The steady growth of a load on the teachers of high school leaves ever less than time for alive dialogue with the concrete student. Therefore, a role of independent preparation of the students increases. The work with the books and other printed materials requires of the students of persistence, assiduity, careful understanding of the read material, but can not ensure objective monitoring of a material learning.
The electronic educational manual (EEM) in the form of the PDF-document allows very precisely to transmit printed materials and additionally to organize "dialogue" with the student. EEM in such form are electronic "reprint" of printed issuing. Portable Document Format means that on any computer possessing the program of survey of such documents the document will look completely uniformly. So, for example, EEM can contain a series of questions on which the student should answer in accordance with EEM perusal and they can automatically be treated to save or even to transmit on a web.
There is a lot of tutors in various general educational subjects at the present, but tutors in special subjects practically do not exist. The given technique allows the teacher with the help of personal computer to create EEM in the subjects that undoubtedly will help the students to study itself these subjects more productively.
The authors offer a technique of creation EEM as PDF-documents. Basic premises for such choice are:
- Simplicity of EEM creation as the PDF-document;
- Possibility to serve EEM from unauthorized access;
- Possibility of embedding in EEM of images, sound and video fragments;
- Possibility of EEM addition by the various interactive elements: hypertext, buttons and fields for text due to wide variety of tools;
- Possibility of PDF-documents electronic libraries shaping with convenient functions of searching;
Adobe Acrobat was selected As tools of EEM creation in a PDF-format the programs. As basic advantages of the given software package it is possible to mark it the widest possibilities for work with PDF-documents.
In the report are considered creation techniques of EEM as the c PDF-document with the help of the program Adobe Acrobat.
A.O.Kolesnikov, V.N.Negoda USAGE OF SQL-DATABASES AS A BASIS FOR THE TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM OF COMPUTER-BASED LEARNING
The data used during computer-based learning are badly structured. In this connection in the majority of the automated systems of training (CAL - computer-assisted learning) special languages of the scripts are used, where the educational material mixes up with operators of presentation of the data, processing of the answers of student, accumulation of statistics, handle of training progress. The idea of usage of a DBMS oriented on the SQL language in the automated learning systems is rather new. The analysis of such approach and the practical experiments on his implementation with reference to the task of construction telecommunication CAL (TCAL) allow to formulate the following list of possibilities achieved due to SQL-databases:
All information resources of educational course are divided into parts and are located in the database. And, the separate parts can assign the defined sets of properties with the purpose of support of flexible mechanisms of process control of creation of various educational courses intersected on an educational material. That is, above the same database of the educational information many educational courses can be easily constructed.
The splitting of material of educational courses on recording of a DB allows to build the scripts of training dynamically during the execution of educational course, basing on the registration of results of training and various mechanisms of random sampling in order to rise of unpredictability of questions in the tests of knowledge.
Structuring of the educational information through imbedding it in the database allows with the help of a query language easily to build at the request of trained the diversified compositions of information resources according to keywords, name of themes and objects.
The mechanisms, built-in in a DBMS, allow easily linking a DB of protocols of training to a DB of educational course in order to analyse its quality. The SQL language gives rich possibilities for such the analysis.
The client - server model initially fixed in a basis of the SQL-server, allows to realize TCAL as the distributed information system, assigning control functions, storage, information processing on the different servers, thus reaching reasonable relation a response time and cost of used resources.
The concentration of the items of information about a course of training in one shared database allows to apply such motivation methods based on comparison of successes trained.
Usage of a standard query language to the database allows the teachers having sufficient qualification to formulate searches to the database independently outside built-in in TCAL means of generation of the reports about a course of training. I.e. at backlog of development of the interface system components, the teacher can independent extract and to use the information from the database.
At limited usage of stored procedures and triggers is provided good interoperability of the system of training. So during experiments the migration of the system of training from MS SQL server to Oracle was possible to fulfil for 1,5 hours.
The combination of SQL-databases with the Internet/Intranet technology enables to use all resources of a data representation of Internet (hypertext, graphics, animation, audio, video, Java-applets, Java Scripts, VB Scripts) at focusing all functions of CAL administration at one place.
During research of construction TCAL the system was constructed, in which such functionality is integrated: creation of the automated educational courses, arranging of the scripts of training, authority of access and operation with student groups, training, testing of knowledge, support of educational logs and their usage by the teachers. The operation of all categories of the users (students, writers of educational courses, teachers, managers) is made extremely in the environment of a WEB-browser. Thus the methods of data representation in records of the SQL-database are hidden from the user. That is the writer of educational course works in the environment similar RAD.