In this activity students understand the causes of the Quiet Revolution and its ultimate impact on French-English relations. They understand the causes of tension between both groups and assess solutions to the problem of Quebec separation.
Ontario Catholic School Graduate Expectations: CGE7c, 7f, 7g.
Strand(s): Change and Continuity; Methods of Historical Inquiry.
Overall Expectations: CGV.03, MIV.01.
CG3.03 - demonstrate an understanding of how the federal government and Canadians in general have reacted to the Quebec separatism movement;
MI1.01 - use terms related to historical organization and inquiry correctly.
Assign pertinent readings on the Quiet Revolution from the textbook.
Have copies in class of the following document from Do Justice!: Document 15 The Hundredth Year of Confederation, 1967, sections 2,13-16.
Prior Knowledge Required
Students have an understanding of the curriculum expectations for French-English relations up to 1960.
1. Review with the class the definition of “revolution” as discussed in Activity 1. Add to this term the definition of “quiet”. Ask the students if the two terms are an oxymoron, or if it is possible for a revolution to occur quietly. Review the assigned reading with the class. List on the board the impacts of the Duplessis government on Quebec under the title Quebec Before the Quiet Revolution. Then list the changes that Lesage made during the Quiet Revolution. Indicate to the class that although the reforms were positive for Quebec, there was still mounting tension between French and English Canadians.
2. Read with the class the selections from document 15 of Do Justice! Ask students why they think the Bishops refer to French-English relations as the “chief malady of Canadian society.” To answer this question, students review the chart they completed for Activity 1. Ask students why separatism would be an option for Quebec. Lead the discussion to the language issues in Quebec, this helps the class understand the significance of the Bi and Bi Commission.
3. Present the following scenario to the class: “Canada is conquered by a foreign nation. That nation establishes a government that operates in a foreign language. All of its institutions, schools, hospitals, etc. function in a foreign language. How will your daily life be affected? What impact will these changes have on your future?” Students record their answers in their notebooks. Discuss as a class the importance of language. Then review the recommendation of the Bi and Bi Commission. Ask the class if the recommendations solved the problems between French and English Canada.
4. In any dispute both parties must be able to make some concessions in the spirit of goodwill and alter their attitudes in order to reach a peaceful solution. The Bi and Bi Commission asked these same things of both English and French Canadians. Hand out to the students the excerpt found in Appendix 4.2.4 and ask them to summarize the changes in attitude that the English and the French Canadians were challenged to make.
5. Review with students the following responses from the federal Liberals to the independence movement: the new flag, the election of federal leaders from Quebec, and the Official Languages Act, 1969. Ask students why they think the federal government made those changes. Were the solutions a success? They record their answers in their notebooks.
Informal conferencing with students to clarify points and keep students on task
Students may need the reading selections interpreted by the teacher if the language is too difficult. The teacher may rewrite the selection in an abridged format that reflects the main ideas and uses language that is appropriate for students’ abilities.