5 4. Other types of DM: ▪ Other specific types of diabetes result from specific genetic conditions (such as maturity-onset diabetes of youth, surgery, drugs, malnutrition, infections, and other illnesses. Genetic defects of β cell function Genetic defects of insulin action Genetic syndromes Down’s syndrome Pancreatic damage : Neoplasm in pancreas ▪ Such types of diabetes may account for 1% to 5% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. A. Secondary DM: - Secondary causes of Diabetes mellitus include ▪ Acromegaly. (↑ growth hormone which is diabetogenic) ▪ Cushing syndrome. (↑ corticosteroid secretion, or corticosteroid drugs) ▪ Infectious disorders Cytomegalovirus ▪ Thyrotoxicosis. ▪ Chronic pancreatitis. ▪ Drug induced hyperglycemia 1) Beta-blockers: Inhibit insulin secretion. 2) Calcium Channel Blockers: Inhibits secretion of insulin by interfering with cytosolic calcium release.