Circassian Bibliography & Library Compiled and edited by

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Marr, T., ‘Circassian Longings: Melville’s Orientalization of Eden’, in E. A. Schultz and H. S. Springer (eds), Melville & Women, Kent State University Press, 2006, pp 229-51(?). [Preview available on Google Books]

Marro, C. and Hauptmann, H. (eds), Chronologie des pays du Caucase et de l’Euphrate aux IIIe-IVe millenaires. From the Euphrates to the Caucasus: Chronologies for the III-IV Millennium B.C., Istanbul: Institut français d’études anatoliennes Georges Dumézil, 2000.

Marshenkulova (Mershenqwl), M., ‘Circassians Press Genocide Claims’, Institute for War & Peace Reporting, Caucasus Reporting Service, no. 395, 7 June 2007. Online. Available HTTP: <> (accessed 1 January 2009).

–– ‘Outrage at “Fake” Circassian Anniversary’, Institute for War & Peace Reporting, Caucasus Reporting Service, no. 413, 5 October 2007. Online. Available HTTP: <> (accessed 1 January 2009).

Martel-Thoumian, B., ‘The Sale of Office and Its Economic Consequences during the Rule of the Last Circassians (872–922/1468–1516)’, in Mamluk Studies Review, vol. 9, no. 2, July 2005.

Martineau, Harriet (1802-1876), ‘Circassians’, in E. S. Arbuckle (ed.), Harriet Martineau in the London Daily news: selected contributions, 1852-1866, III ‘The Crimean War’, 20, pp 155-60, New York: Garland Pub., 1994. [Article dated 18 January 1854]

Martin-Hisard, B., ‘L’Athos, l’Orient et le Caucase au XIe siècle’, in Publications of the Society for the Promotion of Byzantine Studies, no. 4, 1996, pp 239 ff.

Marzey, A. S., Cherkesskoe naezdnichestvo «zeik’we» (Iz istorii voennogo bita cherkesov v XVIII-pervoi polovine XIX veka) [Circassian Horsemanship ‘Zeik’we’ (From the History of the Military Way of Life of the Circassians in the 18th-First Half of the 19th Century)], Nalchik: El’-Fa, 2004. Online. Available HTTP: <> (accessed 19 July 2008).

Mashbash (Meshbash), Y. Sh., Shchedroe solntse poldnya [The Generous Noon Sun], Moscow: Sovetskaya Rossiya, 1983.

Selected Works in Three Volumes, Vol. 1: Poems, Maikop, 1991. [In Circassian]

Selected Works, Vol. 2, Maikop, 1992. [In Circassian]

Selected Works, Vol. 3, Maikop, 1993. [In Circassian]

Zhernova: Istoricheski roman [Millstone: Historical Novel], Translated from Adigean by E. Karpov, Maikop, 1993.

  • Ognenni vsadnik: Poèma [The Fiery Rider: A Poem], Translated from Adigean by I. Kurlat, Maikop, 1993. [Circassian original published in Maikop in 1982]

  • Belaya ptitsa: Istoricheskaya povest [White Bird: Historical Novel], translated from Adigean by E. Karpov, Maikop: Adigeiskoe respublikanskoe knizhnoe izd-vo, 1995. [222 pages]

Mashbash (Meshbash), Y. Sh. and Reznikov, P. E., Pisateli Adigei (Biograficheski spravochnik) [The Writers of Adigea (Biographical Reference Book)], Krasnodar and Maikop, 1965. [In both Circassian and Russian]

Massoud, S. G., An Analysis of the Annalistic Sources of the Early Mamluk Circassian Period, PhD Thesis, 2005.

The Chronicles and Annalistic Sources of the Early Mamluk Circassian Period, Islamic History and Civilization 67, BRILL, 2007.

Massoudi, Description du Caucase et des pays avoisinant la mer Noire et la mer Caspienne, traduit dans le Magasin Asiatique de Klaproth, Paris, 1835.

Mastyugina, T., Perepelkin, L., Naumkin, V. (ed.), and Zviagelskaia, I. (ed.), An Ethnic History of Russia: Pre-revolutionary Times to the Present, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1996. [Interesting socioeconomic indices pertaining to the Kabardians, Cherkess, and Adigeans. The Kabardians well exemplify the peoples of the Northern Caucasus in their main socioeconomic indices. They are characterized by a low level of urbanization (44.3 percent of urban population) coupled with a high rate of urbanization (the growth of urban population from 1979 to 1989 was 89.3 percent). The age structure of the Kabardians shows a high proportion of young age groups (in 1989 as many as 32.4 percent of the population) and an insignificant proportion of people of pensionable age (9.9 percent). This is the result of a high birth-rate, especially in the countryside (2.6 births per woman), where the bulk of the population lives. The average age of the Kabardians is 28.5 years. The socioeconomic indices of the Kabardians (also the Cherkess and Adigeans) suggest that they are undergoing modernization but that they are far from its completion]

Matasović, R., ‘Transitivity in Kabardian’, paper presented at Conference on Role and Reference Grammar, Leipzig, September 2006.

— ‘Backward Control in Kabardian: The “Dependent First” Syntactic Patterns in Kabardian and Other Caucasian Languages’, paper presented at Conference on the Languages of the Caucasus, Department of Linguistics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, 7-9 December 2007. Online. Available HTTP: <> (accessed 11 August 2008).

A Short Grammar of Kabardian, translated from Croatian by Tena Gnjatović, Zagreb, 2008 (sixth print). Online. Available HTTP: <> (accessed 18 May 2009).

Matthews, W. K., Languages of the U.S.S.R, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951. [Caucasian bibliography on pp 142-51]

Matveev, V. A., ‘The Movement of the Mountaineers to Turkey: The Missed Details of the Tragedy and True Russian Interests in the Caucasus’, in Nauchnaya misl Kavkaza [Scientific Thought of the Caucasus], vol. 4, 1999. [In Russian]

Matveeva, A., The North Caucasus: Russia’s Fragile Borderland, London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, October 1998.

McCarthy, J., Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821-1922, Princeton, New Jersey: Darwin, 1995.

McDowell, R. H., ‘Russian Revolution and Civil War in the Caucasus’, in Slavic Review, vol. 27, October 1968, pp 452-60.

McGregor, A., ‘The Circassian Qubba-s of Abbas Avenue, Khartoum: Governors and Soldiers in 19th Century Sudan’, in Nordic Journal of African Studies, vol. 10, no. 1, 2001, pp 28-40. Online. Available HTTP: <> (accessed 8 October 2008).

A Military History of Modern Egypt: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Ramadan War, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. [Egypt has one of the oldest civilizations and proudest national histories in the world, but most military histories treat it as a mere battleground for other great imperial powers such as the Ottoman Empire, the French, and the British. In a lively and stirring narrative, this work tells the untold story of the Egyptian experience. It looks at the lives of Egyptian soldiers fighting at home and abroad, and shows the roles those soldiers and their leaders have played in Middle-Eastern and world history for 500 years – especially in the convulsions that have transformed the Muslim world during the past two centuries. Beginning with an overview of Egypt’s ancient and medieval heritage, the book then explores Ottoman military rule, explaining how a tiny Turkish-speaking minority maintained absolute power by keeping military knowledge out of the grasp of native Egyptians. Readers will see how Napoleon’s failed Egyptian campaign of 1798 introduced the nation to Europe but, more important, brought modern Western influences to Egypt. During the 19th century, new arms and tactics and the rising force of nationalism transformed Egypt as the empire of the Ottoman Turks slowly decayed. Independence was thwarted by the British, who took over the country in the 1880s to secure links to India. Yet the British paved the way for independence, retraining and strengthening the Egyptian military to make it the strongest and most nationalist force in the country. Finally, McGregor’s closing chapters look at Arab nationalism, and at the Egyptian army in the wars of the late 20th century. This book should prove of particular use to researchers and readers interested in the fate of the Circassian Mamluks in Egypt following the destruction of their sultanate in 1517 at the hands of the Ottomans. It is shown that the Circassians maintained their sway in Egypt for centuries during the Ottoman suzerainty over Egypt. Available for preview on Google Books. Dr. Andrew McGregor is Director of Aberfoyle International Security in Toronto and editor of Global Terrorism Analysis Publications at the Jamestown Foundation in Washington DC. He has published many articles on historical and security issues, including a number of works on Circassian (and North Caucasian) matters.]

McNeill, J., The Progress and Present Position of Russia in the East: An Historical Summary Continued down to the Present Time, London: John Murray, vols 1, 2, 1836, vol. 3, 1854. Online. Available HTTP: <> (accessed 16 December 2008). Online. Available HTTP: <> (accessed 16 December 2008).

McQueen-Williams, M., A Diet for 100 Healthy Happy Years: Health Secrets from the Caucasus, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1977.

Medioti, S., ‘Recollections of a Collective Farm Worker’, in The Caucasus, no. 10, 1952, pp 9-13.

Méker, A., Les Russes en Circassie (1760-1864), Berne, février 1919.

Mellow, C., ‘Skiing in the Caucasus’, in Forbes, vol. 151, no. 6, 1993, pp 130 ff.

Melmoth, C., The Fair Circassian, A Canterbury Reader in Russian Poetry, no. 19, London, 1781.

Membet (Mambetov), H. (G. Kh.), ‘’Wexwm yi Pezhip’er: 1928 Ghem Bax’sen Scheik’wech’ar [The Truth about the Affair: The 1928 Events in Bakhsan]’, in ’Waschhemaxwe, Nalchik, no. 5, 1992, pp 71-8.

Memoirs of the Court of Solomon (Arabian manuscript found in Palmyra, now in the University of Leiden).

Meoti: Predki adigov [The Maeots: Ancestors of the Circassians], Maikop, 1989.

Meretukov (Meretiqwe), K. Kh., ‘Iz toponimiki Severo-Zapadnogo Kavkaza [From Toponyms of the NW Caucasus]’, in Uchenie zapiski ANII [Scientific Transactions of the Adigean Science and Research Institute], Maikop, vol. 12, 1971.

Adigeiski toponimicheski slovar [Adigean Toponymical Dictionary], Maikop, 1981; second edition: Moscow, 1990; third edition: Maikop: Kachestvo, 2003.

Voprosi stroeniya glagola v adigskikh yazikakh [Questions on Structure of the Verb in Circassian Languages], Maikop, 1985.

Meretukov (Meretiqwe), M. A., ‘Kult ochaga u adigov [The Cult of the Hearth of the Circassians]’, in Scientific Transactions of the Adigean Science and Research Institute, Ethnography, Maikop, vol. 8, 1968.

— ‘Semya i semeini bit adigov v proshlom i nastoyashchem [The Family and Domestic Life of the Circassians in the Past and the Present], in Kultura i bit adigov [The Culture and Way of Life of the Circassians], The Adigean Science and Research Institute, Maikop, issue 1, 1976.

— ‘Materialnaya kultura adigov (XIX–70-e godi XX v.) [The Material Culture of the Circassians (19th Century–1970s)]’, in Kultura i bit adigov [The Culture and Way of Life of the Circassians], The Adigean Science and Research Institute, Maikop, issue 2, 1978.

— ‘Kustarnie promisli i remesla u adigov [Cottage Industries and Handicrafts of the Circassians]’, in Kultura i bit adigov [The Culture and Way of Life of the Circassians], The Adigean Science and Research Institute, Maikop, issue 4, 1981.

— ‘Gostepriimstvo u gortsev Severnogo Kavkaza [Hospitality of the Mountaineers of the North Caucasus]’, in Materials on the Ethnography of Georgia, Tbilisi, issue 22, 1985, pp 156-9.

Semya i brak u adigskikh narodov (XIX–70-e godi XX v.) [The Family and Marriage of the Circassian People (19th Century–1970s)], Maikop: Adigean Branch of the Krasnodar Book Press, 1987.

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