Bullying and social anxiety experiences in university learning situations Maili Pörhölä 1


Methods2.1 Participants and procedures



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2 Methods
2.1 Participants and procedures
In 47 universities, a total of 5086 undergraduate university students participated in the study 1864 (36.6%) were male (M = 24.7 years) and 3222 (63.4%) female
(M = 23.9 years. Of the respondents, 2336 (45.9%) studied at universities of applied sciences (i.e., former polytechnics, and 2750 (54.1%) at academic universities. To insure a representative national sample, a stratified random sampling method by university was used to identify 9967 students from the overall study population of 282,049 undergraduate students with Finnish citizenship and under the age of 35 years. Of the students recruited for the study, a total of 4984 (46% males,
54% females) studied at universities of applied sciences and 4983 (45% males, 55% females) studied at academic universities across Finland. The representativeness of the participants was ensured by comparing the sample and respondents with Finnish population statistics (i.e., the Finnish Student Health Service Registry and Statistics Finland see Students in academic universities statistics, n.d.; Students in universities of applied sciences statistics, n.d.). It was determined that the respondents were representative of the study population in age, university, and field of study males were slightly underrepresented.
The data for the present research was collected as part of the University Student Health Survey, which is a national survey of Finnish university students designed in collaboration with a multidisciplinary group of researchers and administered by the Finnish Student Health Service, which provides healthcare services for all basic degree academic university students in Finland (fora more detailed description, see
Kunttu and Huttunen
2009
). The study protocol was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the Hospital District of South West Finland, and the voluntarily Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.


731 1 Bullying and social anxiety experiences in university learning…
participating students gave their informed consent by responding to the questionnaire. The survey was not connected in anyway to the coursework of students and no extra credit was offered if they decided to participate in it. A postal questionnaire was used, but it was also possible to complete the questionnaire online. Of the completed questionnaires, 3173 were returned by mail and the rest via the Internet.

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