Rubric for visual display, checklist for group work, research log entries and notebook work.
Key terms and concepts may need to be reworded or simplified by the teacher.
The creative written reflection can be put on an audio tape for students whose writing skills are weak, as it is assessed primarily for creativity and content rather than mechanics.
Arrange groups to pair off students with differing skills so that they can assist each other.
For students who work better individually or with only one partner, modify the task to ensure a workload that is balanced with groups of four (e.g., display can be on half a bristol board or smaller piece of construction paper).
Select teacher reference materials from Unit Resources.
Activity 5: Crisis in Quebec: Challenges to Canadian Unity
Time: 300 minutes
In this activity students learn about the FLQ crisis and assess Trudeau’s response. They view a film on the event, read primary source documents, and prepare a poster to reflect the drama and tension of the event. They also understand the challenges to Canadian unity that occurred in the aftermath of the October Crisis and heightened the tensions between French and English Canada. They gather further research for the culminating activity.
Students require an understanding of the major events that contributed to the growth of Quebec nationalism and the separatist movement in Quebec from 1900.
1. Begin this activity by defining and discussing the term terrorism. Provide examples from current events with which students may be familiar. Ask students how they would deal with terrorists if they were prime minister. Discuss with the class reasons political extremist groups turn to terrorism and ask them if terrorism can ever be justified in drawing attention to a group’s goals. The teacher focusses on the moral questions that arise from terrorism. Statement 2297 in Catechism of the Catholic Church is a useful resource. Review what they have learned about the mounting tension in Quebec and teach the class the origins and aims of the FLQ. Read with the class from the FLQ Manifesto. List the FLQ’s goals on the board. Do their goals reflect the political and cultural situation in Quebec and the beliefs of the majority of Quebecois? Read from the text and discuss the events of October 1970. Ask students to work in groups of three and assume they are advisors to the prime minister. They determine a solution to the FLQ crisis; namely, how to deal with terrorists. The teacher works with each group to ensure they remain on task. Regroup as a class and ask each group to present its solution.
2. Review the War Measures Act with the class and read (or assign as silent reading) the section in their text, or any other source provided by the teacher, that discusses Trudeau’s reaction to the October Crisis. Were Trudeau’s actions justified? Did Trudeau abuse his power and deny the rights of Canadians? The class responds to these questions either orally in a group discussion or in their notebooks.
3. View the films Action: The October Crisis of 1970 and The Champions (selected scenes). The films provide a basis for class discussion on the October Crisis. They may help the students better understand the events of October 1970.
4. Arrange class into groups of four and instruct students to divide into two subgroups. Each sub-group represents either the defense team or the prosecution team in a legal proceeding brought against the FLQ. They prepare a summation explaining either why the members of the FLQ should be convicted as terrorists for kidnapping and murder, or why they should be acquitted for those crimes. They use the information gathered from the teacher’s lesson and the film. Students should have access to Document 25 paragraph 9 from Do Justice! The Social Teachings of the Canadian Catholic Bishops. The bishops’ views on violence should be used in their summations. The defence and the prosecution teams prepare to present their arguments to the class. The class should be prepared to make a decision to convict or acquit as a jury based on the presentations.
5. Teach socratically the events that led Quebec to the 1980 Referendum: the Official Languages Act, Bill 22; the Parti Quebecois victory and Rene Levesque; Bill 101, and the referendum on sovereignty association. Those events require an understanding of rather complicated political and legal concepts, thus it is recommended that teachers arrange the information as a timeline with only major points for each event so as not to overwhelm the students. For each event, students weigh its advantages against the disadvantages for both Quebec and the rest of Canada. Students begin to see that the country was being divided further rather than united.
6. At this point, review with students that French-Canadians outside of Quebec have also struggled to maintain language and cultural rights, i.e., Franco-Ontarians, Acadians, Franco-Manitobans. A review of the historical tensions in Western Canada at the time of Confederation may help reinforce this point.
7. Students work in groups of four to consider a last attempt to prevent Quebec from separating and feeling a part of the Canadian family. They record their solutions in their notebooks and present them to the class to generate a class discussion. This leads the activity to its final historical event: the patriation of the Constitution and Trudeau’s resignation. The teacher reads with the class and explains the patriation of the constitution using board notes. These notes are recorded in research/learning logs for the culminating activity.
8. Assign a paper and pencil test on French-English relations.