Proposer will conduct a full up operational test firing from a 1st quarter tube 155mm Howitzer conducted at Yuma Proving Ground. A total of 24 rounds will be fired 12 at 2 different charge levels: MACS 5 or equivalent and PMP +5% (pressure to be determined by ARDEC and provided by YPG).
These firings should be conducted at 3 different temperature regimes: Standard (68F), Hot (+145F) and Cold (45F). Rounds will be fired at 800 mils quadrant elevation, but this elevation could vary depending upon range impact area
Evaluation Criteria include the following:
Gun survival with no performance degradation
Expulsion and staging function at proper times
Parachute and deceleration/despin devices sustain no damage that compromises their function
Body terminal impact velocity does not cause significant or catastrophic damage to objective test item
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Producibility Phase - develop highly reliable, producible and cost-effective design. Investigate other calibers and/or applications.
The eventual potential use of this technology would be immense and cross cutting. Quantities would be in the tens of thousands, considering use in virtually all US development and production precision munition programs as well
as foreign applications.
The module typically replaces the warhead assembly of the projectile. The projectile is otherwise configured with the objective components/assemblies and would allow for a full up, ballistically similar operational function when fired from an objective artillery platform. At a user designated time, after the objective functions have been executed, the module functions, initiating the DDO&S (Decelerate, Despin, Orient and Stabilize) soft recovery assembly will allow the projectile to descend nose first until impact with the ground. The parachute assembly will likely need multiple stages and timing mechanisms to accomplish the required impact conditions. The impact under the parachute is significantly less than that experienced at gun launch and would not damage or affect the integrity of the components or the system upon impact.
If readily available, reliable, and inexpensive, this tool will allow lower cost and shortened development of complex artillery munitions.
Because this module will represent a significant reduction in the development timeline for precision artillery and because no means exists to gun fire and recover parts and components in this fashion, the potential market for this
technology will be immense and cross cutting. Quantities would be in the tens of thousands, considering use in virtually all US development and production precision munition programs as well as foreign applications.
1. Kalinowski, J. Modeling and Simulation for Analysis and Evaluation Technology Division. Presentation, US Army ARDEC, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ.
2. Carlucci, D., R. Pellen, J. Pritchard, and W. Demassi. Smart Projectiles: Design Guidelines and Development Process Keys to Success. No. ARMETTR10019. ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER PICATINNY ARSENAL NJ MUNITIONS ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY CENTER, 2010.
3. Muller, Peter C., Edward F. Bukowski, Gary L. Katulka, and Philip Peregino. Flight test & recovery of gun launched instrumented projectiles using high-G on board recording techniques. ARMY RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD WEAPONS AND MATERIALS RESEARCH DIRECTORATE, 2006.
4. Fritch, Paul L. "Nose deployed parachute recovery module for gun firing and soft recovery of finned projectiles." U.S. Patent H1, 534, issued June 4, 1996.
5. Berman, Morris S. Electronic components for high-g hardened packaging. No. ARLTR3705. ARMY RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, 2006.
6. Table 1: Performance Metrics for Field-Deployed Laundry System (uploaded in SITIS on 11/30/16).
TITLE: Biologically-Derived Targeted Antifungals for Textile Applications
TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Materials/Processes
OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate an effective and economical biologically-derived technology to kill or inhibit the growth of specific fungal organisms while demonstrating durability and stability on a textile.
DESCRIPTION: Antimicrobial treated textiles being utilized by the U.S. Army in clothing and equipment have historically been broad spectrum to effectively kill not only bacteria, but also fungi. Certain fungal organisms cause a variety of quality of life and medical issues for Warfighters, including athlete’s foot and jock itch. Three species of fungi are responsible for the majority of skin irritation and infections: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum (1,2). In certain operational environments, Warfighters are exposed to increased risk factors for fungal infection including hot and humid ambient weather, poor skin hygiene, and close-quarter living (3). It is likely that most conditions resulting from fungal growth and infection are largely unreported to medical personnel and are therefore undocumented and sometimes untreated, potentially leading to further complications. In addition to medical conditions that affect the Warfighter, there is also anecdotal information regarding fungal and mold issues on stored equipment (tentage, clothing stored in warehouses in environments with increased temperatures and humidity).
The goal of this topic is to develop biologically-derived antifungal compounds (i.e., peptides, nucleic acids or small molecules naturally occurring in any kingdom of life) that demonstrate efficacy against the fungi responsible for unwanted skin conditions, while maintaining the viability of microbes required for skin health when applied to military textiles that have direct contact with skin. Healthy skin is colonized by consortia of not only bacteria, but fungi as well, primarily Malassezia spp, Candida, and Cryptococcus spp (4). For the purposes of this topic, the antifungal technology must selectively kill Trichophyton spp., which are primarily responsible for athlete’s foot and jock itch, or Epidermophyton floccosum, which is related to Tinea infections of the skin. Additional species of fungi and mold could also be targeted beyond Trichophyton spp and Epidermophyton floccosum, including those which become harmful with significant growth on textiles (e.g., black mold, etc.). The antifungal technology must have no effect on normal commensal skin bacteria including Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus and Propionibacteria, as well as commensal fungi such as Malassezia furfur. The antifungal technology must be suitable for application to textiles (either applied to fibers prior to textile processing or the finished textile) in a manner that maintains activity of the antifungal and durability following laundering/routine use.
PHASE I: Identify candidate biologically-derived molecule(s) that exhibit antifungal activity against Trichophyton spp. or Epidermophyton floccosum in a solution-based system with minimal effects on Malassezia furfur and at least one of the following bacterial commensals: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus, or Propionibacteria. Demonstrate laboratory-scale production (>5 g) of the antifungal molecule(s) and characterize efficacy as fungistatic activity (target = minimum 24 hour delay in growth) and/or fungicidal activity (target = minimum of 2-log (99%) reduction) against the target fungi. Demonstrate that the developed antifungal molecule(s) are not bactericidal and/or bacteriostatic against the non-target, commensal bacteria and not fungistatic and/or fungicidal against the commensal fungi. Target/Commensal specificity is defined as a minimum 2-fold difference between the antifungal concentration required to kill at least 99% of the target fungi and/or inhibit growth for a minimum of 24 hours and the antifungal concentration at which efficacy against commensal non-target bacteria/fungi becomes evident. Assess scalability and cost-effectiveness of the production approach.
PHASE II: Optimize the antifungal production approach developed in Phase I and demonstrate production of antifungal molecules in sufficient quantities for application to textiles. Develop environmentally conscious approaches to apply antifungals to a panel of fabrics including, at a minimum, 50:50 nylon:cotton, 100% cotton, and polyester/cotton blend, with no effect on the base material properties. Demonstrate reproducible, selective antifungal efficacy against multiple strains of Trichophyton spp. or Epidermophyton floccosum while maintaining viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus, Propionibacteria, and Malassezia furfur on the fabrics using standard, qualitative test methods such as AATCC TM 30 (Antifungal Activity, Assessment on Textiles) or other comparable standardized tests for fungistatic evaluations and, for commensal bacteriostatic evaluations, CLSI Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically (CLSI document M07-A9 (2012)). For fungicidal/bactericidal evaluations, determine the maximum log reduction in fungal/bacterial load achievable by the developed antifungal treatment using AATCC TM100-2004 (Antibacterial Finishes on Textile Materials) or comparable standardized method. Antifungal efficacy, as previously defined in Phase I, should be assessed relative to the untreated textile and with a minimum of three target and three of each commensal bacterial/fungal strains evaluated. Target/Commensal specificity is defined as >10-fold difference between the antifungal concentration required to kill >99% of the target fungi and/or inhibit growth for a minimum of 24 hours and the antifungal concentration at which efficacy against commensal non-target bacteria/fungi becomes evident. The fungistatic or fungicidal application must be durable and reproducibly maintain efficacy after laundering for 20 cycles according to AATCC 135-2004 (Dimensional Changes of Fabrics During Laundering). The finished fabric must not present an environmental or health hazard (i.e., below toxicity threshold levels as identified by EPA and OSHA). Demonstrate that the treated fabric does not exhibit cytotoxicity or hemolytic activity in vitro. Demonstrate that the application does not produce any negative effects due to prolonged direct skin contact in an acute dermal irritation study and a skin sensitization study conducted on laboratory animals. Assess scalability and cost-effectiveness of the production approach and utilization on textiles including, but not limited to, parameters such as storage stability, reapplication needs, and durability. Additionally, a minimum of 3 sq. ft. of antifungal fabric must be provided to the Army for independent assessment, along with a control sample (minimum of 3 sq. ft.) lacking the antifungal agent.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: The development of biologically-derived antifungal molecules with selective killing efficiency will support commercially-viable antifungal textiles with negligible environmental hazards associated with production and usage. Moreover, antifungal compounds with selective killing action will prevent complications inherent with broad-spectrum compounds used for reduction and treatment of athlete’s foot and jock itch. A variety of military clothing and equipment would benefit from development of targeted antifungals including the Army combat shirt, ballistic undergarments, combat boots, boot socks, medical/hygiene wipes, surgical and medical field shelters, and sleep systems (linens, sacks, etc.). The civilian sector would also significantly benefit from the developed technology in the medical and athletic markets, where targeted antifungals would reduce irritation and infection by incorporation into socks, sandals, undergarments and athletic apparel. Targeted antifungals could also be incorporated into wound dressings and medical wipes.
1. Lamb L and Morgan M. “Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in the Military”. J Royal Army Med Corps. 159: 215-223. 2013
2. Mujahid TA et al. “Frequency of Tinea Pedis in Military Recruits at Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan”. Gomal Journal of Medical Sciences. 11(2): 204-207. 2013
TITLE: CMOS Compatible Deposition of Multi-Ferroic Films for Tunable Microwave Applications
TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Electronics
OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate a manufacturing-scalable, low temperature deposition process for high quality multi-layers of high quality multiferroic thin films, compatible with silicon CMOS (Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor) foundry processing, for advanced tunable microwave components integrated into commercial integrated circuits.
DESCRIPTION: Multi-ferroic thin films are being explored for a variety of high functionality microwave devices. By exploiting the magneto-electric coupling between the electric and magnetic order parameters in a layered structure of thin films of a piezoelectric and of a magneto-restrictive material, the magnetic properties of the structure can be controlled electrically, offering the potential for magnetic thin film devices which can be integrated with RF (radio frequency) and microwave integrated circuits without the requirement for large external magnetic fields [refs. 1-2]. The goal of this topic is the development of a fabrication process for uniform extrinsic multi-ferroic thin films (strain- or field- induced coupled multiple layers of piezoelectric and piezomagnetic films) which can be applied in the fabrication of tunable microwave devices, and which is compatible with industry standard silicon CMOS fabrication foundries. The fabrication of high crystalline quality films has generally required high-temperature, and often high-vacuum, deposition techniques [see for example refs. 3-4]. In order for the films to be compatible with industrial scale silicon CMOS foundry fabrication, a lower temperature deposition technology, such as atomic layer deposition (ALD), sputtering, or spin-spray deposition, is required. Low temperature (below 300 degrees C)ALD has resulted in piezoelectric thin films such as ZrO2 and HfO2 [see for example ref. 5], which have promising piezoelectric properties. Spin-spray and spray pyrolysis deposition of high quality ferromagnetic thin films has been demonstrated for Ni ferrite and NiZn ferrite films [see for example refs. 6-7], and sputtering deposition of high quality ferromagnetic metallic thin films has been demonstrated [see for example ref. 8].
Among the challenges are defect mitigation, environmental stability, and compatibility with silicon CMOS processing. In addition to high quality film growth, magnetic and electrical properties of the films, and the magnetic-electrical coupling, the effect of the substrate (see for example ref. 9) and film thickness on these properties is of concern.
PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of a commercial deposition process for a multi-ferroic, multilayer film by first demonstrating deposition processes separately for high quality ferroelectric films and ferromagnetic 50 nm thick films on a silicon (001) substrate, compatible with CMOS processing. Determine film quality by SEM (scanning electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy), RHEED (reflection high-energy electron diffraction), XRD/XRR (x-ray diffraction / x-ray reflectivity), AFM (atomic force microscopy), and/or RBS (Rutherford backscattering). Determine dielectric loss tangent for the films separated from the substrate. Determine remnant and maximum polarization and coercive field of the ferroelectric film and saturation polarization of the magnetic film. Demonstrate piezo-magnetic coefficient of >5 ppm/Oe and magnetic loss tangent < 5% at 1 GHz for the magnetic film and dielectric loss tangent of <1% for the ferroelectric film at room temperature. Demonstrate a test varactor structure using the ferroelectric film and determine the quality factor (Q) and capacitance tuning range for bias voltages below 35 volts at 1 GHz, and measurements of the piexoelectric coefficient using either double beam laser interferometer or extracting from measured strain deflection of a cantilever. Compare these metrics with published results for the specific film materials chosen. General goals would include Q > 100 at 1 GHz and capacitive tunability greater than 2:1. The deposition process and any post-deposition processing must be compatible with CMOS processing. In general, this will require the initial film deposition and subsequent processing steps including any annealing to be at temperatures below 450 degrees C. Develop a conceptual model for a heterostructure consisting of silicon substrate with multi-ferroic multi-layers which would be operationally functional for RF and microwave integrated components, such as voltage tunable inductors, voltage tunable magneto-electric filters, voltage tunable magneto-electric antennas, and/or voltage tunable non-reciprocal devices (eg. circulators and isolators). Demonstrate by simulation, analysis, literature analysis, and/or limited laboratory experimentation the expected feasibility of the electrical control of the magnetization in the multi-ferroic structure. Deliver samples of the above described films for evaluation in government laboratories. Deliver a report documenting the results of measurements of film quality, film loss tangents, remnant polarization, saturation polarization, and piezo-magnetic coefficient for the films described above. Deliver sample of the varactor test structure described above for evaluation in government laboratories. Deliver a report of the quality factor (Q) and capacitance tuning ranges of the varactor test structure described above. Deliver a report documenting the model for the heterostructure described above and the demonstration of feasibility of electrical control of magnetization, as described above.
PHASE II: Develop CMOS-compatible multi-layer multi-ferroic structures on silicon substrates which demonstrate a high magneto-electric coupling coefficient (>1V/cm/Oe), measured with the substrate etched away and measured far from the electromechanical resonance for the chosen material, which maintain the individual layer quality established in phase I, and which demonstrate low leakage current density. See refs. 10 and 11 for theoretical and phenomenological considerations for high magneto-electric coupling. Assess, through physical and device modeling and simulation, opportunities for improvements in the performance of microwave devices enabled by this new process (examples provided in the topic description) and improvements in deposition rate which can make the process competitive with physical, chemical vapor, and chemical solution based fabrication processes. Design and demonstrate the performance of tunable extrinsic multi-ferroic microwave devices using this new process. Refine the thin film process to take full advantage of the compositional control (eg. layered and stratified) for building voltage tunable microwave devices. Investigate novel techniques to speed the growth of the film while maintaining low temperature deposition and high quality crystal properties. Develop and evaluate a model of a manufacturing scalable process involving both deposition technologies. If the deposition of the piezoelectric film requires a different deposition process than the deposition of the piezomagnetic film, these processes should be integrated in an industrial scalable fabrication system. Demonstrate a technology transition pathway to manufacturing for practical products. Deliver samples of the CMOS-compatible, multi-layer, multi-ferroic structures on silicon substrates, as described above, for evaluation in government laboratories. Deliver a report documenting the fabrication and measurements of leakage current density, magneto-electric coupling coefficient, film quality, and loss tangent. Deliver a report documenting the opportunities for improvement in device performance and the processing deposition rate. Deliver device samples for evaluation in government laboratories. Deliver a report documenting the model for a manufacturing scalable process and for a transition pathway to practical device fabrication.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: The path to commercialization will require selection of overall business strategy: license the process to established foundries or electronic industries with commercial and military customers, establish a foundry to service the electronics industry, or build devices and circuits for sale to electronics industries. All of these business strategies will require the demonstration of competitive microwave devices and integrated circuits or approaches. All will require the design and actual fabrication and test of demonstration sample devices and IC's. This deposition process will enable thin film voltage tunable devices and thin film devices with functionality currently only practically available in large magnetic structures. Further research in Phase III needs to scale the fabrication process to 6 inch wafers. By providing a Si CMOS compatible multi-ferroic thin film process, this research can be expected to bring greater functionality at reduced size, weight, and cost to critical military and important commercial wireless systems, with improvements in bandwidth efficiency, fidelity, and security. This process would be expected to provide the capability to integrate high quality tunable filters and tunable non-reciprocal components such as circulators which were previously only available in large, heavy, and costly magnetic structures.
2. Ce-Wen Nan, et. al., "Multiferroic magnetoelectric composites: Historical perspective, status, and future directions," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 031101 (2008)
3. J. Wang, H. Zheng, Z. Ma, S. Prasertchoung, M. Wuttig, R. Droopad, J. Yu, K. Eisenbeiser, and R. Ramesh, “Epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2574 (2004)
4. Y. Huang, X. Fu, X. Zhao, and W. Tang, “A Review on Fabrication Methods of BiFeO3 Thin Films,” Key Engineering Materials 544, 81 (2013)
5. J. Mueller, T.S. Boescke, U. Schroeder, S. Mueller, D. Braeuhaus, U. Boettger, L. Frey, and T. Mikolajick, “Ferroelectricity in Simple Binary ZrO2 and HfO2,” Nano. Lett. 12, 4318 (2012)
6. X. Wang, Z. Zhou, S. Behugn, M. Liu, H. Lin, X. Yang, Y. Gao, T. Nan, X. Xing, Z. Hu, and N. Sun, “Growth behavior and RF / microwave properties of low temperature spin-sprayed NiZn ferrite,” J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 26, 1890 (2015)
7. S.S. Kumbhar, M.A. Mahadik, V.S. Mohite, Y.M. Hunge, K.Y. Rajpure, and C.H. Bhosale, “Effect of Ni content on the structural, morphological, and magnetic properties of spray deposited Ni-Zn ferrite thin films,” Mater. Research Bull. 67, 47 (2015)
8. S. Li, Q. Xue, H. Du, J. Xu, Q. Li, Z. Shi, X. Gao, M. Liu, T. Nan, Z. Hu, N.X. Sun, and W. Shao, “Large E-field tunability of magnetic anisotropy and ferromagnetic resonance frequency of co-sputtered Fe50Co50-B film,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 17D702 (2015)
9. St. Kovachev and J.M. Wesselinowa, “Influence of substrate effects on the properties of multiferroic thin films,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 395901 (2009)
10. N.X. Sun and G. Srinivasan, “Voltage control of magnetism in multi-ferroic heterostructures and devices,” Spin 2, 1240004 (2012), World Scientific Publishing Company