Chapter Test Questions 1 short answer

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Chapter Test Questions

  • 1 short answer

  • 2 fill-in-the-blank

  • 2 true/false

  • 2 multiple choice

Chapter 1

  1. Short answer

Discuss some of the advantages of soft instructions over hard instructions.

There are many reasons that soft instructions are superior to hard instructions. With soft instructions, programs can be changed rapidly simply by loading new instructions into memory. The programs themselves can also be much more complex because they are limited by available memory and the programmer vs a punch card. Maybe the biggest thing though is the fact that they can run by themselves without requiring someone to constantly feed in punch cards.

  1. Multiple choice #1

The advantages of transistors include the following EXCEPT

  1. They use little power and don’t generate much heat

  2. They are very reliable

  3. They are small in both size and weight

  4. They allowed computers to communicate similarly like the modern internet

Answer: D

  1. Fill-in-the-blank #1

The technique than allowed chip makers to ‘print’ wires and other parts directly onto the chip is called _______________.

Answer: photolithography

  1. True/false #1

ARM stands for Advanced RISC Machine

Answer: True

  1. True/false #2

REBOOT means the computer is starting up and BOOT means the computer is restarting.

Answer: False, other way around

  1. Fill-in-the-blank #2

A(n) _____________ is anything that can follow instructions.

Answer: agent

  1. Multiple choice #2

An algorithm is capable of which of the following:

  1. Taking out the trash

  2. Walking the dog

  3. Finding a word on a page

  4. Blowing your nose

Answer: C

Chapter 2

  1. True/false #1

UI stands for Understanding Intelligence.

Answer: false, User Interface

  1. Multiple choice #1

Which of the following could NOT be found in the EDIT menu of a program?

  1. Cut, copy, paste, print

  2. Cut, paste, copy, find

  3. Find, replace, copy, cut

  4. Undo, redo, find, replace

Answer: A

  1. Short answer

Discuss some advantages of including a copy/paste function in a program.

Without copy and paste, many simple tasks we do every day for homework or recreation would be much more time consuming. It definitely beats reentering the same or similar content multiple times, and it ensures and exact replica. Copy/paste can even replicate formatting that may have taken a while to setup that is valuable to the task at hand.

  1. Multiple choice #2

__________ was the first company to produce a personal computer with a graphical user interface.

  1. Microsoft

  2. General Electric

  3. Macintosh

  4. Dell

Answer: C, Macintosh

  1. True/false #2

Using two fingers at once on most touchpads results in the current page scrolling in a certain direction.

Answer: True

  1. Fill-in-the-blank #1

GUI stands for ____________ and ushered in the era of personal computing.

Answer: Graphical User Interface

  1. Fill-in-the-blank #2

Using some sort of abbreviated version of a constantly reoccurring or difficult to type word and then using the replace function to change them all simultaneously later is known as the __________________ technique.

Chapter 3

  1. Multiple choice #1

The internet supports what type of communication?

  1. Only synchronous communication

  2. Point-to-point and asynchronous communication

  3. Only broadcast communication

  4. Only point-to-point communication

Answer: B

  1. Short answer

Briefly describe the client/server roles your computer vs another computer play when you try to access a webpage.

When I click on a webpage to load it, my computer becomes the client computer and the place where the webpage is stored becomes the server. I then download all the information I need from the sever computer in order to view the contents of the page.

  1. Multiple choice #2

What are cookies? (in reference to computing)

  1. A virus that could potentially cripple your computer

  2. A delectable treat that will make your stomach hurt if you eat too many

  3. An ad-blocker that helps to surf the internet without interruptions

  4. Small files from a server that allow you to connect to earlier sessions

Answer: D

  1. True/false #1

Most computers have the same IP (internet protocol) address.

Answer: False, they are unique

  1. Fill-in-the-blank #1

The transition of an IP packet from one router to the next is called a(n) _________.

Answer: hop

  1. Fill-in-the-blank #2

____________’s send information between two networks widely separated and not directly connected while ____________’s, also known as intranet, connect many local computers to form a network.

Answer: WAN, LAN

  1. True/false #2

The acronym URL stands for ___________________.

Answer: Universal Resource Locator

Chapter 4

  1. Multiple choice #1

HTML, a webpage programming language, stands for:

  1. Hungry Turtles Make Lunch

  2. High Text Margins Language

  3. Hypertext Margins Language

  4. Hypertext Markup Language

Answer: D

  1. Fill-in-the-blank #1

___________ are words or abbreviations enclosed in angle brackets.

Answer: Tags

  1. Multiple choice # 2

The following are all required of an HTML webpage EXCEPT:

  1. Paragraphs

  2. A body

  3. A head

  4. A file type

Answer: A

  1. True/false #1

All webpages require text to be written in ASCII characters.

Answer: True

  1. True/false #2

In HTML, attributes that are placed inside tags have the following form:

attribute_name = “value”

Answer: True

  1. Fill-in-the-blank #2

References to other webpages using their full URL are called _______________ references.

Answer: absolute

  1. Short Answer

Explain the difference between an absolute and a relative reference in HTML.

Absolute references use the full URL of a webpage or image that is being linked on your webpage and are used when linking to external sources. Relative references are used when you are linking files stored locally on the same server as your webpage and, assuming the file is in the same directory as the rest of the webpage, only the name of the file is used.

Chapter 5

  1. The main work of a crawler is to build a(n) _______________ of ___________________ associated with the webpage.

Answer: index, tokens

  1. A multiword search is called an AND-query because it instructs the query processor to find pages relevant to the first entered word OR the next entered word.

Answer: false

  1. Which of the following is a rule for intersecting alphabetized lists?

  1. Put a marker such as an arrow at the starts of each token’s list.

  2. If all markers point to the same URL, save it because all tokens are associated with the page.

  3. Move marker(s) to the next position for whichever URL is earliest in the alphabet.

  4. All of the above.

Answer: D

  1. How can HTML tags help a web crawler find words that best describe a page?

Answer: Many of the HTML tags that build a website can be great descriptors of the webpage’s content. In the tag is a title for the webpage which often has a short phrase that describes the whole webpage. The anchor text, <a href="/skype-for-business-for-android-november-2015.html">or highlighted link text</a>, gives a description of what the page is linking to. The h1 header tags usually give a general topic that the following section will be about. <br /><ol start=5> <li> <br />In Google’s main data center in Oregon, its index is said to be about: <br /></ol> <ol type=a> <li> <br />128 MB <br /><li> <br />1 GB <br /><li> <br />100,000,000 GB <br /><li> <br />5 GB <br /></ol> <br />Answer: C <br /><ol start=6> <li> <br />Although it’s implementation is not fully disclosed to the public, Google uses a number called _______________ in order to rank webpages based on what you’re actually looking for more accurately. <br /></ol> <br />Answer: PageRank <br /><ol start=7> <li> <br />The operators AND, OR, and NOT are all bitwise operators. <br /></ol> <br />Answer: false <br /> <br /><u><b>Chapter 7</b></u> <br /><ol> <li> <br /><u>Multiple choice #1</u> <br /></ol> <br />The keyboard based on English letter frequency is called: <br /><ol type=a> <li> <br />QWERTY <br /><li> <br />Dvorak <br /><li> <br />Colemak <br /><li> <br />Neo <br /></ol> <br />Answer: B <br /><ol start=2> <li> <br /><u>Multiple choice # 2</u> <br /></ol> <br />4 bits, or half a byte, is referred to as a: <br /><ol type=a> <li> <br />Bite <br /><li> <br />Nibble <br /><li> <br />Munch <br /><li> <br />Chomp <br /></ol> <br />Answer: B <br /><ol start=3> <li> <br /><u>Fill-in-the-blank #1</u> <br /></ol> <br />The “base” of a numbering system, 2 for binary, 10 <a href="/packed-decimal-is-a-convenient-format-for-doing-many-arithmeti.html">for decimal</a>, 16 for hexadecimal, is also called its _____________. <p>Answer: radix</p> <br /><ol start=4> <li> <br /><u>Fill-in-the-blank #2</u> <br /></ol> <br />An early and still widely used (although expanded) 7-bit code for the characters is _________________. <p>Answer: ASCII</p> <br /><ol start=5> <li> <br /><u>True/false #1</u> <br /></ol> <br />A predetermined ordering for basic symbols is called a collating sequence. <p>Answer: true</p> <br /><ol start=6> <li> <br /><u>True/false #2</u> <br /></ol> <br />DVD’s and CD’s are encoded with information with the use of pits and lands and lasers are used to bounce off these two types of surface. <p>Answer: true</p> <br /><ol start=7> <li> <br /><u>Short Answer</u> <br /></ol> <br />List the values of the hexadecimal system and why it would want to be used versus the decimal system. <p>Answer: 0123456789ABCDEF. This comes into use when you need more than 10 unique values and their combinations in order to communicate information.</p> <br /> <br /><u><b>Chapter 8</b></u> <br /><ol> <li> <br /><u>Multiple choice #1</u> <br /></ol> <br />Which of the following is NOT a primary color used to color pixels? <br /><ol type=a> <li> <br />Red <br /><li> <br />Yellow <br /><li> <br />Blue <br /><li> <br />Green <br /></ol> <br />Answer: B <br /><ol start=2> <li> <br /><u>Multiple choice # 2</u> <br /></ol> <br />Which of the following is a part of the digitizing sound process? <br /><ol type=a> <li> <br />A compressor <br /><li> <br />Digital-to-analog converter <br /><li> <br />Analog-to-digital converter <br /><li> <br />A decompressor <br /><li> <br />All of the above <br /><li> <br />None of the above <br /></ol> <br />Answer: E <br /><ol start=3> <li> <br /><u>Fill-in-the-blank #1</u> <br /></ol> <br />Each pixel is formed from three colored lights: ___________, ____________, and _____________. <p>Answer: red, green, blue</p> <br /><ol start=4> <li> <br /><u>Fill-in-the-blank #2</u> <br /></ol> <br />Increasing the difference between the lighter and darker areas of a picture is called improving the ______________. <p>Answer: <a href="/paper-1-fiction--non-fiction-comparecontrast.html">contrast</a></p> <br /><ol start=5> <li> <br /><u>True/false #1</u> <br /></ol> <br />Pixels is short for color elements. <p>Answer: true</p> <br /><ol start=6> <li> <br /><u>True/false #2</u> <br /></ol> <br />Humans are sensitive to chrominance (small differences in color) but not to luminance (small changes in brightness). <p>Answer: false</p> <br /><ol start=7> <li> <br /><u>Short Answer</u> <br /></ol> <br />Explain how to make the color gray with RGB colors. <p>Answer: Gray is made when all three colors equal the same value. So to make gray you would say RGB(10, 10, 10) and it would be some shade of gray.</p> <br /> <br /><u><b>Chapter 9</b></u> <br /><ol> <li> <br /><u>Multiple choice #1</u> <br /></ol> <br />Which are included in the five main parts every computer has? <br /><ol type=a> <li> <br />Input unit <br /><li> <br />Output unit <br /><li> <br />Memory <br /><li> <br />Control unit <br /><li> <br />Arithmetic/logic unit <br /><li> <br />All of the above <br /></ol> <br />Answer: F <br /><ol start=2> <li> <br /><u>Multiple choice # 2</u> <br /></ol> <br />Which is NOT part of the five steps of a processor’s execution? <br /><ol type=a> <li> <br />Instruction Fetch <br /><li> <br />Result Return <br /><li> <br />Data Wipe <br /><li> <br />Instruction Execute <br /></ol> <br />Answer: C <br /><ol start=3> <li> <br /><u>Fill-in-the-blank #1</u> <br /></ol> <br />The control unit uses two registers to store a few things in memory, IR and PC. The first is where the control unit keeps the instruction it is currently working on which is called the _______________. <p>Answer: Instruction register</p> <br /><ol start=4> <li> <br /><u>Fill-in-the-blank #2</u> <br /></ol> <br />Most peripheral devices are dumb and only provide basic translation to or from binary signals, they need a _____________ in order for the computer to be able to process said peripheral. <p>Answer: device driver</p> <br /><ol start=5> <li> <br /><u>True/false #1</u> <br /></ol> <br />RAM, or Random Access Memory, gets its name from the fact that it can access any memory location in any order. <p>Answer: true</p> <br /><ol start=6> <li> <br /><u>True/false #2</u> <br /></ol> <br />The keyboard does the job of converting a w to an upper case W when the shift key is held down as the w key is pressed. <p>Answer: false</p> <br /><ol start=7> <li> <br /><u>Short Answer</u> <br /></ol> <br />Explain why the processor or CPU isn’t very special without an operating system (OS) or software. <br /> <br />Answer: The processor or CPU does the heavy lifting. It does calculations and moves data and is simple and fast. But the operating system is what makes it a useful tool. The operating system performs common operations for all apps (software), <a href="/table-of-contents-1-network-topology-2.html">such as loading programs</a>, sharing memory, locating files, etc. Software comes into play by telling the hardware (CPU) what to do. Without them and the operating system the CPU would just sit there.
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