Canadian History in the Twentieth Century

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Specific Expectations

Demographic Patterns


– identify the major groups that have immigrated to Canada from 1900 to the present and describe significant factors (e.g., push and pull factors) that led to their decisions to immigrate;


– compare contemporary immigration patterns with historical immigration patterns;


– explain how the lives of adolescents and women have changed as a result of post–World War I urbanization and the post–World War II population shift to the suburbs (e.g., in terms of schooling, consumerism, leisure);


– evaluate the impact of the baby boom generation on Canadian society since the 1960s;


– assess the impact of demographic and social changes on Aboriginal communities (e.g., relocation, urbanization, education, pressures to assimilate).

Scientific and Technological Impact


– use visual displays effectively to show how technological developments have changed lifestyles through the twentieth century (e.g., cars, television, plastics, computers, biotechnology);


– describe the relationship between invention and the economy (e.g., the invention of the car and its effect on transportation);


– describe the technological innovations that have changed the way war has been fought in the twentieth century (e.g., aircraft, radar, nuclear arms, laser technology, guided missiles);


– assess the scientific and technological innovations created by Canadian inventors (e.g., Joseph Bombardier, Sir Frederick Banting, Sir Charles Saunders, Eli Burton);


– compare how Canadians worked during the industrial era with how they work in the post-industrial era.

Canada’s International Status and Foreign Policy


– identify why certain documents are important in the evolution of Canada’s political autonomy (e.g., Treaty of Versailles, Balfour Report, Statute of Westminster);


– explain the significance of Canada’s contributions to the United Nations (e.g., campaign against apartheid in South Africa; human rights initiatives; aid and relief programs; treaty on land mines);


– demonstrate an understanding of how the experience and memory of the Holocaust helped shape Canada’s role as a world leader in human rights (e.g., drafting of Declaration of Human Rights for the United Nations; introduction of Ontario Human Rights Code in 1962 and of Canadian Human Rights Act in 1977);


– summarize Canada’s changing relationships with the United States (e.g., Alaska Boundary Dispute, Lend-Lease Act, St. Lawrence Seaway Agreement, Auto Pact, Foreign Investment Review Agency).

Citizenship and Heritage

Overall Expectations


– demonstrate a knowledge of the contributions of various social and political movements to Canadian history during the twentieth century;


– demonstrate an understanding of how individual Canadians have contributed to the development of Canada and to an emerging sense of Canadian identity.

Specific Expectations

Social and Political Movements


– summarize the contributions of the women’s movement (e.g., suffrage, access to employment, equal pay for work of equal value);


– evaluate the role of the labour movement (e.g., One Big Union, Canadian Labour Congress) in Canadian society;


– describe the contributions of Aboriginal peoples in forming national organizations (e.g., National Indian Advisory Council, National Indian Brotherhood, Assembly of First Nations) to gain recognition and rights for Aboriginal peoples;


– evaluate the role of movements that resulted in the founding of political parties, such as Social Credit, Union Nationale, Co-operative Commonwealth Federation.

Individual Canadians and Canadian Identity


– demonstrate an understanding of how significant individuals (e.g., Henri Bourassa, Robert Borden, Nellie McClung, Billy Bishop, Max Aitken, Arthur Currie) contributed to the growing sense of Canadian identity during World War I;


– describe the contributions of selected individual Canadians to the development of Canadian identity since World War I (e.g., Thérèse Casgrain, Georges and Pauline Vanier, Marshall McLuhan, Chief Dan George, Oscar Peterson, Barbara Ann Scott, Max Ward, Rosemary Brown);


– compare the backgrounds, careers, and contributions of twentieth-century Canadian prime ministers, in both formal and anecdotal reports.

Social, Economic, and Political Structures

Overall Expectations


– demonstrate a knowledge of how and why changing economic conditions and patterns have affected Canadians;


– demonstrate an understanding of the changing role of Canadian governments from World War I to the present, including the evolution of Canada’s social support programs.

Specific Expectations

Influence of Economic and Political Structures on Daily Life


– describe Canada’s economic growth at the start of the twentieth century (e.g., mergers and development of corporations, resource development);


– compare economic conditions at different times in Canada’s history (e.g., stock market crash of 1929, World War II, oil crisis of 1973) and their impact on the daily lives of Canadian families;


– demonstrate knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages of American participation in the Canadian economy (e.g., branch plants, Auto Pact, North American Free Trade Agreement, fisheries disputes).

Changing Role of Government


– identify and describe the early twentieth-century pressure groups (e.g., Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, veterans’ and various ethnocultural associations) that were established to promote social support programs;


– explain why social support programs (e.g., old age pensions, unemployment insurance, family allowance, medicare) were established in Canada;


– demonstrate an understanding of the role of government in wartime and explain why the government acted as it did (e.g., implementing centralized planning, rationing, censorship);


– explain how and why the Canadian government restricted certain rights and freedoms in wartime, and describe the impact of these restrictions on the general population and on various groups within the Canadian population;


– explain how Canadian governments, at various levels, reacted to the economic conditions of the Depression in the 1930s;


– explain the role of government in promoting economic opportunity in post–World War II Canada (e.g., developing infrastructure, negotiating international economic treaties, promoting resource development, protecting freedom of information);


– explain how the government has promoted Canada’s cultural distinctiveness (e.g., through Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission; through opposition to split-run magazines).

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