Definition of Diabetes mellitus (DM)



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B. Microangiopathy:
- thickening of basement membrane of capillary(small blood vessels) interfere with the oxygen supply to the tissues.
C. Hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis:
- Type I diabetes are highly susceptible to diabetic ketoacidosis:
• Pancreas → no insulin → glucose cannot enter cells and remains in bloodstream (Glucagon)
• Fat lipolysis → glycerol + free fatty acids.
• Glycerol → glucose for cellular use.
• Fatty acids → ketones →↑ ketone levels in body fluids
• Ketones are excreted in the urine, accompanied by large amounts of water (electrolyte loss and dehydration from excessive urination.
• Hydrogen ion concentration (pH) (alterations in the bicarbonate buffer system) the blood become acidic. Diabetic ketoacidosis Untreated diabetic ketoacidosis can result in coma (CNS toxicity)or death.




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