Colonial era

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The English Beginnings in North America—1606 to 1650
1. Read carefully the following assessments of pre-colonial English Settlement. Identify which statement is false?

A) The concept of liberty and free agency was born in the Renaissance as a matter of artistic creation and literary agency to express one’s ideas freely

B) The concept of liberty, agency, and religious freedom were born during the Reformation

C) The ideas of civil liberty, religious freedom, and individual choice came into adulthood during the Enlightenment

D) The nineteenth century provided the right to leave and establish rights, liberties, and freedom according to the will of the individual.

E) The 20th century has not had to defend or protect the fundamental rights of colonial liberty and agency

2. English dissenters were voluntarily allowed to exit the British Empire in order to worship God according to the dictates of their consciences. Which of the following groups does the generalization not prove correct?

A) Quakers

B) Africans

C) Separatists

D) Anglicans

E) Puritans

3. Religion was a powerful motivating force in the settlement of the United States. Which of the major European faiths were the most dynamic, the widest in terms of settlement, and the one which came the earliest and remained the longest a major political and religious force in American political, moral, and civil liberty?

A) Anglicans

B) Lutherans

C) Calvinists

D) Catholics

E) Anabaptists

4. Leadership is the key element in the success of religions in becoming colonizers. Which of the following paired leaders and religions is INCORRECTLY identified below?

A) Massachusetts Bay Puritans // John Winthrop

B) English Roman Catholics // Lord Cecil Calvert

C) Pennsylvania Dutch // William Penn

D) Connecticut Congregationalists // Thomas Hooker

E) Virginia Anglicans // James Blair

5. Which of the following institutions used by Spain t colonize the New World?

A) Establishing crown princes in the new world

B) Successfully achieving the loyalty of Native American leaders

C) Altering the economy of the New World to one of socialism

D) Using missions, presidios, and pueblos to govern in the New World

E) Using the principles of feudalism to control and dominate the Native Americans

The Colonial Era

DIRECTIONS: Read each question carefully, fully and analytically. Then choose ONE response to mark as your answer.
1. The primary reason for the early struggles that confronted the Jamestown colony was the

A. tyrannical rule of John Smith

B. hostility of nearby Indians

C. fact that colonizers were ill-equipped for survival

D. nomadic tribes had virtually wiped out the supply of fame in the area.

E. inter-tribal warfare going on like in Mexico

2. The Iroquois were Indians that

A. generally allied themselves with Britain against the French

B. they were members of the Algonquin family of Indians

C. they were nomadic Indians of the high plains

D. they were peaceful agricultural partners of the Cherokees

E. they were vicious head hunters of woodlands

3. Family life in the early Chesapeake Bay area differed from family life in England in that the colonies...

A. women were freed from all male control and domination

B. families were more closely knit and remained together longer

C. husbands and fathers had greater control over their wives and children

D. children assumed more independence at an earlier age

E. the impact of social norms was greater

4. Within a half century of their exodus from Europe, the Spanish had opened the New World and had, as a result of the national policy,

A. virtually exterminated the Indians

B. were being serious challenged for the New World dominance by the English

C. had created the richest and most extensive European empire since the days of Rome.

D. were being seriously challenged for New World dominance by the French

E. rapidly pushing through western North America on their way to Alaska

5. The joint-stock company

A. was not required to seek royal permission to colonize in the New World

B. held forth promise of immense wealth to investors

C. proved inadequate as a vehicle for properly financing colonization ventures

D. required investors to commit large amounts of capital.

E. was a development of Swiss bankers trying aid the British economy

6. Women in the Chesapeake Bay were

A. much better off than English counterparts

B. were all married at extreme young ages because of high sex ratios

C. used the high sex ration as a means to prevent premarital sexual relations

D. usually married while they were still indenture servants

E. not, despite a high sex ratio, usually any better off than their English patriot sisters.

7. Europeans who migrated to the Chesapeake as indentured servants were normally

A. older married men with families

B. males from 18 to 24 who were single

C. English farmers hoping to find a better future in the colonies

D. the dregs of English society

8. Which European power was successful in the settling of New York

A. Spain

B. Italy

C. France

D. England

E. Holland
9. Which of the following was NOT a characteristic of Virginia and Maryland?

A. Both were dependent upon tobacco

B. Both utilized the headlight system

C. Both relied heavily on indentured servants

D. Both extended legal freedom of religion to all Christians

E. Both economically affect by the Atlantic sea trade

10. Freeman status was granted to adult males who

A. were church members

B. were no longer indentured servants

C. owned land

D. agreed to abide by the legal code of the colony

E. Blacks that were release from their slavery contract under the law of manumission

11. John Winthrop’s ideal Puritan commonwealth was called “A City Upon A Hill” that claimed that

A. the separation of Church and State was necessary for survival

B. religious freedom for all citizens and residence would be practiced

C. the good of the whole would be placed above one’s private concerns

D. religious tolerance would be extended to all Christians but not to others

E. Jews could worship according to the dictates of their consciences

12. Anne Hutchinson was formally charged with having

A. violated traditional Puritan sex codes of conduct

B. libeled the colony’s ministers

C. emphasized the covenant of grace

D. presumed to have the right to discuss the sermons of John Cotton

E. claimed to have received divine revelation directly from God

13. New England Puritans are known for their introduction of written contractual government by all of the following EXCEPT:

A. The Mayflower Compact

B. The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

C. The Rhode Island Charter

D. The Pennsylvania Charter of Privileges

E. Development of town charters for the town councils and the citizens.

14. Among the most ardent and zealous promoters of English colonization was

A. John Rolfe

B. John White

C. John Smith

D. Richard Hakluyt

E. Martin Frobisher

15. All of the following fundamental ideas were preached by Martin Luther during the Reformation EXCEPT:

A. the infallibility of the Pope

B. the popular right to rebel against unjust authority

C. the priesthood of all believers

D. the justification by faith alone

E. the evil of the sale of indulgences for the forgiveness of sin

16. A major turning point for women in the history of the western world occurred when

which of the following English Monarchs took over the empire.

A. Queen Victoria

B. Queen Elizabeth II

C. Queen Elisabeth I

D. Mary Queen of Scots

E. Catherine of Aragon became the Queen
17. Which of the following institutions were not used in the settlement and colonization of North America from 1620-1740?

A. Encomienda system

B. Patroon system

C. Mission system

D. Cour de Bois

E. Joint stock company

18. The colonies of Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Maryland had which of the following characteristics in common?

A. They were founded by Quakers

B. They were settled primarily by non-Englishmen

C. They were settled by emigrants from other colonies

D. They were founded as refuges from religious persecution in England

E. They were strongly opposed to the institution of slavery

19. The major and primary objective of 17th century mercantilism was to:

A. promote and build national self-sufficiency with a favorable balance of trade

B. develop industrialism in America

C. promote laissez-faire free trade policies for English merchants

D. encourage early textile industry in Europe

E. help England gain control of the Atlantic seas lanes to the New World

20. Women in the 17th century Chesapeake:

A. were very close to slave status under the rule of Sir Edward Coke, England’s chief of Star Chamber

B. generally worked alongside men and slaves in the tobacco fields

C. outlived men because of natural immunities derived from sex hormones

outnumber men

D. were significantly more prolific in child-bearing because of temperate climate

E. had a good chance to improve their social and economic status by marriage
21. Geographic sectionalism in the American colonies affected all of the following EXCEPT:

A. cultural differences

B. social status of residents

C. political institutions and diplomacy of Spain

D. economic developments

E. intellectual ideas of government

22. Principal institutions used by the Spanish to gain control of colonial society in the New World included all EXCEPT:

A. the presidio

B. the hacienda

C. the control of indulgences

D. the vaquero

E. the mission

23. Major political developments in the establishment effective government in America came with the…

A. the House of Burgess

B. the Puritan oligarchy in Massachusetts

C. the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

D. the Massachusetts General Court

E. the county

24. The French shifted from Port Royal to Quebec because:

A. they intermarried with Indian women

B. they had given up on their search for a northwest passage

C. they became more interested in farming than fishing

D. the St. Lawrence Valley offered better access to the interior

E. the St. Lawrence Valley was easier to defend

25. The European Jesuits (French) gradually enjoyed success with the Indians because:

A. they intermarried with them

B. they accepted and even appreciate the Indian cultures, especially the Algonkin

C. they displayed considerable prowess, bravery, and valor in the wilderness

D. they confined their missionary work to established missions

E. they were eager abandon their French culture and politics and become democrats like the Indians.

26. The Puritan proposals for reforming the Anglican Church included all EXCEPT:

A. purifying the English church of Catholic “corruption’s”

B. eliminating elaborate hierarchy and ritualistic pageantry

C. effecting a complete separation of church and state

D. improving the education of the clergy

E. forming an oligarchy to govern and rule the colony

27. There has been a claimed that “history is geography in motion” Massachusetts Bay claimed:

A. Maine and New Hampshire

B. Connecticut and Rhode Island

C. Maine and Vermont

D. Vermont and New Hampshire

E. Connecticut and New York

28. The basic unit of local government in the English colonies---but especially in Pennsylvania---was:

A. the county

B. the town or village

C. the General Court

D. the Quaker meeting

E. the mission

29. Seventeenth century New York was known for its:

A. high crime rate

B. stable political order

C. ethnic and religious diversity

D. cordial relations with the Iroquois Indians

E. largely unbalanced ratio of men to women by about 12-1

30. The Quakers came from England with all of the following beliefs EXCEPT:

A. that the land of America belonged to the Indians

B. that all men and women shared equality “within the light”

C. that an official clergy and sacraments were totally unnecessary for faith and salvation

D. that swearing oaths and making war was against Divine Law

E. that there should be rigid separation and segregation of men and women in public meetings

31. The Salem Witch Trials of 1692 were caused by:

A. Land quarrels

B. Bad blood

C. Fanaticism

D. Puritan doctrine

E. Gender discrimination

32. One of the de jury reasons the Salem Witchcraft hysteria suddenly ended in 1692 was that:

A. the original accusers had become accused of being witches too including the governor

B. it became clear that some were attempting to use the hysteria for their political gains

C. the royal governor proclaimed it a crime to make unsubstantiated accusations of witchcraft

D. the implementation of a new royal charter ended a time of political uncertainty and stress

E. because of a decree in England banning all witchcraft in Europe and America

33. Puritans most strongly opposed:

A. alcohol

B. tobacco

C. religious nonconformity

D. Protestantism

E. refraining from sex

34. The greatest concentration of German immigrants came to ....

A. New Jersey with the Swedes

B. New York with the Dutch

C. Virginia with the English

D. Quebec with the French

E. Pennsylvania with the Quakers

35. The colonial headright system:

A. was used in all of the colonies from Massachusetts to Georgia

B. gave land to slaves and indentured servants

C. parceled out land to each person who came to the colony

D. parceled out land to those who helped settle and establish towns

E. gave land to only those who were “freemen”

36. Among Puritans their life long goal was to behave and the sign that they were:

A. among the saved “elect”

B. among non-elect

C. those with a healthy body

D. who were the most intelligent

E. who were the most wealthy

37. The great Swiss theologian John Calvin contributed which of the following to the Puritans:

A. antinomianism

B. predestination

C. antidisestablishmentarianism

D. corpus delecti

E. papal infallibility

38. The Mayflower Compact and its doctrine of majority rule was adopted by:

A. Puritans

B. Quakers

C. Virginians

D. New Yorkers

E. Pilgrim separatist

39. In the Iroquois Indian nation, the older women:

A. controlled the finances of the tribe

B. had the power to either start or stop wars

C. were the religious leaders of their communities

D. were painlessly put to death when they became senile

E. train the young male warriors in military ethics

40. Which of the following colonial industries was prohibited by England’s Parliament?

A. textile manufacturing

B. ship building

C. iron-making

D. had manufacturing

E. manufacture of glass & paint

41. William Penn’s Frame of Government in (1682) provided substantial power to:

A. women voters

B. the native Americans

C. the governor appointed by the Crown

D. the colony’s legislature

E. the colonial court

42. Anne Hutchinson, a separatist and antinomian, believed most in which of the following?

A. the laws of the Puritan oligarchy

B. practice of universal suffrage of all people

C. the spirit as opposed to the man’s laws

D. example of Roger Williams

E. example of John Winthrop

43. The punishment metted out to most of those put to death in the Salem Witch Trials was:

A. crushed by stones

B. burned at the stake

C. beheaded

D. hanged
44. The primary purpose of the famous Navigation Acts of 1660’s was to:

A. stimulate trade

B. encourage the colonials to conduct with other countries other than England

C. regulate trade within the empire

D. forbade colonial to engage in England’s monopoly of munitions trade

E. regulate the amount of cotton to be exported to Europe

45. The theory that nations should increase their wealth, as measured in gold and silver, will insure they will sell more than import is known as...

A. imperialism

B. laissez-faire

C. democracy

D. monetarism

E. mercantilism

46. Which of the following major historical figures of the Colonial period is mis-matched with his/her achievement:?

A. Benjamin Franklin - Inventor & printer

B. Anne Bradstreet - musician and composer

C. Samuel Sewell - New England diarist

D. John Peter Zenger - Freedom of the Press

E. Roger Williams - Separation of Church & State

47. Which combination of immigrants provided the greatest number of immigrants to America:

A. Africans, Scots-Irish, Germans

B. Africans, Germans, French Huguenots

C. Scots-Irish, Swill, Italians

D. Germans, French Huguenots, & Italians

E. Italians, Dutch, & Portuguese

48. The Stono Rebellion was:

A. a slave uprising in New York

B. a slave uprising in Georgia

C. a slave uprising in South Carolina

D. a slave uprising in Virginia

E. a slave uprising in Pennsylvania

49. Which of the following was a non-violent event in Colonial America:

A. Leisler’s Rebellion

B. Shay’s Rebellion

C. Bacon’s Rebellion

D. Salem Witch Trials

E. Great Awakening

50. Colonial governments feature all of the following EXCEPT:

A. a governor

B. a unicameral legislature

C. an independent Supreme Court

D. a unified national executive

  1. the development of both city and county government

51. Sir Edmund Andros was the leader of:

A. Dutch Patroon system

B. Dominion of New England

C. the Pennsylvania Dutch

D. colonial Supreme Court

E. the unified Carolinas before the Great Awakening
52. Colonial leaders that made a major impact upon colonial society included all EXCEPT:

A. John Winthrop

B. Roger Williams

C. Alexander Hamilton

D. John Peter Zenger

E. Benjamin Franklin

53. Leaders of the Enlightenment in America included all EXCEPT:

A. John Peter Zenger

B. George Whitefield

C. Jonathan Edwards

D. Benjamin Franklin

E. Anne Hutchinson

54. The native peoples of New England were affected by all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. They had little in common with White Europeans

  2. They were alienated by Puritan messianic attempts at conversion

  3. They suffered from the ravages of disease more than whites

  4. The clashed with the settlers in periodic conflicts that threaten white survival

  5. They were completely befriended by the White immigrants.

55. In what manner did New Netherlands become New York?

  1. It was traded by Sweden to France

  2. It was abandoned by the Dutch, then England colonized it

  3. It was geographically adjacent to Spanish territory

  4. It was conquered as part of a larger European struggle

  5. It was the result of the Zenger trial

56. William Penn sought to do all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. displace the savage Indians

  2. provide a refuge ro Quakers from England

  3. establish a model society based upon reform

  4. generated rental revenue for himself

  5. purchase land from the Indians

57. Pennsylvania quickly prospered for all the following EXCEPT:

  1. Penn’s planning and publicity efforts

  2. Penn’s honest dealing with Indians

  3. Pennsylvania’s favorable soil and climate

  4. Penn’s liberality toward religious freedom

  5. Parliament’s generated subsidy

58. A rebellion that occurred in New York which fostered years of political strife was:

  1. Nat Turner’s Rebellion

  2. Stono Rebellion

  3. Leisler’s Rebellion

  4. Bacon’s Rebellion

  5. Regulator Movement

59. Which of the following was NOT a goal of the Spanish in the New World?

  1. To seek for gold

  2. To convert the Native Americans to Christianity

  3. To establish presidios, missions, and pueblos

  4. To reduce the Native American population

  5. To seek for glory and adventure

60. When the Europeans discovered the New World, the Native Americans they found:

  1. lacked any form of religion

  2. were as varied as the peoples of Europe

  3. were mostly farmers

  4. mostly lived in northeastern US

  5. were violent, indolent, and uncultured savages

61. All of the following helped bring about the voyages of discovery after 1450 EXCEPT:

  1. the rise of nation states

  2. the Renaissance

  3. the Norse navigators

  4. the Reformation

  5. the Commercial Revolution

62. The main goal of early French and English explorers was to:

  1. develop large colonies in the New World

  2. seize Native Americans for slaves

  3. conquer all Native American tribes

  4. Christianize the Native Americans

  5. find a northwest passage to India

63. The rise of kings was a major factor in the development of exploration because it:

  1. centralized the power and stimulated trade

  2. reduced the conflicting national claims over newly discovered land

  3. reduced conflicts between European nations

  4. helped to eliminate Papal claims to the New World

  5. helped to develop world wide imperialism

64. Which of the following did the Europeans bring to New World:

  1. gold

  2. tobacco

  3. horses

  4. dogs

  5. potatoes, squash, and beans

65. An unexpected result of the Treaty of Tordesillas was:

  1. the loss of all Portuguese claims to the New World

  2. a delay in Spanish exploration

  3. division of English territory from that of France

  4. unequal cultural division of South America

  5. the planting of French culture in Brazil

66. Which of the following is mis-matched?

  1. Estaban - Negro slave and survivor of exploration

  2. Cortez - conquerors of Mexico

  3. Pizzaro - conqueror of the Mayans

  4. Balboa - discovered the isthmus of Panama

  5. Magellan - circumnavigated the globe

67. Which Spanish explorer discover the Grand Canyon?

  1. Cortez

  2. Father Kino

  3. Father Serra

  4. Coronado

  5. Vespucci

68. The Native Americans probably came from:

  1. Europe

  2. Asia

  3. Middle East

  4. Africa

  5. Australia

69. Both the Pilgrims and the Puritans

  1. had charters to settle Massachusetts

  2. practiced self-government

  3. believed in religious toleration in the colonies

  4. showed favoritism toward the Church of England

  5. off-shoots of Lutheranism

70. The first elected legislative assembly in America was the:

  1. House of Representatives

  2. London Company

  3. Massachusetts General Court

  4. Parliament

  5. House of Burgess

71. In which of the following ways or policies were the British and the Spanish most similar?

  1. Religious freedom

  2. Inter-racial marriage with Native Americans

  3. Mercantile policy

  4. Democratic beliefs

  5. Use of jury trials

72. A religious dissenter would have been least tolerated in:

  1. Rhode Island

  2. Maryland

  3. New Netherlands

  4. New Sweden

  5. Massachusetts Bay

73. Which European nation established the first permanent settlement in Quebec?

  1. The French

  2. The English

  3. The Spanish

  4. The Dutch

  5. The Germans

74. The colony was best known as a haven for religious freedom and the safest place for Jews to settle and congregate?

  1. New York

  2. Virginia

  3. Rhode Island

  4. Pennsylvania

  5. Carolinas

75. In order to help raise capital for American colony, Sir Walter Raleigh:

  1. exported tobacco to Europe

  2. formed a joint stock company

  3. used Native Americans as slave labor

  4. turned to the Spanish monarchy for help

  5. formed the modern corporation

76. The year 1619 is important because of the introduction of:

  1. martial law

  2. the end of martial law

  3. beginning of the House of Burgesses

  4. passage of Maryland Toleration Act

  5. introduction of Black slavery

77. The joint stock company was the forerunner of the:

  1. House of Representatives

  2. Senate

  3. corporation

  4. family farm

  5. plantation

78. A person who signs an agreement to work in exchange for passage or payment of debt is a(n):

  1. indentured servant

  2. slave

  3. redemptioner

  4. pioneer

  5. mestizo

79. Which of the American colonial sections was most closely akin to those of England:

  1. New England

  2. Southern Colonies

  3. Middle Colonies

  4. Massachusetts Bay Colony

  5. New York & New Jersey

80. Predestination was an important tenet of early:

  1. Quakers

  2. Anglicans

  3. Puritans

  4. Native Americans

  5. Catholics

81. The Salem Witch Trials of 1692 dealt with all except:

  1. hanging of women

  2. poverty of families

  3. fanaticism

  4. superstition

  5. The Inquisition

82. The primary objective of mercantilism was:

  1. to promote free trade policies

  2. to develop industries in the Americas

  3. to build national self-sufficiency through favorable balance of trade

  4. to encourage the early textile industry in Europe

  5. to develop good ports, harbors, and trading docks

83. Africa exported _____________as part of the triangular trade system:

  1. slaves

  2. rum

  3. tobacco

  4. woolen clothes

  5. gold, diamonds, and silver

84. Colonial colleges and universities were founded to study:

  1. science

  2. humanities

  3. religion

  4. medicine

  5. business

85. Who was the individual who challenged the King and Governor over the issue of freedom of the press?

  1. Paul Revere

  2. Ben Franklin

  3. John Winthrop

  4. John Peter Zenger

  5. Roger Williams

86. A major difference between the Pilgrims and the Puritans was:

  1. the way in which they earned their living

  2. the general areas in which they settled

  3. the issue of reforming the Church of England or separating from it

  4. the degree to which they practiced self-government

  5. the attitudes they held toward the Native Americans

87. Women in Seventeenth Century Chesapeake:

  1. outnumbered men

  2. generally worked alongside men in the tobacco fields

  3. outlived the men

  4. had a good chance of improving their status by marriage

  5. were free and equal with men

88. Ben Franklin’s attempt to unify the colonies was known as:

  1. New England Confederation

  2. Peace of Paris

  3. Albany Plan of Union

  4. Navigation Acts

  5. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

89. The rise of nation-states was significant factor in the development of exploration because it:

  1. centralized power and stimulated trade

  2. diminished economic opportunity

  3. reduced the conflicting national claims over newly discovered lands

  4. reduced the sectional conflict between European nations

  5. helped eliminate Papal claims to the New World

90. The royal governor of the Dominion of New England was:

  1. Jacob Leisler

  2. Thomas Hutchinson

  3. Duke of York

  4. Sir Edmund Andros

  5. Roger Williams

91. Jesuits gradually enjoyed some success in converting the Indians because...

  1. they intermarried with Indian women

  2. they accepted and even appreciated much of Indian culture

  3. they displayed considerable prowess in the wilderness

  4. they were confined to the mission system

  5. they were reclusive monks whose life style the Indians

92. The fundamental causes of Bacon’s Rebellion included ALL EXCEPT:

  1. white settlers fears of Indian attacks

  2. diminished economic opportunity

  3. popular opposition to the restoration of the monarchy

  4. a contest for power within the Virginia elite

  5. political rights for freed servants

93. The English colonies faced all of the following problems EXCEPT:

  1. labor shortages

  2. high infant mortality rates

  3. crowded conditions for living

  4. communication problems with the mother country

  5. Indian conflicts

94. Massachusetts Bay produced two spin-off colonies:_____________ which wished to reproduce Puritan culture, and ______________, which rejected it.

  1. Connecticut and Rhode Island

  2. Rhode Island and New Jersey

  3. New Jersey and New York

  4. New York and Virginia

  5. Virginia and Pennsylvania

95. Quakers were most unlike the Puritans in their:

  1. commercial success with their American colony

  2. opposition to the encumbrances of church ritual

  3. having suffered persecution in England

  4. advocacy of absolute freedom of conscience

  5. peaceful relations with the Indians

96. Those among the “elect” who, as Puritan church members, ruled Massachusetts Bay Colony, justified their rule by invoking the:

  1. doctrine of “grace.”

  2. doctrine of the “covenant”

  3. concept of predestination.

  4. doctrine of good “works”

  5. doctrine of transubstantiation

97. Institutions of higher learning were eventually established in all the following colonies EXCEPT:

  1. Virginia

  2. North Carolina

  3. New Hampshire

  4. New Jersey

  5. Pennsylvania

98. Slaves endured the worst conditions in eighteenth-century:

  1. Maryland

  2. Virginia

  3. North Carolina

  4. South Carolina

  5. Kentucky

99. A Puritan who had been baptized by who could not receive communion or vote on church matters probably joined the church under the terms dictate by:

  1. colonial governor

  2. legislature

  3. Halfway Covenant

  4. the Saybrook Platform

  5. his own personal “calling”

100. Benjamin Franklin pursued all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. inventor

  2. businessman

  3. professional writer

  4. educator

  5. diplomatic statesman










































































































































































































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