black codes - laws that denied African Americans many civil rights
Freedman’s Bureau - federal agency set up in 1865 to provide food, schools, & medical care to freed slaves in the South
Fourteenth Amendment - ratified in 1868 that gave African Americans citizenship & equal protection under the law
Fifteenth Amendment - ratified in 1870 that gave male citizens of all races the right to vote
Jim Crow Laws - laws passed in the South after Reconstruction enforcing the segregation of blacks & whites
sharecropping - system of farming in which farmers rent land & pay the landowner with a share of the crops they raise
Build Understanding What were the North’s strategies as they entered the war? The South’s?
South-planned to fight and thought that the north would quickly wear out; planned on assistance from Britain Describe the early Civil War battles.
First Battle of Bull Run-first major battle in the war-Confederacy victory
Battle of Antietam-1862, important victory for Union How did military technology change the way that war was fought?
allowed them to kill/wound more enemies because the weapons were more accurate Describe what fighting was like for the Northerner’s. The Southerner’s.
Supplies were short, and soldiers had to eat food they disliked; they had to walk long distances and often wore out their shoes; they were exposed to harsh weather conditions; they suffered and died from disease What were the roles of African Americans in the war?
they fought in war; How did women contribute to the war?
took over their husbands jobs; became soldiers, spies, nurses, or made clothing and sent food Describe the Battle of Gettysburg. Why is the Battle of Gettysburg one of the most important battles of the war?
it was the farthest north that the Confederates had advanced; it was a major battle with over 50,000 casualties; major win for the north What were Lincoln’s goals as expressed in the Gettysburg Address?
to honor the soldiers who died and to preserve the union; he believed that a united nation and the end of slavery are worth fighting for Describe the effects of the war on the North.
not much difference Describe the effects of the war on the South.
the south was a mess, lots of destruction; anger; life for African Americans had not changed much Describe what happened to President Lincoln in April, 1865.
he was assassinated Describe Reconstruction. What was Andrew Johnson’s plan for Reconstruction? Why didn’t congress like his plan?
rebuilding; Johnson’s plan was to rebuild the country by admitting the former Confederate states back into the union; they would have to form a new state government and they were allowed to pass black codes What is an amendment to the Constitution?