Constructing Expertise: Surmounting Performance Plateaus by Tasks, by Tools, and by Techniques



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2. Background
2.1. How does the perception of action affect action control?
Maintaining fixation rather than moving the eyes can draw upon executive control. An interesting extension of this idea applies to tennis playing. The very best tennis players direct their gaze differently than less skilled players … the best players keep their gaze where the racquet made contact with the ball after the ball was hit. Less skilled tennis players tend to follow the ball with their eyes (Lafont, 2007). Planning to maintain fixation may confer the advantage of focusing attention more fully on hitting the ball in just the right way. (From Rosenbaum, 2010, p. Champion Tetris players during the Classic Tetris World Championships (CTWC) appear not to move their eyes as they play. Less skilled players, such as the 492 we sampled for our study, definitely move their eyes (Gray et al., a) with the more novice student players moving their eyes indifferent patterns than the slightly more expert ones.
The study of Perceptual-Motor Skill has always been a strong part of the study of human expertise with some of our current theories and controversies tracing their roots back to the early 19th century (as discussed by, Shin, Proctor, & Capaldi, 2010) and with a strong continuing focus in the motor learning community (e.g., Wulf, 2013). In the last two decades,
much attention has turned to (a) theories of event coding (Hommel, 1998, p. 143), (b) event structure and event segmentation (Zacks & Swallow, 2007; Zacks & Tversky, 2001), and
(c) event-predictive cognition (EPCog) (Baldwin & Kosie, 2021; Butz, Achimova, Bilkey, &
Knott, 2021; Kuperberg, 2021; Loschky, Larson, Smith, & Magliano, 2020). Each of these three is important for understanding the nature of skill in Tetris.
2.1.1. Theory of event coding
Our title for Section 2.1, How Does the Perception of Action Affect Action Control?, is taken from a question posed by Hommel (1998), but the question itself is puzzling … how could the event of perceiving an action affect something which comes before it namely,
the action itself Answering this answer is both the focus and the contribution of the Theory
of Event Coding (TEC) (Hommel, 2019; Hommel et al., The theory’s three most general assumptions (Hommel, 2019) are that goals for perception and action area) each coded the same way (the common coding assumption, (b) through distributed feature codes, and (c) which refer to distal features of the represented event. The challenge of the common coding assumption is the claim that part of the re-afferent signal comes from the movement itself, for example, from a hand movement or ahead movement,
and that such goal-directed movements can be made without any conscious knowledge about the motor system.
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