Students brainstorm “what is history”. They base their answers on their personal knowledge and on the visual materials on display in the classroom. Students create categories of history and observe the wide scope of history. Each student becomes aware of the personal nature of history by writing a paragraph describing an event or events in his or her personal life. Working from the content of the paragraph, each student becomes more aware of the concepts of cause-and-effect and point of view.
Strand(s) and Expectations
Ontario Catholic School Graduate Expectations: CGE5e.
Strand(s): Methods of Historical Inquiry
Overall Expectations: MIV.01.
MI1.01 - use terms related to historical organization and inquiry correctly (e.g., chronology, cause and effect, short- and long-term consequences, interpretation);
MI2.03 - record and organize information effectively;
1. The students generate a list of words and phrases to describe “what is history”. The teacher may record the words on the board or on an overhead. The teacher may wish to encourage students to search for a wide variety of words and phrases. Students may be encouraged in their word searches by historical pictures provided by the teacher. There should be enough variety so that the words and phrases may be grouped into categories such as political, social (including sports and dress fashions), military, religious (including the history of the Catholic Church), economic, scientific, and personal. Students group the list of words into categories. By means of this exercise, students become aware of the wide scope of history.
2. History may be viewed as a series of stories. Everyone has a story or a history. The teacher may tell the students a story from his or her life. Each student writes a paragraph describing a “story” from his or her life. The story may be from any part of the student’s life, but must include a cause-and-effect sequence. The story is read only by the teacher and not by the rest of the class.
3. History studies change and change involves cause-and-effect relationships. The teacher reviews the concept of cause-and-effect relationships. The teacher asks the students to present examples of cause-and-effect and examples of multiple causation. The best examples are listed on the board or overhead.
4. The teacher reviews the concept of point of view or bias. The teacher asks the students to present examples of events in which there is more than one point of view. The best examples are listed on the board or overhead.
5. After completing their personal story, each student writes down an example of cause-and-effect found in the personal story. Each student also rewrites the episode(s) described in the story from a different point of view.
6. After a review of the expectations related to Grade 10 History, students write down their individual goals related to this course.
Informal teacher assessment of students’ understanding of concepts such as cause-and-effect, bias, and point of view during classroom discussions. Teacher observations are recorded in anecdotal notes.
Diagnostic and formative assessment of each of the written stories using the following criteria: content, writing style, the ability to demonstrate an understanding of cause-and-effect and point of view. See Appendix 1.1.1 – A Checklist for the Student Paragraphs.
Diagnostic assessment of students’ written goals related to the course
For students with writing difficulties, teacher or peer tutor assistance may be necessary in writing the paragraph. Help may be given in spelling, agreement of subject and verb, verb tenses, thought sequences expressed in complete sentences, and links between sentences. An outline of the paragraph may be provided.
Some students may need the use of a word processor to complete their paragraphs.
Some students may need more than the average class time to complete their written paragraphs.