Cape Lookout National Seashore Historic Resource Study By


Carteret Gun and Rod Club



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Carteret Gun and Rod Club, Harbor Island Shooting Club, Davis Island Hunting Club, Hog Island Hunting Club, Pilentary Hunting Club, and Nine Island Lodge as major donors (http://www.coresound.com/s-capitalcampaign.htm#huntclub; accessed 8 May 2009).

29 This may be the same “clubhouse cook” (Joe Abbot) referred to in F. Ross Holland, Survey History of Cape Lookout National Seashore (Raleigh NC: Division of History, Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation, 30 January 1968), 12. Holland says circumstantial evidence suggests that Abbot worked for the Pilentary Club, but he does not say specifically that he was black. Abbot lived for a time (perhaps as late as 1939) in the Washington Roberts House, the oldest surviving house in Portsmouth.

30 Dudley, Carteret Waterfowl Heritage, 13-19, 33-35, 37-45.

31 Ibid., 52-65. Dudley supplies numerous brief biographical statements on these and other guides.

32 Marks, Southern Hunting in Black and White, 51-53. A 1926 statewide game law established the State Game Commission. It was followed in 1947 by the Wildllife Resources Commission, which controlled all functions of game conservation in the state.

33 Ibid., 49.

34 John R. Ross, “Conservation and Economy: The North Carolina Geological Survey 1891-1920,” Forest History 16, no. 4 (January 1973): 21-27.

35 The discussion that follows is taken from Beth Keane, Salter-Battle Hunting and Fishing Lodge: National Register of Historic Places Registration (Wilmington NC, 2004).

36 In 1980, the Battle family, who had come to own the property, entered into a twenty-five year lease agreement with Cape Lookout National Seashore. Ibid.

37 Scott E. Giltner, Hunting and Fishing in the New South: Black Labor and White Leisure After the Civil War (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008), 1-10. The following brief discussion is based on Giltner’s work, from which all quotations are taken.

38 Giltner, Hunting and Fishing in the New South, 1-9. Giltner skillfully explores all of these dimensions in illuminating detail.

39 Our account here is drawn from McAllister, Wrightsville Beach,19-145.

40 Ibid., 67-72.

41 Extensive detailed information on Cape Lookout Village is available in John Milner Associates, Inc. and Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., Cape Lookout Village Cultural Landscape Report, Cape Lookout National Seashore (2005); in Cape Lookout Village Historic District National Register Nomination, 6 March 2000 (Appendix B of the Cultural Landscape Report), which includes in Sect. 7, 5-18, a structure-by-structure list of properties in the district); and in historic structure reports for individual contributing structures. The extraordinarily thorough and detailed Cultural Landscape Report includes a vast number of useful maps (see our Appendix A for several examples), photographs, and other illustrations. Our brief précis here is drawn mostly from these already existing reports; it is in no way a substitute for them.

42 John Milner Associates, Inc. and Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., “Cape Lookout Village Cultural Landscape Report, Cape Lookout National Seashore,” Two-7 to Two-12.

43 See Tommy Jones, Gaskill-Guthrie House, Cape Lookout National Seashore: Historic Structure Report (Atlanta: Southeast Regional Office, National Park Service, 2004), 23. (http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/calo/calo_clvggh_hsr.pdf; accessed January 9, 2008). Gaskill was related to William H. Gaskill, superintendent of the Cape Lookout Life-Saving Station, 1887-1912, and he himself worked for the Life-Saving Service from 1917-1919. Tommy Jones, Lewis Davis House, Cape Lookout National Seashore: Historic Structure Report (Atlanta: Southeast Regional Office, National Park Service, 2003), http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/calo/calo_clvldh_hsr.pdf

44 Cape Lookout Village Historic District National Register Nomination, Sec. 7, 2.

45 A major proponent of the plan was District 1 (Beaufort) Rep. John H. Small. John L Cheney, North Carolina Government, 1585-1979: A Narrative and Statistical History (Raleigh: North Carolina Department of the Secretary of State, 1981), 707-714. Cape Lookout Development Company may have been a successor to a previous entity called Cape Lookout Land Company. See Jones, Lewis Davis House, Cape Lookout National Seashore: Historic Structure Report (2003), 28

46 John Milner Associates, Inc. and Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., Cape Lookout Village Cultural Landscape Report, Cape Lookout National Seashore (2005), Two-12 to Two-14.

47 “Cape Lookout to Be a Great Port,” Beaufort News, 4 August 1924 [unpaged clipping; North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill].

48 Jones, Gaskill-Guthrie House, Cape Lookout National Seashore: Historic Structure Report (2004), 24.

49 For full details on this house, see Tommy Jones, Coca-Cola House, Cape Lookout Village: Historic Structure Report (Atlanta: Southeast Regional Office, National Park Service, 2004), http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/calo/coke_cola.pdf. The house is also referenced in the literature as the Seifert-Davis house. Seifert sold it to Harry T. Davis in 1953 (Jones, Coca-Cola House, 32). .

50 Tommy Jones, O'Boyle-Bryant House, Cape Lookout National Seashore: Historic Structure Report (Atlanta: Southeast Regional Office, National Park Service, 2003), 1-2, says that the house was built “in the spring of 1939 by Earl O’Boyle, who was stationed at Cape Lookout from 1938 to 1942 as one of the personnel manning the Navy’s . . . radio compass station at the Coast Guard Station. . . . [T]he house was occupied by O’Boyle and his family until the fall of 1942 . . . . [It was] occupied by military personnel for the remainder of World War II . . . .”

51 John Milner Associates, Inc. and Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., Cape Lookout Village Cultural Landscape Report, Cape Lookout National Seashore, Two-17.

52 Cape Lookout Village Historic District National Register Nomination, Sec. 7, 3.

53 Ibid. Section 7.

54 See Tommy Jones, Fishing Cottage #2, Cape Lookout National Seashore, Historic Structure Report (2003). On the simultaneous buying up of the surviving residences at Portsmouth for vacation use, see Gary S. Dunbar, Geographical History of the Carolina Banks: Technical Report No. 8, Part A (Baton Rouge: Coastal Studies Institute, Louisiana State University, 1956), 130.

55 For a discussion of the 1921 Act’s provisions, see Walter Turner, Paving Tobacco Road: A Century of Progress by the North Carolina Department of Transportation (Raleigh: North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, Office of Archives and History, 2003), 12-13. On the Good Roads movement, see also Whisnant, Super-Scenic Motorway, 17-21.

56 Cecil Kenneth Brown, The State Highway System of North Carolina: Its Evolution and Present Status (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1931), 190, 210.

57 Powell (ed.), Encyclopedia of North Carolina, 566.

58 Turner, Paving Tobacco Road, 21, 41.

59 “Linking Up Morehead City and Beaufort with Concrete Bridge Over 8,000 Feet Long,” Raleigh News and Observer, 7 November 1926 [unpaged clipping, North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Library].

60 Stick, The Outer Banks of North Carolina, 243-246.

61 Turner, Paving Tobacco Road, 69.

62 Ibid., 115-118.

63 On the post-war Florida experience with tourism, see Gary Mormino, Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams: A Social History of Modern Florida (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2005).

64 David Stick, Graveyard of the Atlantic: Shipwrecks of the North Carolina Coast (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1952), 200-202.

65 Our brief characterization of Brown’s work on behalf of tourism in Dare County is drawn from Vera Evans, “Ad Man, Con Man, Photographer, and Legend” in David Stick, An Outer Banks Reader (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998), 200-202; and Aycock Brown and Stick, Aycock Brown's Outer Banks, 8-16, 38. The latter source contains a large selection of Brown’s Outer Banks photographs, a major archival collection of which is at the Outer Banks History Center, which also houses Stick’s papers.

66 Ibid., 14, 38.

67 Stick, The Outer Banks of North Carolina, 252, 260.

68 Quoted in Cameron Binkley, Cape Hatteras National Seashore Administrative History (Atlanta: Southeast Regional Office, National Park Service, 2007), v. See “The New Deal and ‘National Ocean Beaches,’” 9-15.

69 “Hatteras Park Almost Certain,” Raleigh News and Observer, 28 July 1935; unpaged clipping, North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina Library.

70 Ibid., 1ff. Binkley has an excellent précis of the relevant precursor legislation, 1-4, and of Stick’s work with the Park Service to establish Cape Hatteras National Seashore, 22-26. Unless otherwise indicated, our brief account of the founding of Cape Lookout National Seashore is drawn from Binkley. Stick published an early article advocating for such a park: “A Coastal Park for North Carolina,” Elizabeth City Independent, 21 July 1933. See Stick, The Outer Banks of North Carolina, 247-248 and Binkley, Cape Hatteras National Seashore Administrative History, 6-7.

71 Binkley examines the entire protracted process in all of its legislative, legal, political, social, and cultural dimensions in Ibid., 43-159.

72 Ibid., Appendix G, 259.

73 Visitors/acre/year calculated from National Park Service Public Use Statistics Office (http://www.nature.nps.gov/stats/; accessed 23 May 2009).

74 Candy Beal and Carmine Prioli, Life at the Edge of the Sea (Wilmington NC: Coastal Carolina Press, 2002), 125-127.

75 Roy Parker, Jr. “National Seashore Endorsed by [Interior Secretary Stewart] Udall,” Raleigh News and Observer, 1 May 1964; N&O 20 June 1964, Roy Parker, Jr. “White House Approves Cape Lookout National Seashore,” Raleigh News and Observer, 20 June 1964; “National Seashore Gets Congressional Approval,” Raleigh News and Observer, 27 February 1966; “Lookout Approved,” Raleigh News and Observer, 1 March 1966.

76 General Development Plan Map (1963), National Park Service, Denver Service Center. We have discovered no comparable map for Core Banks. On Mission 66, see Ethan Carr, Mission 66: Modernism and the National Park Dilemma (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2007) and Conrad Wirth, Parks, Politics and the People (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980).

77 Report from Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs on S. 251, 89h Congress, 1st Session, July 23, 1965, 2.

78 Roy Hardee, “National Seashore Tourist Gains S.en,” Raleigh News and Observer, 7 April 1966.

79 Even as late as 1971, the possibility of bridging Core Sound with some sort of mass transit system was still being considered. A master plan of that year referred to "a system bridging Core Sound and arriving on the island. This mass transit system could then connect with or become a part of the island transport system. . . . Such a mass transit system is to be considered superior to an alternate desire to construct a motor vehicle bridge over the sound.” Cape Lookout National Seashore, Master Plan, Cape Lookout National Seashore,1971 (Harkers Island NC: Cape Lookout National Seashore, 1971), 90.

80 Roy Hardee, “Cape Lookout Development Aired,” Raleigh News and Observer, 1 July 1967.

81 Tommy Jones, Ed Styron House, Portsmouth, Cape Lookout National Seashore: Historic Structure Report (Atlanta: Southeast Regional Office, National Park Service, 2004), http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/calo/calo_pesh_hsr.pdf (accessed January 9, 2008), p. 1; Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc. and John Milner Associates, Inc., Portsmouth Village Cultural Landscape Report (2007), 31, 70, 121, 126; Keane, Salter-Battle Hunting and Fishing Lodge: National Register of Historic Places Registration.

82 D. V. Meekins, “Cape Hatteras Getting on Map,” Raleigh News and Observer, 23 March 1930; unpaged clipping, North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina Library.

83 Apparently Reeves had acquired some part of his property by purchasing the tauranization rights of the Cape Lookout development company. See “Cape Lookout Village Historic District National Register Nomination,” Sec. 8, 29.

84Beal and Prioli, Life at the Edge of the Sea, 135; Jack Childs, “State to Acquire Core Banks Tract,” Raleigh News and Observer, 10 December 1970.

85 Russell Clay, “Cape Lookout Seashore: It’s Coming, but When?,” Raleigh News and Observer, 26 October 1969. The state paid $16,000 for the Salter Gun Club’s land and a two-story house, and only $150/acre for 1,000 acres south of the Core Banks Gun Club’s land. Russell Clay, “State Acquires Seashore Tract,” Raleigh News and Observer, 30 October 1969.

86 Jim Lewis “Law Needed to Take Gun Club Land,” Raleigh News and Observer, 20 May 1969; follow-up articles also appeared on June 7 and 12.

87 Steve Berg, “Park Land Bill Is Introduced,” Raleigh News and Observer, 17 June 1974.

88 “Aid Sought to Acquire Land at Cape Lookout,” Raleigh News and Observer, 3 July 1974; “N.C. to Acquire Key Section of Land on Cape Lookout,” Raleigh News and Observer, 4 December 1974; Bean and Prioli, Life at the Edge of the Sea, 135; Durham Morning Herald, 7 June 1976.

89 John Milner Associates, Inc. and Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., Cape Lookout Village Cultural Landscape Report, Cape Lookout National Seashore, Four-11.

90 Barbara J. Garrity-Blake and James Sabella, Ethnohistorical Overview and Assessment Study of Cape Lookout National Seashore Including a Case Study of Harkers Island: Draft Report of Phase I (2007), 6.5.21 and Table 6.5.1: Population of Harkers Island Township: 1970-2000 [sic; figures are actually given for 1930-2000].

91 National Park Service, A Report on the Seashore Recreation Area Survey of the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts(Washington D.C.: National Park Service, 1955), http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/rec_area_survey/atlantic-gulf/; accessed 3 April 2008. Unpaged: “Undeveloped Seashore Areas in North Carolina.”

92 Detailed data from Description of North Carolina's Coastal Fishery Resources, 1972-1991 (Morehead City NC: The Division, 1993), 1-3, 47-52, and Appendix 2. Shore fishing percentage taken from Fig. 17.

93 Holland, Survey History of Cape Lookout National Seashore, p. 3; Raleigh News and Observer, 30 April 1976, and unpaged clipping, North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Library.

94 Bill Noblitt, “People Mess Up Core Bank,” Durham Sun, 4 December 1975 (unpaged clipping in North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Library). .

95 Bob Simpson, “Core Banks Squatters: ‘Don’t Call Them Sportsmen,’” Raleigh News and Observer, 7 December 1975 (unpaged clipping in North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Library).

96 Map supplied by Denver Service Center, National Park Service [623-20018 – Scanned images – 151768.pdf]

97 Godfrey, Paul J. and Godfrey, Melinda M., Barrier Island Ecology of Cape Lookout National Seashore and Vicinity, North Carolina (Washington DC: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1976). Unpaged online version (http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/science/9/index.htm; accessed 22 May 2009). See especially Figs. 115-118. As early as 1933, future Cape Hatteras National Seashore partisan Frank Stick wrote of the destruction of the Banks by erosion, over-grazing, and deforestation. See Binkley, Cape Hatteras National Seashore Administrative History, 7. The action of winds, tides, and storms over the decades since the national seashore was established sometimes uncovers more cars long buried by those same processes. The policy of Cape Lookout National Seashore management is to remove newly uncovered cars if they still have enough structural integrity to permit it, especially if several are discovered near to each other, as happened as a result of Hurricane Isabel in 2003 (telephone conversation with Barry Munyan, Chief Ranger, 18 December 2009).

98 “Core Banks Cottages Rich in History, Tradition,” Coastwatch, Winter 2003, http://www.ncseagrant.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=story&pubid=120&storyid=132 (accessed 31 August 2008).

99 Beal and Prioli, Life at the Edge of the Sea, 135-143.

100 Ibid., 143. The Beal and Priori version of this history is not the only one that might be (or has been) told. Other versions contend that the Park Service itself burned the structures, and that local people stood on the shore of Harkers Island and cried as they watched the flames. It is beyond the scope of this present study to present, evaluate (or judge among) the various versions. To do so would require a separate study.

1 For an incisive critique of the National Register, see Thomas F. King, Thinking About Cultural Resource Management: Essays from the Edge (New York: AltaMira Press, 2002), esp. 19-25.

2 Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., and John Milner Associates, Inc. Portsmouth Village Cultural Landscape Report, 2007.

3 As a part of its large “Documenting the American South” collection (http://docsouth.unc.edu/), UNC-Chapel Hill is doing numerous digitization projects (already funded and under way) that involve georeferenced historical materials, including “Going to the Show” (which uses the Sanborn Fire Insurance maps for North Carolina) and “Driving through Time: The Digital Blue Ridge Parkway,” which includes historical Parkway land maps and for which Anne Whisnant is the scholarly adviser.

4 Authors’ Photograph, Interpretive Wayside, Portsmouth Village, near Haulover Point dock, Cape Lookout National Seashore, 15 March 2008.

5 Alan Watson, Wilmington: Port of North Carolina (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1992), 45.

6 McGuinn, Shell Castle, 13.

7 To make this observation is in no way to belittle or dismiss the actual existence of small pockets of racial harmony and cooperation, as chronicled, for example, in David Cecelski’s portrait of “The Last Daughter of Davis Ridge,” in A Historian’s Coast (Winston-Salem: John F. Blair, 2000), 63-69. Noeleen McIlvenna’s A Very Mutinous People: The Struggle for North Carolina, 1660-1713 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009) presents a succinct but detailed and dramatic account of the Albemarle area in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century, when refugees from the developing plantation system in Virginia and ideological and religious opponents of the Restoration in England established an insistently (and even militantly) egalitarian politial and social system in the Albemarle/Dismal Swamp regionl.

8 Jones, Portsmouth Life-Saving Station Historic Structure Report (2006), 23,40, 174, mentions the Women’s National Relief Association briefly twice, and two wives who died, one of them that of substitute surfman George Dixon.

9 McGuinn, Shell Castle (2000), Chapter 5; Cecelski, The Waterman’s Song; Garrity-Blake, The Fish Factory.

10 See for example Cameron Binkley’s discussion of Frank Stick in Cape Hatteras National Seashore Administrative History (Atlanta: Southeast Regional Office, National Park Service, 2007), 6-7, and Paul J. and Melinda Godfrey’s Barrier Island Ecology of Cape Lookout National Seashore and Vicinity, North Carolina (Washington DC: Government Printing Office, 1976).



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