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A.A. Rafanovich, A.A.Smagin THE PROBLEM OF AUTOMATIC DECISION OF A CLASS OF MATHEMATICAL TASKS



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A.A. Rafanovich, A.A.Smagin THE PROBLEM OF AUTOMATIC DECISION OF A CLASS OF MATHEMATICAL TASKS

The article considers one of the possible approaches to the development of systems for the automatic decision of mathematical problems writtren on the natural language.

The considered approach of automation is based on the methods of expert systems, as well as on using a theory of conceptual graphs offered by J. Sowa.

There are described all main stages of automatic decision of a textual problem, however the basic attention we paid to the most complex of them, i.e. reduction of conceptual model of a task to its mathematical model.

If the model M is understood as a set of conceptual structures, then the steps of deciding a problem in general way can be present as follows:


  1. MS=Mn Mn-1… M0

  2. M
    S=Mn Mn-1… Mk=MA Mk-1… M0

Notation: MS - initial model of the task

MA - a model of any standard mathematical situation, final task model.

M0 - model with the zero difficulty

The step of the given transformation chain is the one-period usage of an information operator, accordingly n represents the amount of using the operators required for the reduction of the initial task model to the one of zero difficulty, which could be interpreted also as the difficulty of decision of the problem.

Making a theory of automatic decision of problems enables to define a metrics on the space of problems based on determination of problem difficulty, that in turn allows to formalize a definition of a problem class. In the report some of the possible approaches to the difficulty of mathematical problems measurement based on the modified theory of difficulty of J. Traub are considered (Difficulty of the problem is defined as a difficulty of optimum algorithm). Also some features and main concepts of programming the intellectual systems by means of new designed problem-oriented language CONST are considered.

SESSION 7 STUDENTS’ SESSION


А.О.Kolesnikov, Z.Kuehn TECHNOLOGY OF CREATION OF PHOTOGALLERIES IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF INTERNET ON THE BASIS OF A DBMS ORACLE

The creation of photogalleries in the environment the Internet on the first sight is the trivial task of development of a set of HTML-files coupled among themselves definitely and containing necessary illustrations and the textual information. However in a case, when the photogallery contains very much plenty of photos and the same photos appear in several sets, the task of shaping and modification of appropriate Web-pages essentially becomes complicated. To reduce complexity of such operation it is possible at the expense of a storage of photos in a data base. Thus there is a possibility of support of the advanced requests of the users providing as search, and shaping special sets, fitting to the defined tags.

The development of a means of creation photogalleries in the environment the Internet on the basis of a DBMS Oracle is carried out now within the framework of the joint project fulfilled by forces of the technicians UlSTU and high technical school of city Darmstadt. Contents of photogallery should reflect all areas of cooperating of two educational institutions. The tables of data bases provide a storage of photos, their classification tags and descriptions used in various sets.

The performers of the project geographically are remote. For support of their operation above a common data base two methods are used:



  • Transfer of variations on an electron mail and embedding of these variations in a data base manually;

  • Data modification through the special server application and package of the dialogue forms of Web-page of the environment of development of photogalleries operating through CGI.

The defined part of operations on creation of photogallery is fulfilled in a mode to direct operation from a DBMS Oracle through telnet. In the brought below table all fundamental operations fulfilled at creation photogallery, and interfaces, used at it are listed:


Function

Operation with Oracle through telnet

Interaction through CGI

Usage of an electron mail

Creation of a package of the tables

+

-

-

Handle of access rights of the users

+

-

+

Upgrade of a data base

-

+

+

Debugging of the software

+

-

+

Other operations

-

-

+


G.A. Artemiev, N.O. Gracheva, R. Kamolov MULTIMEDIA TEST OF INTELLECTUAL POSSIBILITIES OF THE MAN

The tests of various types such as the tests for enter in HIGH SCHOOLS, tests of offsets and examinations, and also interactive lectures, training programs and many other tests and programs. are wide spread in many countries of the world now. For example, IQ test, permitting to estimate a level of intelligence, is used in many countries at enter in various educational institutions and even in some establishments. Such test has been created in a Centre of multimedia engineering development and is prepared for issuing.

The test includes an enter picture, main menu, help, tests immediately, analysis of the answers and demonstrating of the right solutions. At passage from one units to another, for example, from the menu to the tests, the audio and video fragments play. The help represents guiding on use the program with the sound explanations and demonstrating of basic operations. The help is called from the basic menu, which also ensures calls of the tests and exit from the program. After the analysis of the answers and count of outcomes, the user has the possibility to look through the right answers on problems of the test with the explanations. Also program is supplemented by two logic games.

At development of the test the authors used the following software: 3D Studio MAX, Gold Wave and multimedia package Tool Book.

ToolBook is a gang of constructions of the software, which can be used for development of applications for Windows. The applications ToolBook have all properties of applications for Windows - graphic user interface, programming controlled interruptions, ability to work with other applications Windows.

ToolBook allows to work practically with all types of graphic files, to reproduce a video and audio fragments, to create animation and graphic plants of any type of complexity. As ToolBook can use all functions Windows and to insert objects (OLE). The use of the programming language OpenScript facilitates work for the people knowing the English language considerably. ToolBook-II allows to create the programs for work in computer nets and Internet.

Due to such wide variety of tools, ToolBook allows to create the testing programs on a high level, using animation and sound support.


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