Why don’t Indian people go to libraries anymore? The reason is that even though India has a population of approximately 100 crores, only 50 percent are literate and only 30 percent educated. So, out of 100 percent only 30 percent of the population visit libraries and make use of the facilities.
Most of this erudite class lives in the metros or smaller cities and towns. Life in the smaller towns and cities is slower than the metros and at the end of the day, they get time to fulfil their hobbies. But only a fragment of the educated class can afford to pursue a hobby. People cannot afford to lose themselves in the fantastic world of books due to monetary constraints. Often those who are interested in reading do not have the financial backup, whereas people who are rich enough to buy all the luxuries of the world do not consider- books a money spinning investment.
People do not mind spending thousands of rupees on clothes, but think twice before buying a book. People no longer have the space, time and energy in their lives to read.
Another aspect, which needs to be highlighted in this context, is the inception of satellite television. It is largely responsible for the decline in reading habits, especially among the youth.
Today we are addicted to the television. As a result, children instead of going through big bulky books for pleasure or purpose prefer watching their favourite T.V. Channel. And those who do read do not necessarily read good literature. As somebody said, “education has produced a vast population able to read but unable to distinguish what is worth reading”.
It is a fact that a major setback to the libraries all over the world has come due to the Internet. Nobody save the time and patience to go to libraries. Instead, they prefer accessing online e-book services, which save time and money.
Another factor, which fails to draw people towards the library, is that a number of them are funded the State Governments, which are always short of resources to update the books and facilities and result, fail to provide the reader with the latest and handy information.
Fill in the blanks with the help of notes:---
1. Libraries – not visited by Indians anymore.
2. Reasons for setback –
a. Literacy level – only 50% only 30% visit lib. rest 20% _____
b. Erudite class in :
i. small cities and towns – have time but monetary constraint.
ii. metros – no time
c. Rich – don’t want to ___________________
d. ________ has led to decline in _______. Youth prefer watching T.V.
i. no time and patience to visit library.
ii. prefer online e books
iii. saves ___________
f. Large no. of libraries – funded y _____________
ii. can’t provide _____________________
Choose the appropriate title)
Need for more libraries / Books are Invaluable
Laws for working women - inadequate
“Working women in the organized and unorganized sectors in India have extremely inadequate and insensitive laws to bank upon in times of need,” according to Ms Alice Jacob, member. Law Commission of India.
The Equal Remuneration Act is supposed to ensure that women are given equal pay and are not discriminated against either at the time of recruitment or at the time of promotion. But it is common knowledge that this act has not been implemented effectively and studies have revealed that both maternity benefits and minimum wages continue to be denied to many women workers.
The majority of women workers in Indian over 90 percent) work in the unorganized sector and of these about 76 percent work in the farm sector. The rest come under the organized sector with the government being the largest employer.
No laws exist to protect the rights of women farm workers and except in Kerala and West Bengal, they are not paid even minimum wages or wages equal to their male counterparts. The work they do is classed as being “lighter”.
Prof. Jacob, who was here recently to attend a seminar on ‘Harassment against working women said,. “Harassment could take many forms”.
Either there are no laws in places to protect the rights of working women or, though there are laws like the Maternity benefits Act (1961), the Minimum Wages Act 1948 and the Equal Remuneration Act (1975), they are not being implemented.
“Heavily protected special zones with armed security guards are being set up in different parts of the country to prevent trade union activity, resulting in greater exploitation of young women workers. “Ms Jacob said. Work in industries like garments and leather, which come under the home based unorganized sector is distributed to women through contractors. “Women and often children have to work long hours to get Rs.10 to 12 a day, which is a fraction of even the minimum wages for the industries. “Ms. Jacob said.
Times of India, 3 Sept. 1995
A 2.6 a) On the basis of your reading of the passage complete the following notes :-
LAWS FOR WORKING WOMEN – INADEQUATE
I. Areas where women work
i. Organised sector mainly govt. – 24%
ii. Farms – 76%
II. WHAT WOMEN WORKERS EXPECT
i. Equal Remuneration Act 1975
a. equal pay
b. no discrimination on basis of sex ____________
iv. Minimum Wages Act 1948 ______________________
On the basis of your reading of the passage complete the following notes. Answers are to be filled in the spaces provided.
Now mark other big differences between the natural slavery of man to nature and the unnatural slavery of man to man. Nature is kind to her slaves. If she forces you to eat and drink, she makes eating and drinking so pleasant that when we are afford it, we eat and drink too much. We must sleep or go mad but then sleeps is so pleasant that we have great difficulty in getting up in the morning. And firesides and families seem so pleasant to the young that they get married and join in building societies to realize their dreams. Thus, instead of resenting our natural wants as slavery, we take the greatest pleasure in their satisfaction. We write sentimental songs in praise of them.
The slavery of man to man is the very opposite of this. It is hateful to the body and to the spirit. Our poets do not praise it; they proclaim that no man is good enough to be another man’s master. The latest of the greatest Jewish prophets a gentleman named Marx. Spent his life in proving that there is no extremity of selfish cruelty at which the slavery of man to man will stop if it be not stopped by law. You can see for yourself that it produces a state of continual civil war called the class war between the slaves and their masters, organized as trade unions on one side and employer’s federation on the other. Saint Thomas More held that we shall never have a peaceful and stable society until this struggle is ended by the abolition of slavery altogether and the compulsion of everyone to do his share of the worlds work with is own hands and brains, and not to attempt to put it on anyone else.
MAN, THE GREATEST MASTER
Slavery of Nature Over Man-Enjoyable
a) eating, drinking, sleeping-pleasure
B) family Life –enjoyment
c) natural wants easily satisfied
c)onlysolution………………………………………………… d) everyone to do his own share of work.----------------------
b) In about 80 words, write a brief summary of the passage.
On the basis of your reading of the passage complete the following notes in the form of a flow chart :
Electroplating of Copper
Rub the copper plate with sandpaper, clean it and weigh it accurately on a balance. Record it as the mass of the copper plate before electroplating. Take the solution of copper sulphate in the beaker, dip the copper rod and copper rod and copper plate into the solution an make the connections according to the circuit diagram. Note that the copper plate is connected to the negative pole of the electric source. Adjust the current to a constant value as indicated by the ammeter (approximately 1A is sufficient per 100 cm2 to be electroplated), press the key and start the watch. Allow the current to be passed for about 30 minutes. Remove the copper plate from the solution, wash it thoroughly with distilled water and dry it. (Do not touch the surface of the plate; hold it by the portion that was not in direct contact of the copper sulphate solution). Weigh the electroplated copper plate accurately on a balance. Then you will know the mass of copper deposited.
Fill in the blanks with the help of notes:---
ELECTROPLATING OF COPPER (Cu)
Rub Cu plate with sandpaper
Clean and weigh
Make connection-Cu plate connected to negative pole of electric source
Press key, start watch
Pass current for 30 mins.
b) the following words mean:
i) constant …………………………………………………………………
ii) distilled …………………………………………………………………..
iii) electroplate ……………………
SECTION-B-Writing and Grammar
Question 3: One out of two short writing / composition tasks based on notice/ poster/ advertisement.
(50 Words) 05 Marks
Question 4: One out of two compositions in the form of article, speech, report writing or a narrative (150 - 200 Words) 07 Marks
Question 5: Writing one out of two letters based on verbal input. It would cover all types of letters.8 marks
Letter types may include:
(a) business or official letters (for making enquiries, registering complaints, asking for and
giving information, placing orders and sending replies):
(b) letters to the editor (giving suggestions on an issue)
(c) application for a job
(d) letter to the school or colleges authorities, regarding admissions, school issues,
requirements /suitability of courses etc. 07 Marks
A Notice is a written or a printed information or news announcement. Notices are either displayed
at prominent places or published in newspapers/magazines. It is meant only for a select group.
Since a notice contains a formal announcement or information, its tone and style are formal and
factual. Its language should be simple and formal. A notice is always brief and to the point.
Remember, Circulars are also written like notices, but unlike notices, they carry more than one
message, and they are circulated through a messenger.
POINTS TO REMEMBER
Adhere to the specified word limit of 50 words.
Write the word NOTICE at the top.
Name and place of the school, organization or office issuing the notice should be mentioned.
Give an appropriate heading.
Write the date of issuing the notice.
Clearly mention the target group (for whom the notice is to be displayed).
Purpose of the notice.
Mention all the relevant details (date, venue, time).
Mention whom to contact for extra information.
Signature, name and designation of the person issuing the notice.
Put the notice in a box.
Format of a notice
A NOTICE is always written in a box.
NAME OF THE INSTITUTION/ORGANIZATION/OFFICE , PLACE
29 JUNE 2014
Content : Target group-for whom the notice is. Date, time, venue
and all important details and any extra information
needed. (Body of the Notice 50 words ) Answer the
questions -For whom, what , when ,where, when ,how ,
by whom + additional information.,
HAPPY VALLEY SCHOOL
HODA VALLEY SIKKIM
10th July 2014
OPPORTUNITY FOR ASPIRING ACTORS!
The Drama club proposes to stage Shakespeare’s ‘Othello’ as part of its Literary Week Celebration in Septemberl. Young aspirants are requested to submit their names to Malathi Arora, on or before 20th july for selection and audition. Venue and date will be intimated later.
On behalf of the Vice-Principal of your school write a notice regarding implementation of new school uniform in your school. Mention the given guidelines for purchasing new uniform and relaxation given to students of some classes. Write the notice in not more than 50 words.
Galaxy International School
This is to inform all the students and the parents that the school management committee has decided to change the uniform of the students to meet with the climatic conditions pertaining to this area. For the newly admitted students it is mandatory while for others it will be mandatory from August 15. Refer the notice board for sample of the same or contact the undersigned.
Mr. P. K. Singh
Imagine you are a member of RED CROSS Blood Bank Society,Agra. You have been asked by the
President of the society, Mr. Manish Nair to organize a Blood Donation Camp. Write a notice in 50
words urging the people to come in large numbers for this noble cause.
RED CROSS BLOOD BANK SOCIETY,AGRA
DONATE BLOOD AND SAVE LIVES!
29th july 2014
A State Level function to observe voluntary Blood Donation Day is being organized on
5th and 6th September 2014 at Red Cross Blood Bank Society Office, M.G. Road, Agra.. It
starts at 8 a.m. and will continue till 5 p.m. both days. All are requested to volunteer
and donate blood and save the lives of the needy people.
PRESIDENT,RED CROSS BLOOD BANK SOCIETY
Your school (Amar Vidyalaya), AGRA is organizing a cultural evening to collect funds for the slum
children. The Vice-Chancellor, AGRA University has consented to be the Chief Guest on the
occasion. Draft a notice in this connection to be displayed on your school notice board. Imagine you
are the Rakesh Tilak ,Cultural Secretary of your school. (Word limit: 50 words)
AMAR VIDYALAYA , AGRA
CULTURAL EVENING FOR A CHARITY
11 JULY 2014
The school is organizing a Cultural Evening to collect funds for the slum children in the
neighborhood, on 25 July 2014 from 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. in the school playground. Dr.
S.M.Rao Vice-Chancellor, AGRA University has consented to be the Chief Guest on
the occasion. All are invited and requested to give wide publicity to the event. For
more details contact the undersigned.
Questions for Practice
1.Being the Cultural Secretary of your school write a notice for your school notice board for the Investiture Ceremony of the newly appointed members of the Students’ Council. Invent other details like the Chief Guest, timings, date, schedule, etc. Write in not more than 50 words.
2. Literary Club of your school is going to organize a Literary Meet at cluster level. Write a notice in about 50 words being the Secretary of the Literary Club of your school inviting students from higher classes for being volunteers. Invent other details
3. .You have lost your wrist watch in the school play ground while playing
cricket. Write a notice in about 50 words for the .Lost and Found. Notice-
Board of the school giving details of the watch, contact address and reward.
You are Anuj/Anuja of Class XI, Vanasthali Public School, Delhi.
4.You are Karan/Kanika, Secretary Cultural club of your school. Your school
is organising a Dramatics workshop during the Winter Break for senior students
of the school. Draft a notice for the school notice board informing the school
notice board informing the students giving all relevant details (5 Marks
5.You are Gokul/Gopika, the Secretary of Integrity Club. Draft a notice inviting the students of
your school to attend a Skit to be presented by the members of your club on the occasion of the
Vigilance day being observed in your school on September 1st. Write the notice in not more than 30 to 50
6.You are Shakun / Shalini working as the student’s representative on the Managing Committee of your school. The committee is gong to meet next week to chalk out an academic programme for the sess ion 2014- 15. To ensure that the committee really prepares a need - based programme for the students, you have decided to invite the student’s suggestions on this subject.
7. As the Secretary of the Science Club of your school, write a notice in about 50 words informing
students of an inter class science quiz.
8. You are Abhinav/Alka. You have planned a 2-week course to be arranged to help the children
of your housing society called “Renaissance Housing Society” at chandigarh acquire Spoken English
Skills. As the Secretary of the Society , prepare a notice for the Society’s notice board stating
the objective of the course ,giving necessary details of the course and requesting the children
of the society to join the course.
9. Draft a suitable notice for your School Notice Board giving details of the inauguration of the
Literary Association activities in your school. You are Deepak/Deepaika, Secretary, School
Literary Association. Your School is called Modern Senior Secondary School,lucknow.
10. Your school has just completed 25 years of its meritorious service to society. The Students’
Council of your school has decided to celebrate its Silver Jubilee. As President of the Council,
write a notice in not more than 50 words, for the students of your school, informing them
about the Council’s decision and seeking their co-operation for the success of the proposed
Silver Jubilee Celebrations.
Types of advertisement
1. Classified 2. Commercial
Brevity is the principle in this form of advertisement as the publisher charges for each word published. Hence efficient use of apt words is solicited. Its ingredients are the purpose, requirement/need, criteria and qualification, expectations, offering, contact number and address.
Examples for the same are matrimonial, wanted, to let, on rent, property sale/purchase, job ads
Important Points to be followed:
* Clearly state the category at the top-e.g.-For Sale, To Let etc.
* Give all necessary details in points using commas.
* Give contact address, name, and telephone number.
* Put the matter in a box.
Examples of classified.
Lost and found
Sale and purchase
Travels and Tours
Essential details: No block no design and language to be simple formal and to the Point. Begin with wanted or Required, name of the company post, age, sex, qualification experience, pay scale, mode of applying, contact address and phone no.
Examples : I SITUATION WANTED
A First class graduate in commerce seeks a suitable job in a reputed firm or a banking institution to work as an accountant in and around Delhi, Well travelled, having faith in synergy. Creative with practical experience in accountancy. Flare in English and computer operating. Salary expected negotiable. Contact Sriprakash 1-2A Ajitnagar Delhi cantt 130001
II. To let/ For Sale
Value points: begin with for Sale/ to let, accommodation/Vehicle/Household item, Physical description, negotiable rent/price,contact.
To let/ For Sale
(Flat/ House/ Bungalow)
MY HOME. MY WAY.
Available on rent/ for immediate sale DDA Flat/ 2 BHK/ BHK, II ground floor, two modular kitchen, full interiors, lobby, balcony, fully furnished, well ventilated, car parking available, walking distance from market, large landscaped area, large playground, Resident’s club, multi gym, swimming pool, community hall, Banquet Hall, Children’s playing area, Basketball court, tennis court, amphitheatre, Indoor game, Rent Negotiable/ Price negotiable. Contact Sri Prakash A 21, Ashok Vihar, 27210012
Example : 3 - Matrimonial
Begin with ‘wanted’, age, gender, complexion, qualification, job, physical description, expectations, contact,
Wanted a bride of fair complexion, age within 24-28 years, sensitive, loving, caring, soft-hearted, beautiful and searching for her prince charming. May or may not be in service but should have a good heart. Working in an M.N.C. in U.S.A. has pursued M.B.A. in a top school in California. Family well settled in India. Tall, Handsome, high salary and a good family background. Contact with details and full horoscope. Ph-0080125879
Example : 4 – Property
Plot, accommodation, location, area, facilities, price/rent expected, purpose, contact.
Wanted a spacious and well-built house/ flat for an international diplomat in a very good locality in or around Delhi. Exquisitely designed, well ventilated, modular kitchen, lobby, balcony, lift- facility, self-contained, 4-5 bedrooms house with ultra-modern amenities and a servant quarter. Interested parties contact within a week. Embassy of China, New Delhi- 110071
Example : 5
Wanted/ Required a smart, confident, dynamic, and efficient P.A./ stenographer for a leading company. Only fresh graduates with excellent command over English and computer operating, age 25-30 years, typing speed 40 wpm, short hand 100 wpm. Preference to those who have creativity and innovative ideas for planning. Handsome salary with perks. Apply with detailed C.V./Resume within seven days to the Manager Wipro, Chennai, 4100270
Commercial/ display advertisements :
They are designed for commercial purposes.
Require more space, hence are costly. Must be attractive as they with visuals, catchy phrases
Must be attractive-with a catchy caption, heading or sub-headings.
Figurative language. (alliteration and metaphors especially)
Proportionate spacing of fonts with different sizes.
Usually attractive with catchy slogans, punch lines, witty Expressions, pictures or sketches.
Special offers or discount, if any.
Details of the product or event given in a clear, precise way.
Give name, contact number and address of the advertiser.
Present the matter in a box.
Example : –1.Draft attractive Commercial Advertisement inviting customers to a leading resort called ‘FORT
RESORT AND FARMS’ to organize weddings, parties and other events.
A HEAVENLY PLACEFOR WEDDINGS, PARTIES AND EVENTS
WELCOME TO FORT RESORT AND FARMS!!!
LARGEST VENUE AROUND CHANDIGARH !!!!
SPREAD OVER 12 ACRES
BREATHTAKING BACKDROP! MORE THAN 500 TREES
COMPLEMENTED BY WATERFALLS AND FOUNTAINS!!
FORT RESORT…. AN IDEAL LOCATION TO CELEBRATE
MARRIAGES—PARTIES—ANNIVERSERIES AND VARIOUS OTHER EVENTS
ISSUED BY : FORT RESORT HOTELS
SHAHEED BHAGATH SINGH MA
CHANDIGARH –56 email@example.com CALL US AT – 060-5467834/568
Example : –2
Draft an advertisement on behalf of Department of West Bengal highlighting the beauty
of Darjeeling, Digha Sunder bans and Doors known for their green hills, sea shore, teagardens
and Royal Bengal Tigers.
WEST BENGAL—YOUR DREAM HOLIDAY PACKAGE
Darjeeling the “Queen of the Hills” Digha , the resort by the sea
Sunderbans-with Royal Bengal Tiger Doors with its rolling verdant teagardens
West Bengal packs in the richest natural variety within its small periphery.
Ultimate destination with Ultra Modern facilities!!!!!
Enjoy Nature in its Plenty!!!!!!
GOVERNMENT OF WEST BENGAL
For details contact: Department of Tourism, Government of West Bengal. @.
Brabourne Road 4th floor,Kolkata-700001 , www.wbddeptoftourism.org
Questions for Practice
1 M/s Blue Towers, a readymade jeans company is launching their 2012 range of jeans for men
and women. Draft an attractive l advertisement.
2 M/s Leather Shoes has brought a new range of formal shoes for men. Draft a suitable
3 M/s Metro Shirts have introduced their new summer range of men’s shirts and T-shirts.
Prepare an attractive advertisement for the range.
4. You are general manager of E.V.L Company which requires push Bungalows on company lease, as guest houses. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words under classified columns to be published in ‘The New Indian Express’.
5. Prepare a display advertisement for an institution offering free coaching to the meritorious students studying in class X and XII. Give relevant details and contact number and address.
6. Your IT Company has launched its new product i. e. an antivirus. Prepare a display advertisement detailing its qualities and advantages over other products in the market. Also write about the initial discount offered by the company for early purchasers.
. 7. There is a post vacant for the post of PGT (Mathematics) in your school on contractual basis. Write a classified advertisement on behalf of the Vice-Principal to be published in a local newspaper. Invent other details. Do not exceed 50 words.
8. Write a classified advertisement for a building having adequate space for being used as a branch office of a scheduled bank. Mention requirement of proper location and write the advertisement in not more than 50 words.
.9. You are the General Manager of a leading industrial concern. You need a Chartered Accountant for your office. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words to be published in ‘The Times of India’, New Delhi, under the classified columns
10. . You are Suman /Suma of 33/244,M.M.road,jaipur. You want to sell off your old desk
top computer as you have purchased a new one. Draft an advertisement to be published in
the Times of India under classified columns giving its details & the expected price.
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