Computer architecture and organization unit I modern computer organization


Alternative text-entering methods



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Alternative text-entering methods


An on-screen keyboard controlled with the mouse can be used by users with limited mobility.

Optical character recognition (OCR) is preferable to rekeying for converting existing text that is already written down but not in machine-readable format (for example, a Linotype-composed book from the 1940s). In other words, to convert the text from an image to editable text (that is, a string of character codes), a person could re-type it, or a computer could look at the image and deduce what each character is. OCR technology has already reached an impressive state (for example, Google Book Search) and promises more for the future.

Speech recognition converts speech into machine-readable text (that is, a string of character codes). The technology has already reached an impressive state and is already implemented in various software products. For certain uses (e.g., transcription of medical or legal dictation; journalism; writing essays or novels) it is starting to replace the keyboard; however, it does not threaten to replace keyboards entirely anytime soon. It can, however, interpret commands (for example, "close window" or "undo that") in addition to text. Therefore, it has theoretical potential to replace keyboards entirely (whereas OCR replaces them only for a certain kind of task).

Pointing devices can be used to enter text or characters in contexts where using a physical keyboard would be inappropriate or impossible. These accessories typically present characters on a display, in a layout that provides fast access to the more frequently used characters or character combinations. Popular examples of this kind of input are Graffiti, Dasher and on-screen virtual keyboards.

7. Write short notes on keystroke hacking.

Keystroke hacking


Keystroke logging (often called keylogging) is a method of capturing and recording user keystrokes. While it is used legitimately to measure employee productivity on certain clerical tasks, or by law enforcement agencies to find out about illegal activities, it is also used by hackers for law-breaking, or other illegal activities. Hackers use keyloggers as a means to obtain passwords or encryption keys and thus bypassing other security measures.

Keystroke logging can be achieved by both hardware and software means. Hardware key loggers are attached to the keyboard cable or installed inside standard keyboards. Software keyloggers work on the target computer’s operating system and gain unauthorized access to the hardware, hook into the keyboard with functions provided by the OS, or use remote access software to transmit recorded data out of the target computer to a remote location. Some hackers also use wireless keylogger sniffers to collect packets of data being transferred from a wireless keyboard and its receiver, and then they crack the encryption key being used to secure wireless communications between the two devices.

Anti-spyware applications are able to detect many keyloggers and cleanse them. Responsible vendors of monitoring software support detection by anti-spyware programs, thus preventing abuse of the software. Enabling a firewall does not stop keyloggers per se, but can possibly prevent transmission of the logged material over the net if properly configured. Network monitors (also known as reverse-firewalls) can be used to alert the user whenever an application attempts to make a network connection. This gives the user the chance to prevent the keylogger from "phoning home" with his or her typed information. Automatic form-filling programs can prevent keylogging entirely by not using the keyboard at all. Most keyloggers can be fooled by alternating between typing the login credentials and typing characters somewhere else in the focus window. [7]

Electromagnetic waves released every time key is pressed on the keyboard can be detected by a nearby antenna and interpreted by computer software to work out exactly what was typed. [8]



8. Write about the key switches.

Key switches


"Dome-switch" keyboards (sometimes incorrectly referred to as a membrane keyboards) are the most common type now in use. When a key is pressed, it pushes down on a rubber dome sitting beneath the key. A conductive contact on the underside of the dome touches (and hence connects) a pair of conductive lines on the circuit below. This bridges the gap between them and allows electric current to flow (the open circuit is closed). A scanning signal is emitted by the chip along the pairs of lines in the matrix circuit which connects to all the keys. When the signal in one pair becomes different, the chip generates a "make code" corresponding to the key connected to that pair of lines.

Keycaps are also required for most types of keyboards; while modern keycaps are typically surface-marked, they can also be 2-shot molded, or engraved, or they can be made of transparent material with printed paper inserts

Keys on older IBM keyboards were made with a "buckling spring" mechanism, in which a coil spring under the key buckles under pressure from the user's finger, pressing a rubber dome, whose inside is coated with conductive graphite, which connects two leads below, completing a circuit. This produces a clicking sound, and gives physical feedback for the typist indicating that the key has been depressed.[3][4]When a key is pressed and the circuit is completed, the code generated is sent to the computer either via a keyboard cable (using on-off electrical pulses to represent bits) or over a wireless connection. While not nearly as popular as dome-switch keyboards, these "clicky" keyboards have been making a comeback recently, particularly among writers and others who use keyboards heavily.[5]

A chip inside the computer receives the signal bits and decodes them into the appropriate keypress. The computer then decides what to do on the basis of the key pressed (e.g. display a character on the screen, or perform some action). When the key is released, a break code (different from the make code) is sent to indicate the key is no longer pressed. If the break code is missed (e.g. due to a keyboard switch) it is possible for the keyboard controller to believe the key is pressed down when it is not, which is why pressing then releasing the key again will release the key (since another break code is sent). Other types of keyboards function in a similar manner, the main differences being how the individual key-switches work. For more on this subject refer to the article on keyboard technology.

Certain key presses are special, namely Ctrl-Alt-Delete and SysRq, but what makes them special is a function of software. In the PC architecture, the keyboard controller (the component in the computer that receives the make and break codes) sends the computer's CPU a hardware interrupt whenever a key is pressed or released. The CPU's interrupt routine which handles these interrupts usually just places the key's code in a queue, to be handled later by other code when it gets around to it, then returns to whatever the computer was doing before. The special keys cause the interrupt routine to take a different "emergency" exit instead. This more trusted route is much harder to intercept.

The layout of a keyboard can be changed by remapping the keys. When you remap a key, you tell the computer a new meaning for the pressing of that key. Keyboard remapping is supported at a driver-level configurable within the operating system, or as add-ons to the existing programs.



9. Write short about the system commands.

System commands


The SysRq / Print screen commands often share the same key. SysRq was used in earlier computers as a "panic" button to recover from crashes. The Print screen command used to capture the entire screen and send it to the printer, but in the present it usually puts a screenshot in the clipboard. The Break key/Pause key no longer has a well-defined purpose. Its origins go back to teletype users, who wanted a key that would temporarily interrupt the communications line. The Break key can be used by software in several different ways, such as to switch between multiple login sessions, to terminate a program, or to interrupt a modem connection.

In programming, especially old DOS-style BASIC, Pascal and C, Break is used (in conjunction with Ctrl) to stop program execution. In addition to this, Linux and variants, as well as many DOS programs, treat this combination the same as Ctrl+C. On modern keyboards, the break key is usually labeled Pause/Break. In most Windows environments, the key combination Windows key+Pause brings up the system properties.

The Escape key (often abbreviated Esc) is used to initiate an escape sequence. As most computer users no longer are concerned with the details of controlling their computer's peripherals, the task for which the escape sequences were originally designed, the escape key was appropriated by application programmers, most often to mean Stop. This use continues today in Microsoft Windows's use of escape as a shortcut in dialog boxes for No, Quit, Exit, Cancel, or Abort.

A common application today of the Esc key is as a shortcut key for the Stop button in many web browsers. On machines running Microsoft Windows, prior to the implementation of the Windows key on keyboards, the typical practice for invoking the "start" button was to hold down the control key and press escape. This process still works in Windows XP and Windows Vista.

The Menu key or Application key is a key found on Windows-oriented computer keyboards. It is used launch a context menu with the keyboard rather than with the usual right mouse button. The key's symbol is a small icon depicting a cursor hovering above a menu. This key was created at the same time as the Windows key. This key is normally used when the right mouse button is not present on the mouse. Some Windows public terminals do not have a Menu key on their keyboard to prevent users from right-clicking (however, in many windows applications, a similar functionality can be invoked with the Shift+F10 keyboard shortcut).

PART-C

UNIT-4

COMPUTER PERIPHERALS

1. Write in detail about the computer structure and the power supply.

Basic Computer Structure

1. Logical Structure of a computer includes:

�� BIOS (The Basic Input Output System)

�� CPU (The Processor)

�� Memory / RAM (Temporary Storage)

�� Hard Disk (Permanent Storage)

�� Input / Output Device

�� Communication Channel (E.g. USB)

�� Bus (High Speed Internal Communication)

�� Other Add-on Device…



Structure of a computer

Power Supply

�� Power Supply Convert the

A.C. Voltage to Lower D.C.

Voltage which is suitable

for Computer.

�� Power Supply can be

Classified by their loading

(Watt).


�� Different type of socket for

Different device.



BIOS

�� Basic Input Output System

�� Store all the parameter before the OS Load

(Example is Hard Disk Size, Memory

Speed, Turn on or turn off the build in device

Such as Sound Card, USB, printer etc)

�� Usually stored in Flash Memory

2. Write short notes on mouse.

Mechanical mouse devices


180px-logitechms48
Mechanical mouse, shown with the top cover removed

Operating a mechanical mouse.
1: moving the mouse turns the ball.
2: X and Y rollers grip the ball and transfer movement.
3: Optical encoding disks include light holes.
4: Infrared LEDs shine through the disks.
5: Sensors gather light pulses to convert to X and Y velocities.

Bill English, builder of Engelbart's original mouse,[10] invented the ball mouse in 1972 while working for Xerox PARC.[11] The ball-mouse replaced the external wheels with a single ball that could rotate in any direction. It came as part of the hardware package of the Xerox Alto computer. Perpendicular chopper wheels housed inside the mouse's body chopped beams of light on the way to light sensors, thus detecting in their turn the motion of the ball. This variant of the mouse resembled an inverted trackball and became the predominant form used with personal computers throughout the 1980s and 1990s. The Xerox PARC group also settled on the modern technique of using both hands to type on a full-size keyboard and grabbing the mouse when required.

The ball mouse utilizes two rollers rolling against two sides of the ball. One roller detects the forward–backward motion of the mouse and other the left–right motion. The motion of these two rollers causes two disc-like encoder wheels to rotate, interrupting optical beams to generate electrical signals. The mouse sends these signals to the computer system by means of connecting wires. The driver software in the system converts the signals into motion of the mouse pointer along X and Y axes on the screen.

Ball mice and wheel mice were manufactured for Xerox by Jack Hawley, doing business as The Mouse House in Berkeley, California, starting in 1975.[12][13]

Based on another invention by Jack Hawley, proprietor of the Mouse House, Honeywell produced another type of mechanical mouse.[14][15] Instead of a ball, it had two wheels rotating at off axes. Keytronic later produced a similar product.[16]

Modern computer mice took form at the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) under the inspiration of Professor Jean-Daniel Nicoud and at the hands of engineer and watchmaker André Guignard.[17] This new design incorporated a single hard rubber mouseball and three buttons, and remained a common design until the mainstream adoption of the scroll-wheel mouse during the 1990s.[18]

Another type of mechanical mouse, the "analog mouse" (now generally regarded as obsolete), uses potentiometers rather than encoder wheels, and is typically designed to be plug-compatible with an analog joystick. The "Color Mouse," originally marketed by Radio Shack for their Color Computer (but also usable on MS-DOS machines equipped with analog joystick ports, provided the software accepted joystick input) was the best-known example.

3. Write short notes on optical mouse.

Optical mice


An optical mouse uses a light-emitting diode and photodiodes to detect movement relative to the underlying surface, rather than moving some of its parts – as in a mechanical mouse.

Early optical mice


180px-xerox_optical_mouse_chip
Xerox optical mouse chip

Early optical mice, first demonstrated by two independent inventors in 1980,[19] came in two different varieties:



  1. Some, such as those invented by Steve Kirsch of MIT and Mouse Systems Corporation,[20][21] used an infrared LED and a four-quadrant infrared sensor to detect grid lines printed with infrared absorbing ink on a special metallic surface. Predictive algorithms in the CPU of the mouse calculated the speed and direction over the grid.

  2. Others, invented by Richard F. Lyon and sold by Xerox, used a 16-pixel visible-light image sensor with integrated motion detection on the same chip[22][23] and tracked the motion of light dots in a dark field of a printed paper or similar mouse pad.[24]

These two mouse types had very different behaviors, as the Kirsch mouse used an x-y coordinate system embedded in the pad, and would not work correctly when the pad was rotated, while the Lyon mouse used the x-y coordinate system of the mouse body, as mechanical mice do.

180px-opto_mouse_sensor
The optical sensor from a Microsoft Wireless IntelliMouse Explorer (v. 1.0A)

4. Write short notes on 3D mice.

3D mice


Also known as bats,[30] flying mice, or wands,[31] these devices generally function through ultrasound. Probably the best known example would be 3DConnexion/Logitech's Space Mouse from the early 1990s.

In the late 1990s Kantek introduced the 3D Ring Mouse. This wireless mouse was worn on a ring around a finger, which enabled the thumb to access three buttons. The mouse was tracked in three dimensions by a base station.[32] Despite a certain appeal, it was finally discontinued because it did not provide sufficient resolution.

A recent consumer 3D pointing device is the Wii Remote. While primarily a motion-sensing device (that is, it can determine its orientation and direction of movement), Wii Remote can also detect its spatial position by comparing the distance and position of the lights from the IR emitter using its integrated IR camera (since the nunchuk lacks a camera, it can only tell its current heading and orientation). The obvious drawback to this approach is that it can only produce spatial coordinates while its camera can see the sensor bar.

In February, 2008, at the Game Developers' Conference (GDC), a company called Motion4U introduced a 3D mouse add-on called "OptiBurst" for Autodesk's Maya application. The mouse allows users to work in true 3D with 6 degrees of freedom.[citation needed] The primary advantage of this system is speed of development with organic (natural) movement.



5. Write about ps/2 and protocol.

PS/2 interface and protocol


For more details on this topic, see PS/2 connector.

With the arrival of the IBM PS/2 personal-computer series in 1987, IBM introduced the eponymous PS/2 interface for mice and keyboards, which other manufacturers rapidly adopted. The most visible change was the use of a round 6-pin mini-DIN, in lieu of the former 5-pin connector. In default mode (called stream mode) a PS/2 mouse communicates motion, and the state of each button, by means of 3-byte packets.[35] For any motion, button press or button release event, a PS/2 mouse sends, over a bi-directional serial port, a sequence of three bytes, with the following format:






Bit 7

Bit 6

Bit 5

Bit 4

Bit 3

Bit 2

Bit 1

Bit 0

Byte 1

YV

XV

YS

XS

1

MB

RB

LB

Byte 2

X movement

Byte 3

Y movement

Here, XS and YS represent the sign bits of the movement vectors, XV and YV indicate an overflow in the respective vector component, and LB, MB and RB indicate the status of the left, middle and right mouse buttons (1 = pressed). PS/2 mice also understand several commands for reset and self-test, switching between different operating modes, and changing the resolution of the reported motion vectors.

In Linux, a PS/2 mouse is detected as a /dev/psaux device.



6. Explain about in detail about keyboard.


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