and engagement launch operations tend toward “blue sky” conditions. Even during missile tests where the launch window is flexible, launch under clear sky conditions is not always possible. During engagement, the choice of environmental conditions is even more limited. The problem is further exacerbated in ballistic missile defense (BMD) where response to threats must be swift regardless of environmental conditions. A lack of understanding of the effects of weather on BMD assets translates to a lack of operational response capability. The purpose of this effort is to identify the process for end-to-end BMD mission planning and engagement response in adverse weather conditions.

Part of the current gap in state of the art weather-capable technologies is in assessing and predicting real-time environmental conditions in theater. While satellite data is globally available, spatial and temporal resolutions may not be appropriate for short range systems. Conversely, in forward operating areas, high resolution weather data from weather radars may not be readily available. This topic seeks solutions for the acquisition of appropriate, fieldable weather data sources of character appropriate for BMD systems.

To predict system weather vulnerability, weather information will be required at future times. Modern physics-based forecasting requires specialization in skill and resources, and is not practical in forward operating areas. This topic seeks pragmatic, validated forecasting solutions that will run in resource constrained environments.

Ballistic missile defense strives for the earliest possible intercept requiring systems to go faster and farther [1]. Increased speed and prolonged time in precipitation environments increases risk to the system hardware and, hence, the mission. The problem is largely a materials issue where the combination of aeroheating, aerodynamics forces, and impact of atmospheric particulates removes material from radomes and control surfaces [2]. The resulting effect is a reduction on sensor and flight stability performance. As flight speeds increase beyond the capability of ground testing facilities, modeling and simulation is required to fully understand the performance effects of realistic flight conditions and fill the gap between ground data and flight test data [3]. The work in this SBIR effort should identify a modeling and simulation solution resulting in a weather vulnerability assessment model appropriate for BMD systems in an operational setting. Phase I should identify a process for validating the vulnerability models.

Proposed solutions to the BMD weather vulnerability assessment process should consider the end user and how the final product will be used. The Phase II effort should conclude with an Army relevant demonstration showing mission planning and engagement scenarios such as weapon place placement, asset selection, optimal intercept path, and probability of kill prediction.

PHASE I: Identify an approach to quantify the effects of atmospheric particulates (e.g., rain, snow, ice, atmospheric sand/dust, volcanic ash) on radome materials such as IRBAS and fused silica in all flight phases below 65,000 feet. Identify the process for computing the effects in an operational setting, and how outputs will be used in tactical mission planning. Develop a plan for implementing the approach in Phase II.

PHASE II: Implement the Phase I approach plan. The expected outcome of the Phase II effort is a prototype demonstrating the tools and technologies required for weather vulnerability assessment in tactical mission planning. Validation should be performed where possible and feasible under the Phase II. Where validation is not performed, define the requirements and develop a plan for validating the technology in a Phase III.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: The Phase III effort should focus on military and industry partnerships to proliferate the technology in support of Army systems. The development of a weather capable tracking sensor for BMD has applicability across several programs including PATRIOT, AEGIS, and MEADS. Environmental characterization may extend beyond precipitation to atmospheric sand and dust conditions as well.

REFERENCES:

1. Defense Science Board Task Force, 2011. Science and Technology Issues of Early Intercept Ballistic Missile Defense Feasibility

2. Harris, Daniel C. Materials for Infrared Windows and Domes: Properties and Performance. SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, 1999

3. Fetterhoff, T.; Kraft, E.; Laster, M.L., Cookson, W. High-Speed/Hypersonic Test and Evaluation Infrastructure Capabilities Study. 14th AIAA/AHI Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference. Canberra, Australia

4. Tattleman, P, and D.D. Grantham. Northern Hemisphere Atlas of 1-Minute Rainfall Rates. Air Force Survey, Air Force Systems Command, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Meteorology Division, 1983

KEYWORDS: Weather, system performance, ballistic missile defense, materials




A17-011

TITLE: Multi-stage Shaped-charge Warheads

TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Weapons

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the Announcement.

OBJECTIVE: To develop warheads capable of perforating light armored vehicles (LAV), unmanned aerial system (UAS) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), coupled with a follow through mechanism that will defeat various targets.

DESCRIPTION: Advancing technology to counter the wide range of threats currently facing the US military is seen as a critical step in maintaining our technological edge. In particular, the US Army is in need of a warhead that can successfully perforate LAV, UAS, and UAV along with a mechanism with wider spray angle pattern (more covered area target). Currently, shaped charge (SC) and Explosively Formed Penetrator (EFP) warheads possess a much higher penetration capability, but only have a narrow spray angle. Both SC and EFP are explosive charges shaped to focus the effect of the explosive’s energy with SC having more penetration but limited standoff distance and EFP with less penetration but with much more standoff distance. Both SC and EFP have great penetration capability but their covered target areas are too focused. To be effective, the key is to get the right combination of penetration and spray angle. As such, limited experimentation was performed using two liners: the first made of a wide angle copper material, and the second made of zirconium balls embedded in a matrix shaped into a conical base [1]. Overall, these tests showed that the prove-out concept worked.


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