Draft national policy framework alternative fuels infrastructure for transport in ireland



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FOREWORD

  • EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


    Ireland has expressed its intention, through a national policy position, to transition to a low carbon economy by 2050. The commitment of the energy sector to do the same is reflected in the White Paper on Energy Policy published in 2015. Transport, as part of the energy sector, will make its contribution to this transition.
    A low carbon transport sector is underpinned by Smarter Travel: A New Transport Policy for Ireland 2009–2020, which was published by the Department of Transport in 2009. This policy set out to achieve five key goals in transport:


    • Reduce overall travel demand

    • Maximise the efficiency of the transport network

    • Reduce reliance on fossil fuels

    • Reduce transport emissions

    • Improve accessibility to transport

    These goals remain the cornerstone of transport policy and are fully aligned to the objectives of this Draft National Policy Framework.



    Reducing reliance on fossil fuels and switching to the use of alternatives will be an integral part of the transport sector’s efforts to decarbonise, and this will also be reflected in Ireland’s first National Mitigation Plan, which is due to be published in 2017. The Draft Framework outlined in this document represents a first step in communicating a longer-term vision for transport to 2050. While a multi-faceted set of measures (energy efficiency, demand management, modal shift, behavioural change and fiscal incentives) will be deployed to help decarbonise transport over this period, this particular Draft Framework will focus exclusively on reducing transport’s dependency on oil through the provision of infrastructure and common standards for alternative fuels. Targets for infrastructure will be underpinned by assumptions on vehicle uptake, through the use of fleet modelling and investment capacity scenarios.
    In order to meet climate targets and air quality objectives, the transport sector must transition away from the use of oil over the next two decades, moving predominantly to electricity for passenger cars, commuter rail and taxis by 2030. Natural gas, along with some electrification, will provide an interim alternative solution for larger vehicles, i.e. freight and buses. Biofuels will also play a key role over the next ten years or so.
    Post-2030, it is likely that hydrogen will increase its penetration across the entire fleet spectrum with a correlated decline in the predominance of vehicles run solely on fossil fuels. It is Ireland’s ambition that all new cars and vans sold in this country from 2030 will be zero emission (or zero emission-capable). The freight and bus sectors will continue on a positive trajectory towards full penetration of low emissions vehicles (LEVs).
    1. INTRODUCTION

    1.1.Why are we developing this Draft Framework?


    Arising from policy objectives to decarbonise transport, reduce reliance on oil and promote the use of cleaner fuels, the European Commission developed and published the Clean Power for Transport: A European Alternative Fuels Strategy in 2013. The aim of this document was to establish a long-term policy framework to guide technological development and investment in the deployment of alternative fuels and give confidence to consumers.
    Based on this 2013 strategy, the European Parliament and the Council adopted Directive 2014/94/EU on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in October 2014. The directive requires member states to develop national policy frameworks (NPFs) for the market development of alternative fuels and related infrastructure. It also foresees the use of common technical specifications for recharging and refuelling stations.
    The directive, when implemented, will help to:


    • substitute fossil oil sources in energy supply to transport

    • enhance the environmental performance of the transport sector by reducing emissions

    • diversify the fuel mix in transport

    • improve air quality

    • enhance the interoperability of alternative fuelled vehicles across the EU

    • achieve EU Climate and Energy Package targets (known as 20-20-20) by 2020 and a low carbon economy by 2050.

    1.2.What will be achieved by this Draft Framework?


    This Draft Framework will set targets to achieve an appropriate level of alternative fuels infrastructure for transport, which is relative to national policy and Irish market needs. Non-infrastructure-based incentives to support the use of the infrastructure and the uptake of alternative fuels will also be included within the scope of this Draft Framework.
    This Draft Framework will not be setting or amending policy on the use of biofuels. Biofuels policy is already addressed through the implementation of the Renewable Energy Directive and the Fuel Quality Directive. A Biofuels Obligation Scheme is in place to oblige all suppliers of road transport fuel to include a proportion of biofuel in their fuel mix. The obligation will be increased on a phased basis until 2020 with a view to contributing towards the mandatory 10% minimum renewable energy target for transport (RES-T) as set out in the Renewable Energy Directive.
    This Draft Framework has been developed in parallel with existing national climate and energy policies (for example, the White Paper on Energy Policy), as well as those currently under development, such as the National Mitigation Plan.

    1.3.What fuels do we currently use?


    More than 90% of the energy used in transport within Europe is derived from crude oil, most of which is imported (more than 90%) at a cost of more than one billion euro per day1.
    In 2013, oil dependency levels in Ireland were the fourth highest in the EU, at 49% of all energy use. All of Ireland’s oil is imported, which cost an estimated €4.4 billion in 2014. In that year, 97% of energy used in the transport sector was derived from oil-based products. This near total dependence on a single fuel source is unique to the transport sector.2
    At the end of 2008, the EU agreed to set a target for each member state, such that renewable energy sources (including biofuels, renewable hydrogen or ‘green’ electricity) should account for at least 10% of the energy consumed within the transport sector by 2020, known as the RES-T. The average share of renewable energy sources in transport fuel consumption across the 28 EU member states was 5.9% in 2014, ranging from highs of 21.6% in Finland and 19.2% in Sweden to less than 1.0% in Spain and Estonia.3
    In the same year, final energy consumption in the transport sector in Ireland was dominated by imported fossil fuels (97.4%). Renewable energy sources in transport (RES-T) reached 3.1% in 2014, or 5.2% when weightings are applied to biofuels from waste and second-generation biofuels.4 Apart from some negligible use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), petrol and diesel accounted for the remainder of fuel used in road transport in Ireland in 2014.

    1.4.What other policies are relevant to this Draft Framework?

    EU legislation – Setting CO2 Emissions Performance Standards for Light Duty Vehicles


    In 2009, the EU introduced legislation to provide for mandatory emission reduction targets for new cars being sold on the European market. Regulation (EU) No 443/2009 and Regulation (EU) No 510/2011 have become the cornerstone of the EU's strategy to improve the fuel economy of cars. Similar targets have been set for new vans and, this year, the EU has announced plans to introduce the same for trucks. The implementation of these regulations, along with complementary domestic taxation measures (CO2-based motor tax and vehicle registration tax {VRT}), has resulted in a dramatic shift towards the purchase of more fuel-efficient vehicles in Ireland.

    EU White Paper on Transport


    The EU White Paper on Transport, which was published in 2011, set the scene for achieving a European-wide transformation of the transport sector with a commitment to deliver on the following by 2050:


    • no more conventionally fuelled cars in cities

    • 40% use of sustainable low carbon fuels in aviation

    • at least 40% cut in shipping emissions

    • 60% cut in transport emissions by the middle of the century

    The paper’s roadmap placed a particular emphasis on urban transport and the need to support a shift to cleaner cars and cleaner fuels. It set a goal of achieving a 50% shift away from conventionally fuelled cars by 2030, with a view to phasing them out in cities by 2050. It also seeks to achieve a target of CO2-free movement of goods in major urban centres by 2030.


    Supporting the use of cleaner cars and fuels in urban environments will also integrate with the Commission’s Clean Air Policy Package, which includes A Clean Air Programme for Europe and which sets out new interim objectives for reducing health and environmental impacts up to 2030. It also defines the necessary emission reduction requirements for the key pollutants and the policy agenda that will be necessary to achieve the objectives.

    European Strategy for Low Emission Mobility


    In July 2016, the EU published a new European Strategy for Low Emission Mobility, which identifies the key levers that are required, according to the Commission, to tilt the transport sector in the right direction in terms of:


    • fuel efficiency

    • low emission alternative energy

    • greater use of low and zero emission vehicles.5

    The strategy reaffirms the 2011 White Paper’s ambition that ‘by mid-century, greenhouse gas emissions from transport will need to be at least 60% lower than in 1990 and be firmly on the path towards zero.’ It also states that ‘emissions from air pollutants from transport that harm our health need to be drastically reduced without delay.



    Smarter Travel – A New Transport Policy for Ireland 2009–2020


    At a national level, Smarter Travel – A New Transport Policy for Ireland 2009–20206 was developed to achieve a number of overarching goals, but addressing Ireland’s reliance on fossil fuels was pivotal to the development of this policy. Transport emissions in Ireland had been on a continuous upward trajectory since 1990, peaking to record levels in 2007 just prior to the publication of the policy in 2009.
    Between 1990 and 2014, transport emissions in Ireland increased by 121% and the transport share of overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions increased from 9.1% to 19.5%. During this period, there was a significant increase in both economic output and car ownership levels – from around 800,000 cars in 1990 to 1.95 million in 2014 (+144%). These trends are reflected in Figure 1.


    Figure 1 Economy and transport indictors in Ireland 1990–2014 (CSO/EPA)
    Transport sector CO2 emissions in 2014 stood at 11.1 Mt, down 21.3% from a peak of 14.1 Mt in 2007. Despite transport emissions falling 28.1% over the period 2007–2012, private car emissions remained relatively constant, which shows the relative inelasticity of transport demand. The decrease following 2007 can be attributed to the economic downturn, improving vehicle standards and the increased use of biofuels. However, demand for transport is experiencing renewed growth and there has been a steady increase in emissions since 2013.
    It is estimated that in 2014 the private car accounted for 56% of transport CO2 emissions in Ireland. The remaining emissions arose from road freight (25%), fuel tourism (9%), public passengers (4%), domestic aviation and navigation (2%) and rail (1%).


    Estimated 2014 transport emissions by sector

    Kilotonnes CO2

    % share

    Private car

    6,175

    55.7

    Heavy duty vehicle (HDV) road freight

    1,836

    16.6

    Light goods vehicle (LGV) road freight

    898

    8.1

    Fuel tourism7

    945

    8.5

    Public passenger

    452

    4.1

    Rail

    126

    1.1

    Domestic aviation

    11

    0.1

    Navigation

    222

    2.0

    Unspecified

    417

    3.8

    Total

    11,082

    100

    Table 1 Transport CO2 emissions by mode 2014 (SEAI 2015)

    EU emissions policy


    A key distinction in EU policy is between emissions covered by the EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) and other emissions (non-ETS emissions). The ETS covers the large energy users, including electricity, commercial airlines, cement, and large food, drink and pharmaceutical plants. The target reduction in emissions for the ETS sector (to be achieved by participating companies) is 21% by 2020.
    All other sectors comprise the non-ETS sectors. These include transport, households, industry (excluding energy-intensive industry), agriculture, and private and public services. In the non-ETS sector (where it is the responsibility of member states to achieve the reduction in emissions), the total EU target is a reduction of 10% by 2020, compared to 2005.
    This 10% EU target was allocated across member states through the Effort Sharing Decision, which gave Ireland a target to achieve a 20% reduction in non-ETS emissions by 2020 relative to 2005 (joint highest target reduction among member states with Denmark and Luxembourg). There are also interim annual targets to be achieved over the 2013 to 2020 period.

    National Policy Position on Climate Action and Low Carbon Development


    Within the national context, the extent of the challenge associated with reducing greenhouse gas emissions is reflected in the publication of Ireland’s National Policy Position on Climate Action and Low Carbon Development in April 2014. This policy commits the non-ETS in Ireland to collectively reduce carbon emissions by 80% by 2050. Transport, as the second largest emitter in the non-ETS, will have a significant role to play in meeting this policy objective.

    White Paper on Energy Policy


    The goal to decarbonise is also reflected in the White Paper on Energy Policy, which was published by the former Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources in 2015. The paper commits to transitioning to a low carbon energy future and sets out a framework to guide policy and the actions the Irish Government intends to take in the energy sector from now up to 2030. While reflecting on the roles of renewable energy and improved energy efficiency in reducing emissions, the paper also reinforces the need for greater energy security through the diversification of our energy supplies.
    Alternative energy and fuels have many co-benefits, not least for air quality and health. In recent years, policy changes to reduce carbon in transport have contributed to an unintended consequence of increasing the uptake of diesel cars. In 2015, diesel cars outsold petrol at a rate of more than 2.5 to 1. The resulting increase in the number of diesel vehicles, particularly in cities, is giving rise to concerns about the health implications of higher NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide), sulphur oxide (SOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions associated with these vehicles.

    National Clean Air Strategy


    In order to comply with new and emerging EU legislation on clean air (as referred to above), as well as helping to tackle climate change, the Department of Communications, Climate Action and Environment (DCCAE) is in the process of establishing a National Clean Air Strategy. The strategy will consider a wide range of national policies that are relevant to clean air policy, including transport policy.

    1. STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AND APPROPRIATE ASSESSMENT


    In accordance with European and national legislation, the Department of Transport, Tourism and Sport (DTTAS) carried out a Strategic Environmental Assessment under the SEA Directive (2001/42/EC) and an Appropriate Assessment under the Habitats Directive (92/42/EEC), which informed the preparation of this Draft Framework.

    1.5.Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)


    SEA is the process by which environmental considerations are integrated into the preparation of plans and programmes.
    The European Communities Environmental Assessment of Certain Plans and Programmes Regulations (S.I. 435 of 2004 as amended by S.I. 200 of 2011) stipulate that SEA is mandatory for certain plan/programmes which are prepared in a number of specified areas, including agriculture, energy and transport, and which set the framework for future development consent of projects listed in Annexes I and II to Environmental Impact Assessment Directive 85/337/EEC, or where it has been determined under the Habitats Directive that an assessment is required.

    A pre-screening check, which was carried out by the DTTAS, determined that the Draft Framework would be considered a plan/programme under the administrative provisions criteria stipulated in Article 9(1) of the aforementioned regulations. Accordingly, SEA as required under the 2004 Regulations (as amended) was carried out as part of the preparation of this Draft Framework.


    The results of the SEA process have been fully incorporated into the preparation and making of this Draft Framework. The resulting environmental report has been published as a separate document in conjunction with this Draft Framework.

    1.6.Appropriate Assessment (AA)


    The EU Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora, better known as the Habitats Directive, provides legal protection for habitats and species of European importance, through the establishment and conservation of an EU-wide network of sites known as the Natura 2000 Network. These are Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) designated under the Habitats Directive, and Special Protection Areas (SPAs) designated under the Conservation of Wild Birds Directive (Directive 79/409/EEC as codified by Directive 2009/147/EC), collectively referred to as ‘European Sites’. Article 6(3) establishes the requirement for an AA of plans and projects likely to affect European Sites.
    Pursuant to Regulation 27 of the European Communities (Birds and Natural Habitats) Regulations S.I. 477 of 2011, all public authorities
    having or exercising functions, including consent functions, which may or have implications for or effects on nature conservation shall exercise those functions in compliance with and, as appropriate, so as to secure compliance with, the requirements of the Habitats Directive and the Birds Directive8 and these Regulations.
    And, among other things,
    shall take the appropriate steps to avoid in European Sites the deterioration of natural habitats and the habitats of species as well as the disturbance of the species for which the areas have been designated in so far as such disturbance could be significant in relation to the objectives of the Habitats Directive.9
    The EU Habitats Directive places strict legal obligations on member states to ensure the protection, conservation and management of the habitats and species of conservation interest in all European Sites. In particular Article 6 of the Directive obliges member states to undertake an ‘appropriate assessment’ for any plan or project which may have a likely significant effect on any European Site. The outcomes of such AAs fundamentally affect the decisions that may lawfully be made by competent national authorities (including planning authorities and An Bord Pleanála) in relation to the approval of plans or projects.
    Plans and projects must be screened for AA and full AA must be carried out unless it can be established through screening that the plan or project in question will not have a likely significant effect on any European Site. Furthermore, unless an AA concludes definitively that a plan or project will not adversely affect the integrity of a European Site(s), approval for the plan or project cannot lawfully be given, other than in the exceptional circumstances provided for in Article 6(4) of the Habitats Directive.
    The DTTAS concluded, on completion of the AA screening, that the potential for likely significant effects on European Sites could not be ruled out and the Draft Framework should undergo AA.

    The AA process has been carried out in parallel with the SEA process and a Natura Impact Statement (NIS) has been published as a separate document in conjunction with this Draft Framework.


    Although the requirement for AA is a statutory requirement, it is important to highlight at an early stage that any plans or projects arising from the implementation of the Draft Framework, for example alternative fuel infrastructure development, will be subject to the requirements of the EU Habitats Directive as outlined previously. In order to acknowledge and reinforce the importance of the requirement for AA, the following overarching protective policy measure in relation to AA forms an integral part of this Draft Framework:
    Ensure that all projects and associated works arising from the Draft Framework are subject to screening for AA and/or full AA, whichever is deemed necessary, to ensure there are no likely significant effects on European Sites and/or no adverse effects to European Site integrity. The requirements of Article 6(3) and, where necessary, Article 6(4) of the EU Habitats Directive must be fully satisfied.

    The DTTAS has anticipated that the statutory requirement for AA may not necessarily be applicable to some aspects of this Draft Framework: namely those aspects that are not subject to a formal consent process. For example, as alternative fuels and infrastructure are in their infancy, feasibility studies will be central to informing future decision-making in relation to the roll-out of alternative fuels infrastructure. With cognisance of the importance of ensuring that protection of the Natura 2000 Network is at the forefront of any future decision-making, the DTTAS acknowledges the fundamental need for consideration of the potential effects on the Natura 2000 Network at the earliest possible stage outside of the statutory process. Therefore the following overarching protective policy measure has been integrated into this Draft Framework:


    All investigative and feasibility studies to be carried out in relation to alternative fuels and alternative fuels infrastructure must consider potential effects to the Natura 2000 Network.

    1. ASSESSMENT OF THE CURRENT USAGE OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS IN THE TRANSPORT SECTOR IN IRELAND

    1.7.Percentage of use of different fuels in transport (2015)




    Figure 2 Percentage of use of different fuels in transport in Ireland 2015 (SEAI)10
    As can be seen from Figure 2, diesel has the largest share of fuels used in transport, accounting for more than half of fuel use in the sector in Ireland in 2015. The use of electricity and gas remains negligible. Despite the predominance of diesel across the transport spectrum, petrol remains the most common fuel type in the car stock. However, latest trends suggest that diesel vehicles will surpass their petrol counterparts in the very near future.


    Figure 3 Share of overall car stock by fuel type 2000–2015
    The increasing share of diesel in transport warrants particular attention. As referred to in Section 3 of this Draft Framework, policy changes to reduce carbon in transport had the unintended consequence of increasing the uptake of diesel cars.
    In 2008, VRT and motor tax changes were introduced to support the most energy efficient vehicles entering the fleet. Vehicles were initially categorised in seven graduating bands, A–G, based on CO2 emission levels. From January 2013, a revised banding structure was introduced for both motor tax and VRT, splitting the lowest CO2 Band A (1–120 g/km) into four and Band B (121–140 g/km) into two.
    In 2009, the first full year of the new emissions based system of charging for motor tax, 12% of new vehicles purchased were in the lowest emitting A band, with 45% in the B band. In 2014, 68% of new purchases were in the A bands and 27% in the B bands.
    The average specific emissions from new passenger cars purchased in Ireland in 2014 were 117.5 g CO2/km, well ahead of the target of 130 g CO2/km set by the EU Decision (443/2009) for 2015.11 It is clear that the policy has been very effective in influencing the purchasing decisions of motorists in favour of more fuel-efficient vehicles but it has undoubtedly contributed to a significant transition to diesel-fuelled cars (Figure 3) in Ireland. This trend is replicated across Europe.


    Figure 4 Shares of new petrol and diesel cars 2000–2015


    1.8.Number of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs)


    Alternative fuel vehicles

    Number of vehicles 2015

    Electric passenger cars (BEVs)

    160712

    Electric passenger cars (PHEVs)

    413

    Electric light duty vehicles

    152

    Electric heavy duty vehicles

    4

    Electric diesel hybrid buses13

    1

    Full electric buses

    0

    Electric motorcycles and e-bikes14

    171

    CNG cars

    0

    CNG light duty vehicles

    5

    CNG heavy duty vehicles

    2

    CNG articulated tractor units

    3

    CNG buses

    0

    LNG light duty vehicles

    0

    LNG heavy duty vehicles

    0

    LNG buses

    0

    LPG vehicles

    1500

    Hydrogen cars

    0

    Hydrogen light duty vehicles

    0

    Hydrogen heavy duty vehicles

    0

    Hydrogen buses

    0

    Table 2 Number of AFVs in 2015

    1.9.Electricity





    Recharging points

    2015

    Normal power recharging points (public) 22 kW

    628

    Normal power recharging points (public) single phase 7 kW

    26

    High power recharging stations (public) 43–50 kW, many with multiple plugs

    71 stations – 110 sockets

    Normal power recharging points 3.3 kW (public)

    107

    Normal power recharging points (private) 3.3 kW

    1900

    High power recharging points (private)

    0

    Shore-side electricity supply in maritime and inland ports (terminals)

    0

    Electricity supply for stationary airplanes

    115

    Table 3 Electric charging points 2015 (ESB, DAA)



    Electric vehicles (EVs)


    The adoption of EVs has been identified as a key strategy in achieving energy efficiency, renewable energy and climate mitigation targets.16
    The Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC), which forms part of the EU Climate and Energy Package, sets Ireland a binding 10% target for renewable energy in transport by 2020 (RES-T). In order to meet this target, Ireland is implementing a two-pronged approach which combines increases in the use of biofuels with the uptake of EVs.

    It is widely recognised that EVs can make a positive contribution across a number of policy goals and can:



    • help towards achieving EU 20-20-2017 targets

    • help reduce other emissions and air pollution

    • help improve our Balance of Payments by displacing expensive oil imports

    • help with the integration of variable renewable energy sources such as wind energy (by in effect acting as storage devices for electricity generated at off-peak times)

    • integrate with smart grids

    • provide enterprise opportunities for Ireland-based businesses.

    Ireland has a number of characteristics which make it a suitable country for the deployment of EVs. As a small island nation, the greatest distance between any of our cities is 265 km (Dublin to Cork). This, combined with a mild climate, makes Ireland eminently suitable for EVs from the perspective of battery performance. Ireland also has a single electricity network company (Electricity Supply Board Networks), which helps to support the development of uniform standards for charging infrastructure. A number of high tech companies located in Ireland, such as IBM, have also helped to develop innovative supporting technologies for EVs. From a policy perspective, Ireland is seeking to achieve high levels of renewable electricity (particularly wind) with a 40% renewable electricity target by 2020.


    Battery technology is continuing to improve and the driving range for most full-battery EVs (depending on the model) is currently between 160 km and 500 km. This level of range is more than sufficient for the majority of journeys taken daily in Ireland. The range for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is somewhat lower when running on battery only, but these cars can switch over to a standard engine when the battery is depleted.

    How many EVs are sold in Ireland?


    In 2015, the total number of new passenger vehicles registered in Ireland was 153,850, of which 497 were battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and 120 were plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). From January to the end of July 2016, an additional 336 BEVs and 194 PHEVs were registered from a total of 147,804 vehicles.18 It is expected to have a total number of 3000 EVs by the end of 2016.
    In relation to the vehicles on offer, Table 4 shows the manufacturers that provide EVs for sale in Ireland.


    Make

    BEV

    PHEV

    Commercial EV

    Models

    Nissan

    1

    0

    1

    Leaf, eNV-200

    Renault

    1

    0

    1

    Zoe, Kangoo

    Tesla

    1

    0

    0

    Model S

    Mitsubishi

    0

    1

    0

    Outlander

    Volkswagen

    1

    2

    0

    e-Golf, Golf PHEV, Passat Saloon

    Mercedes

    0

    1

    0

    S Class

    Volvo

    0

    2

    0

    V60 (Diesel); XC90

    Porsche

    0

    2

    0

    Cayenne, Panamera

    Audi

    0

    2

    0

    A3 e-tron; Q7 e-tron (diesel)

    Citroen

    1

    0

    0

    C Zero

    BMW

    1

    5

    0

    i3, i3 PHEV, i8, X5, 3 Series, 2 Series

    Total

    6

    15

    2




    Table 4 Electric vehicles by manufacturer for sale in Ireland in 2016
    It is also expected that other vehicle manufacturers will begin to provide EVs into the Irish market in 2017.

    Is there infrastructure for EVs in Ireland?


    To date, EV infrastructure in Ireland has been installed by ecars, which is a commercial business operated by the Electricity Supply Board (ESB). In 2014, the Commission for Energy Regulation (CER) approved funding19 for ESB Networks to carry out an R&D pilot trial on the effects of EVs on the distribution system. On 14 October 2016, the CER launched a public consultation on the future ownership of the charging infrastructure installed by ESB for this pilot.
    In 2013, an EU-funded cross border project was launched to help expand the interoperable EV fast-charge network in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The €4.2 million project was a joint initiative between the ESB and the Department for Regional Development Northern Ireland (DRD NI). It was co-funded under the EU Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) programme and was a Europe-wide test bed project. The investment involved the roll-out of 46 new fast (rapid) charge points across Ireland and the development of supporting IT systems. Fast-charge points were installed at service stations and other prime locations along key interurban routes on the E01 linking Belfast, Banbridge, Dublin, Wexford and Rosslare. Fast-charge points were also installed at Cork, Galway, Limerick and Derry. Additionally, seven standard publicly accessible charge points at Irish Rail’s Heuston Station, Kent Station Cork, Athlone, Newbridge, Kilkenny, Waterford and Dundalk Stations were installed. The fast chargers typically enable up to an 80% recharge in as little as 20 minutes and are available approximately every 60 km on Ireland’s main intercity routes, including the TEN-T core network.
    In total, there are almost 900 publicly accessible charge points available in Ireland, which for a country of its size puts it among the more comprehensive charge point networks currently in place across Europe.


    Figure 5 EV Fast Charge Point

    Large car manufacturers are also expected to become involved in the provision of high-powered infrastructure. A number of providers are likely to emerge onto the Irish market in the coming years, providing infrastructure at the higher end of the performance capacity scale, i.e. between 120 kW and 350 kW. These chargers will support quicker charge times and longer travelling ranges depending on the model of car, i.e. more cars will be capable of travelling up to 500 km on one charge.


    In October 2016, Tesla announced its plans to open a store in Ireland in 2017 along with the development of supercharging stations at three locations in Ireland, most likely Dublin, Cork and Galway. Another station is planned for Belfast. One 30 minute charge at these stations is estimated to provide Tesla cars with a range of more than 270km. On a full charge, Tesla’s Model X has a range of more than 542km20.

    Shore-side electricity

    What is shore-side electricity (SSE)?


    Shore power or shore-supply is the provision of shore-side electrical power to a ship at berth while its main and auxiliary engines are shut down. If commercial ships could use shore-supplied power for services such as cargo handling, pumping, ventilation and lighting while in port, they would not need to run their own diesel engines, thereby reducing air pollution emissions. While SSE has been successfully adopted in key port areas around the world, a number of barriers such as differing operational standards, electricity transmission issues and outdated port and ship facilities still need to be overcome before the practice is fully mainstreamed globally.21

    Are there any SSE supply facilities in Irish ports?


    There are no shore-side electricity supply facilities at any ports in Ireland, including the three TEN-T core network ports (Port of Cork, Dublin Port and Shannon Foynes) and, as yet, there is no demand from the shipping lines.

    Electricity supply for stationary airplanes

    What do we mean by electricity supply for stationary airplanes?


    This relates to the use of electricity by aircraft while their generators or the auxiliary power units (APUs) are not running. This supply can be utilised during passenger embarking and disembarking when the cabin lighting is required. The electricity can also be used to start the APU, which in turn provides electricity to start the aircraft’s engines and generators.

    Do Irish airports deploy electricity supply units for stationary airplanes?


    Only Dublin Airport, which is Ireland’s largest airport, deploys the use of electricity supply units. At Dublin Airport, 27 fixed electrical ground power (FEGP) units were installed on Pier 4. Aircraft on Pier 4 utilise these units and, in general, do not use diesel ground units. This is beneficial in terms of lower local emissions, less noise and fewer ground vehicles in the area. In 2015, 1,264,153 kWh of electricity was used by the FEGP units.


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