The question-answer basis of tutoring is actively used in traditional educational strategies. At same time, the question component (frequently with normative obvious or latent answers) is formed and shown by the teacher. The pupil reacts to this component, generating appropriate answers which are estimated and used by the teacher so that he could influence the pupil. The teachers aim is to get feedback from the class. However, it is quite evident that the pupil doesnt take any interest in active work with questions, whereas the teacher remains aloof from estimating the pupils actions about generation of questions. This fact cant be satisfactory. The generation of questions is necessary for any kind of activity. Such actions should be trained and the mastered experience should be under control.
The authors have investigated some opportunities of automated training, in which the essence (and causality) of the teachers and the trainees actions are connected with “questions”. The following actions form the basis of the investigations:
1. The question is a nature-artificial phenomenon that reveals itself in attempts of a person (or a group of people) to apply some (professional) experience E for reacting in a certain situation. The question represents a “mismatch ” between the potentially necessary experience and the experience, which is available. The mismatch is used for controlling activity.
2. Each question that any pupil has should be casual and be generated under natural conditions (when the experience is used by the trainee or when a typical professional task is fulfilled).
3. The trainee should be able to detect, identify and code such questions and also make operative “catalogues” with the system of “answers” that are required for doing the task.
4. The teacher compares the schoolboys “question-answer catalogue” with the “normative question-answer catalogue”, estimates the results of the comparison and uses the comparisons and the estimation for controlling the process of training. The teacher has made the “normative question-answer catalogue” for every typical professional task beforehand.
The results of the investigations influenced the choice of such specifications in question-answer processes in the acts of decision making and development of the question-answer processor WIQA that provides detection, registration and processing of controlled question-answer structures. The automation of training was looked upon as a very important appendix of question-answer technologies and a toolkit WIQA. First of all, it is very important to take into consideration the comparison and estimation of question-answer structures when talking about the use of technologies in the process of training.
the task like that was defined as a task of a multicriteria choice under conditions of uncertainty.
To compare the hierarchy of question-answer structures there was developed and investigated their question model, in which:
an appropriate answer was joined to each of the questions and this formation got the status of the “confirming question”;
every question is represented by a structured set of attributes that contribute to its detection and identification;
there was determined a system of potential typical mismatches between question structures.
The method of hierarchy analysis is used to estimate the differences between the structures made by the pupil and his teacher. This method is adapted to the specification of question structures and to the system of typical mismatches.
A.B. Vinogradov, V.V. Shishkin TAKING INTO OPERATION OF THE ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL MANUALS AND MULTIMEDIA TRAINING PROGRAMS AT TECHNICAL UNIVERSITIES
The work on introduction of CBT technology in the educational process is carried out in Ulyanovsk State Technical University. The creation of a Centre of development of standard techniques of the electronic educational manuals (EEM) and multimedia training programs (MTP) was one of step in it. The main problems of a Center are to develop of technique of EEM and MTP creation, preparation of the experts among the teachers of university and creation of a conditions for universal CBT introduction.
The work is carried out in three stages. At the first stage are developed and introduced the techniques of transformation of traditional printed educational methodical materials into electronic with adding special EEM features. The educational methodical materials adapted to CBT will be treated at this stage.
At the second stage the premises for writing of new educational methodical materials specially for issuing in an electronic aspect are created. The basic performers at this stage will be the experts mastering successfully the CBT technique and tools at the first stage.
The third stage assumes introduction of MTP creation techniques. It is principal that MTP creation is the task for a group of the staff unlike of work above EEM creation. It is explained by complicated MTP structure ÌÎÏ and it's singularities. The MTP creation includes the following. Development of the script (about 80 % of all work), creation of a video and audio, preparation of a graphic material, imposition of a yield.
At technical university the most of studied subjects are a special type, that determines a high EEM and MTP saturation by a graphics and video.
V.A. Borisov, A.B. Vinogradov, O.J. Nikonova, V.V. Shishkin TECHNIQUE OF CREATION ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL MANUAL IN THE FORM OF HELP FILES
In connection with continuous increase of a load on the high school teachers the time «of alive dialogue» of each concrete student with the teacher is reduced. Therefore the role of independent preparation of the students increases. The self-preparation of the students on majority of engineering disciplines is possible only with the help of printed materials - book, text-books, periodic issues. The work with printed materials is very labour and time-consuming and does not provide feed-backs with the reader. At the same time it is known, that the dialogue in the studying process helps leanings a material. The electronic educational manual (EEM) as interactive multimedia tutors can combine visual representation of a material and dialogue with student. For today there is a set of tutors in general educational subjects: mathematics, physics, Russian and foreign languages, but authors don't know any tutor on narrow engineering disciplines.
The authors offer a technique of creation EEM as Windows help files. A choice of such EEM form is not accidental. Basic premises for such choice were:
the creation of help files is produced with the help of free-of-charge or conditionally free-of-charge spread programs;
the EEM survey in the form of Windows help files does not require special software;
because of the help file is hypertext structure there are wide possibilities for searching and survey of EEM;
there is a possibility of organization of simple dialogues with the user by means of the hypertext.
At preparation of creation EEM technique the authors have stopped the choice on the program EasyHelp. As basic advantages of the given program it is possible to mark it tight integration with the most popular text editor Microsoft Word and wide gang of macros and possibilities for tuning properties of help files.
In the report technique of EEM creation the form of Windows help files with the help of the program EasyHelp are considered.