Reading the following passage and answer the questions that follow :
One of greatest advances in modern technology has been the invention of computer. They are already widely used in industry and in universities. Now there is hardly any sphere of human life where computers have not pressed into service of man. We are heading fast on the close of this present century towards a situation when a computer will be as much a part of man’s daily life as a telephone number or a calculator.
Computers are capable of doing extremely complicated work in all branches of learning. They can solve the most complex mathematical problems or put thousands of unrelated facts in order. These machines can be put to varied uses. For instance, they can provide information on the best way to prevent traffic accident, or they can count the number of time the words “and” has been used in the Bible. Because they work accurately and at high speeds, they save research workers years of hard work. The whole process by which machines can be used to work for us has been called “automation”. In the future, automation may enable human beings far more leisure than they today. The coming of automation is bound to have important social consequences.
Some years ago an expert automation. Sir Lena Bagrit, pointed out that it was a mistake to believe that this machine could think. There is no possibility that human beings will be controlled by machines. Though computer is capable of learning from their mistakes and improving on their performance, they needed detailed instructions from human beings to be able to operate. They can never, as it were, lead independent lives or rule the world by making decisions of their own.
Sir Leon said that in the future, computer would be developed which would be small enough to carry in the pocket. Ordinary people would than be able to use them to obtain valuable information. Computer could be plugged into national network and be used like radios. For instance, people going on holidays could be informed about weather conditions : car drivers can be given alternative routes when there are traffic jams. It will enable people who do not share a common language to talk to each other by using computers as a translating machine.
It is impossible to assess the importance of a machine of this sort, for many international misunderstandings are caused simply through our failure to understand each other. Computer will also be used in ordinary public hospitals. By providing a machine with a patient’s system, a doctor will be able to diagnose the nature of his illness. Similarly, machine could be used to keep a check on a patient’s health record and bring it up to date. Doctors will therefore have access to many facts which will help them in their work. Bookkeepers and accountants too could be relieved of dull clerical work, for the tedious task of compiling lists and checking them could be done entirely by machine. Computer will also be able to tell the exact age of a man or how many years he is going to live with the help of blood pictures. Computer is the most efficient servant man has ever had and there is no limit to the way they can be used to improve our lives.
Answer the following questions briefly:--
Q1) How are the computers helpful in modern day today life ?
Q2) How can computers help in doing complicated work?
Q3) What is automation?
Q4) How does automation help human beings?
Q5) Mention the areas when in computers can be used efficiently.
Q6) will computers be the most efficient servant of man?
A1.2) Find words from the passage which convey similar meaning as the following
Reading the following passage and answer the questions that follow : 12
1. I was more than a little mystified to see a vacancy for a teacher advertised in the local press sometimes ago, specifying among other eligibility requirements that the applicant must be ‘articulate’. It is a sign of the times that teachers are no longer the great talkers they used to be ?
2. Probably, the new breed of recruits already manifests an alarming degree of inarticulateness in a profession which, like that of a politicians or DJs, calls for strong vocal chords and much glibness. Usually, one take it for granted that teacher talk and the pupils follow suit, so that the younger generation master effective speaking skills while they are about it.
3. Apparently, language learning is not as simple as that, when one does not have the opportunity to speak out in class, to try out new vocabulary and syntax and to develop one’s confidence at the same time.
4. “Now I’ve to got to take another person with me whenever I go to the hospital or to my children’s school. Though I have B’ for English. I am not fluent in my speech. But what I lack most of all is the confidence to keep up a conversation with strangers for more than 5 minutes at a time” a lady explained. Except for some group recitation, she had not been called upon to read aloud or answer a question orally.
5. As she is from an affluent family, this young woman is content being a full time house wife. She has a teacher’s qualification but shies away from employment. Effective speaking skill encompasses the whole spectrum of the curriculum at all levels and should involve every single student in the school. Unless regular checks are made through internal supervision and grades allotted for speech in the terminal report, it is not possible to ensure adequate speech training for all students.
6. Encouraging youngsters to participate in the learning experience by talking freely and without any fear of being put down helps to strengthen their personality. This has the carry over affect on their future employment prospects.
7. Current trends in technology and contemporary life style have created the need for young people to be smart. Independent, resourceful and career oriented. The ability to speak one or two international languages is a definite plus point. The minimum one can expect from an educated person seeking employment in a specific labour market is that he or she speaks one language which is currently viable there.
8. Every age prescribes specific linguistic skills that are being relevant for socio economic purposes. For instance public speaking was considered essential in a limited way in ancient Greece for those who were the masters. In Rome, the training was extended to a larger group from whom the leaders were selected. In feudal times, the landed aristocracy was privileged to receive an education. With the industrial revolution, most of the workers needed only a smattering of language to follow instructions to run the machines.
9. Today, individuals who have good verbal skills are in great demand in trade and commerce, the media, schools and colleges, scientific projects, communication sectors, etc. Through public speaking is necessary in certain areas, what is even more useful in day-to-day business is a polished conversational style that gets the message across lucidly.
10. Unless teachers themselves are articulate enough to act as role models and give youngsters opportunities to speak out and guide them to be creative, eloquent and rational in their speech, education will tend to lag behind modern demands.
11. Inspectors in the UK recently black listed a primary school in Brixton, London and recommended that it should be closed down because a little girl who was a pupil there had not talked in class for three years. The teachers had not detected the problem. The parents removed her from the school and have to yet find out whether she is normal or not.
12. A broad based speech programme which stresses the acquisition of a verbal skill by providing training in pronunciation, intonation, vocabulary public speaking and also some reading aloud will be timely and fit the bill. In present context, the school that wanted ‘articulate” teachers was being realistic after all.
On the basis of your reading of passage, answer the following questions :-
1)Why was it mystifying to see a vacancy for a teacher’s post ?
2What according to the author is essential for developing language skills ? M ention one ?
3)How can we strengthen child’s personality? Mention one way .
4)How has the need for communicative skills changed over a period of time?
5)Why was the author not fluent in speech?
A1.2 Find words from the passage which mean the same as given below
b) Current trends in modern life style has created the need to be
iii)not having job.
iv)the ability to speak on or two international language.
c) the author could not speak English
i) she was rich
ii) she was not qualified
iii) she was content to be housewife
iv) she was not confident
Read the following passage and answer the question that follow: (12)
1. The ambitious plan of the Petroleum Ministry to introduce lead tree petrol is unlikely to take oil. The use of old model vehicles by a large section of the people and the high cost involved in making in necessary changes in the engine for switching over to use of lead free petrol are the major hurdles in the smooth take oil of the plan.
2. Faced with rising level of pollution, particularly in the metropolitan cities the Ministry of Petroleum had issued instructions as early as in 1986, to bring down the maximum allowable lead- content in petrol from 0.56 grams per litre to 0.65 grams per litre by September 1992. These instructions were repeated on October 26, 1992 and the revised target dates were divided into two parts. Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta and Madras were to introduce petrol with lead content of 0.15 grams per litre by December 97, with the rest of the country being supplied with petrol not exceeding 0.15 grams per litre by the same period.
3. Sources in the Petroleum Ministry indicate that the introduction of lead-free petrol requires heavy investment. While ideally a vehicle should be run on lead-less petrol, the automobiles industry in the country is not fully equipped to manufacture such automobiles which can run on lead-free petrol.
4. Sources pointed out that lead-less petrol can only be used on a catalytic converter made of platinum. The converter is currently being imported. The design in the existing motor vehicles needs to be changed so that at the time of the manufacturing itself such converter can be fitted.
5. Significantly, the cost of imported catalytic converters is in the range of Rs. 15,000 to 30,000. Moreover the use of lead-free petrol in the vehicle would warrant its continuous use and if petrol with low lead content is used even once, the engine is likely to be damaged.
6. Sources said that even if the automobile industry was to switch over to the new technology of catalytic converters, there would still be problems because vehicle owners would be loathe discarding their old vehicles Petrol with lead content would still have to be made available to this section of car – owners. Moreover, if lead-free petrol is made available in the four metros by this year, the vehicles may not be able to pay outside the city limit because of non-availability of lead-free petrol in the other town.
7. Incidentally, the Ministry of Environment is reported to have suggested that immediate measures be taken to arrest the expense of lead – related fumes in the capital, given its dubious distinction of being among the most polluted metros of the world. Since the number of two-wheelers is the maximum, the Environment Ministry has suggested that production of four – stroke two wheelers be encouraged as against two – stroke two – wheelers as they emit less poisonous unburnt hydro- carbons into the atmosphere.
8. The ministry has also suggested that use of asbestos as the base of brake lining and clutch plates is discontinued since the use of brakes and change of gears pushes asbestos fumes into the atmosphere which is the potent cause of cancer. Referring to the use of single cylinder diesel vehicles, the Ministry has suggested that use of such vehicles be discouraged and replacement made with Multi-Cylinder diesel vehicles.
9. The ministry has suggested that sale of sub – standard fuel and lubricants be checked and also prevent adulteration of fuel. The ministry has also suggested that the use of tongas and cycle rickshaw on certain busy roads be discontinued for smooth flow of the traffic because frequent use of breaks adds to the emission of polluting substance.
On the basis of your reading of passage, answer the following questions :-
What is the hurdle in the way of executing the plans of using lead free petrol?
What was the lead content per litre by Dec in 1997?
What is the use of lead free petrol?
Is there any danger of engine which is accustomed to use lead free petrol?
Give one suggestion given by the environment ministry?
What are the suggestions of the Environment Ministry?
A1.2 Find words from the passage which are the antonyms of the following:--
Continue (Para 7)
A1.3 Multiple Choice Questions:-
The ambitions plan of the petroleum minister to introduce lead free petrol failed due to
The use of old model vehicles .
The high cost involved in making necessary changes in the engine.
The high cost of petrol.
All of the above
The lead less petrol cannot be used
On a catalytic converter made of other metals like Silver or Iron.
Because the converter is not made in India.
Not available in cities other man metros.
Converters are costly and get easily damped.
c)the range of the cost of catalytic converter
i)16000 to 20000
Guidelines for attempting Note-Making:- 1) Minimum three readings are necessary to comprehend the content.
(i) In first reading, mark the difficult words
(ii) In Second reading, mark the important lines, deleting examples and data and quotations.
(iii) In third reading, mould the chosen sentences in note form.
2) charecteristics of good notes:
(i) Brevity:- Notes should be brief and to the point
(ii) Relevance:- notes should be relevant to the topic
iii) Clarity:- the notes should not be so brief that their clarity is lost
d) In a tabular form
4) Abbrevations and symbols( four minimum)
(i) standard abbreviations should be used. capitalised first letter of words
For examples: UNO for United Nation Organisation
(ii) Pick up first three or four letters and put dot.
For examples: exa. , feb.
(iii) Pick up first , middle and last letter
For example: LKW for lucknow, VNS for Varanasi
For example- e.g
Percentage % etc.
Marking in note making
Title --------1 mark
Abbreviation(4)------ 1 mark
Notes with subtitles------3 marks
Passage1 Read the following passage and answer questions that follow it :
If those “senior moments” when you can’t remember why you opened the refrigerator door or where left keys – are becoming frequent, mental aerobics and a healthy brain diet may help. Just as book require more maintenance with the passing years, so do brains, which scientists now know show sign ageing as early as the 20s and 30s. The process may be speeded up a bit by a genetic risk and pure even faster by unhealthy lifestyle.
“Genetics is only about a third of what predicts brain ageing. The other two thirds has to do with environment and lifestyle choices that we make,” said Dr. Gary Small, director of the Centre on ageing at the University of California, Los angeles. “Alzheimer’s disease , or vascular dementia , are the result of this process of brain ageing” An estimated 12 million people around the globe suffer from Alzheimer. The incurable, progressive disease that clogs up brains and robs people is set to explode more baby boomers reach 65 years and older. By 2050, the number of sufferers could hit the 45 million mark.
Small believes that just like heart disease and cancer, people can take preventive measures to keep to brains healthy and be alert to starve off the ravages of the disease. In his book, The Memory Bible, the years old neuroscientist lists what he refers to as the 10 Commandments for keeping the brain young neural networks in tip-top shape. They include training memory building skills, minimizing mental aerobics, brain food and a healthy lifestyle.
To get the brain working better, he advises people to begin simple warm up exercises and workouts both the left and right side of the brain. The exercises become increasingly difficult and can be expanded with brain teasers, puzzles learning a foreign language or taking up a musical instrument. “Mental aerobics could be anything from doing crossword puzzles and writing with your left hand if you are right handed or learning a language. It could be anything that is fun that people enjoy doing,” said Small. He also recommends physical exercise, a low-fat diet and eating foods rich in omega -3 fatty acids, such as fish, avocados, fruits and vegetable high in antioxidants, including broccoli, beets and onions.
On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using recognizable abbreviations (minimum 4) wherever necessary. Use a format you consider appropriate. Supply a suitable title. (5)
Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words (3)
In ready’s competitive environment what is vital for a child’s growth is self-esteem. Examining the comes of aggression, bullying, withdrawal and failure we discover lack of self – esteem to be the root of social behavior. As parents and teachers we are responsible for the mental development and confidence level of a child. If a child is constantly rebuked and told that he’s a failure, his self – worth. Unthinkingly we call our children “stupid”, “idiotic” and “irresponsible” and this has a significant impact on their tender psyches. If we have a positive view of our children they are likely to feel the same about themselves. Help children feel good about themselves, and think highly themselves. Children will value themselves if their parents value them.
Parents are the most influential role models children have. Whatever values and beliefs we want children to learn, those are the beliefs and values we have to live our lives by. When you understand accept yourself, it helps you understand and accept others. As a parent or a teacher, you have a influence over the self – esteem of your child. For the first four or five years, parents are the important contributors. When children start school, teachers and friends become important. Once reach adolescence, peer groups begin laying a greater role in steering a child’s self – esteem.
As Thomas D, Yarnell, a Clinical Psychologist says : “Self-esteem refers to how you feel about you . It includes such things as your self – confidence, self – respect, your independence and yourself. All the ways you feel about yourself and your abilities are wrapped up in the term self – esteem.”
Self – esteem has to be nurtured during infancy. If the infant feels well taken care of he will feel the world is a loving place and he is an important being.
One must avoid expecting too much or too little from children, criticizing (especially in from people), not showing appreciation, calling children clumsy, thoughtless, stupid or lazy, telling they are failures, overprotecting or neglecting them.
To improve their self – esteem, we must praise successes, show affection, show interest in their active projects, or problems. We must tell children what to do instead of what not to do.
Fill in the blanks with the help of notes:---
1. Self – esteem – vital in modern competitive environment – to be nurtured during infancy.
2. Lack of self – esteem – results in anti – social behaviour like :
3. Role of parents and teachers (clue read para 1 )
a) develop students mind and confidence level
b) have pos. att. Towards students :
a) role models – first 4-5 yrs.
b) must live by the values that they want their children to adopt.
5. At school level _______________ (clue Read Para 2 carefully)
a) adolescence ______________
6. Need to nurture self –esteem (clue-Read Para 4 carfully)
7. Checkpoints for parents and teachers
* _______________ * _______________
* _______________ * _______________
* _______________ * _______________
* _______________ * _______________
Important Hint :- It is not always necessary to look for notes paragraph wise. You may/ find some don’ts in Para 1 (for example don’t call them stupid etc….)