|Izoh: boshqa tildan kirib kelgan “o” bilan tugagan birlikka “s” qo’shiladi.
Piano - pianos Kilo - kilos Photo - photos kangaroo - kangaroos
Barcha “f” yo “fe” bilan tugaganlarni ko’plikka aylantirih uchun “s” qo’shiladi:
cliff, cliffs handkerchief, handkerchiefs safe, safes
Izoh: Quyidagi 12 ta ot“f” yo “fe” bilan tugaganlarni ko’plikka aylantirish uchun “f / fe” ni tushirib “ves”
wife - wives
wolf, calf, half, knife, leaf, life, loaf, self, sheaf, shelf, thief,
Quyidagi birlik otlarni lo’plikka aylantirishda shakily o’zgarish ro’y beradi
Quyidagi otlarning birlik shakli ko’plikka aylanganda o’zgarmaydi.
Oldidan son qo’yib ishlatib bo’lmaydigan otlarga sanalmaydigan ot deyiladi. Sanalmaydigan otlar Modda – jism shaklida bo’ladi. Sanalmaydigan otlarning kesimi doim birlikdir. Sanalmaydigan ot lar bilan yo Zero yo the ish-di. Ular bilan a/an ishlatilmaydi.Sanalmaydigan otlarning ko’plik shakli bo’lmaydi.
The baggage was/were
sand/sands in my shoes.
no electricity/electricities in this house.
Ko’rib, tegib, eshitib, hidlab, tatib bo’lmaydigan otlarga MAVHUM otlar deyiladi. Mavhum Otlar Sanalmaydigan otlar sirasiga kiradi va ularning qoidalariga to’liq bo’ysunadi. Mavhum otlar bilan yo Zero yo The ish-di. Ular bilan a/an ishlatilmaydi. Mavhum otlarning ko’plik shakli bo’lmaydi.
Much homework/many homeworks was/were
given to me yesterday.
I need some advice/some advices
IZOH: Quyidagi otlar ma’nosiga ko’ra ham sanaladigan ham sanalmaydigan bo’lishi mumkin.
Time / Times
a) time – unc – vaqt
How much time do we have?
b) times – count – marta
How many times have you been to Uzbekistan?
Experience – unc – bilim/malaka
Dr.Brown has much experience in physics.
An experience / Experiences – count – sarguzasht
He has many life experiences.
Hair – unc – umuman soch
His hair is black
A hair / hairs – count – donalab sanasak
There is a hair in my soup.
Whenever she finds a grey hair she pulls it out
Stone – unc – tosh (tabiiy resurs)
We need much stone to build a house.
A stone / stones – donalab sanab bo’lsa
He threw a stone at me.
Potato – unc – ovqat shaklida
We had some potato for lunch.
A potato/ potatoes – count – xom shaklda
We need three potatoes to cook something.
Chicken – unc – ovqat shaklida
We had some chicken in the morning.
A chicken/chickens – count tirik jo’ja
I have a chicken.
They bought many chickens.
Paper – unc – yozuv qog’ozi
The writer needs much paper to publish his books.
A paper/papers – count – gazeta
I always buy a paper on my way to work.
Beer/coffee/wine/gin – unc – umuman ichimlik
We had some beer
She drank strong coffee
A beer(beers) /a coffee (coffees) /a wine (wines) /a gin (gins) – count – stakan tushunilsa yoli so’ralsa
Doctors recommend limiting consumption to two coffees a day.
I ordered a beer. I ordered 2 beers.
I had a coffee. I had 3 coffees.
Work – unc – ish
He is looking for work.
Izoh: Job – ish – count He is looking for a job.
A Work/ works – count – asar
I read some works of W.Shakespeare.
Wood – unc – yog’och(tabiiy resurs)
We need much wood to build a house.
A wood/woods – count – o’rmon
We walked in a wood.
Glass – unc – shisha
We need some glass for the window.
A glass/glasses – count – stakan
I need a glass.
Iron – unc – temir(tabiiy resurs)
We need much iron to make pipes.
an iron/irons – count – dazmol
We use an iron to have a good look for our clothes.
Beauty – unc – chiroy
She has much beauty in her.
b) a beauty/beauties – count - go’zal (qiz)
We saw a beauty in the street.
Life - unc – hayot
Life is difficult.
A life/lives – count – hayot yo’li/umr
They had a hard life.
Light – unc – yorug’lik
My room is full of light.
Close the curtain. There's too much light!
A light/lights – count – lampochka yorug’ligi
We saw a light
in the distance.
There are two lights in our bedroom.
Fire – unc – olov
We lit fire in his own house.
A fire/fires – count – yong’in
We saw a fire by the road.
Noise – unc - shovqin - It's difficult to work when there is so much noise.
A noise/noises – count - tovush - Shhhhh! I thought I heard a noise.
There are so many different noises in the city.
Room- unc – bo’sh joy - Is there room for me to sit here?
A room/rooms – count - xona - Our house has seven rooms.
Izoh: Time – unc – vaqt
Difficulty - qiyinchilik
A difficulty - difficulties - muammo
Wonder – hayrat
A wonder - wonders – mo’jiza
Football – sport turi
A football - footballs - koptok
Crime - jinoyatchilik
A crime - crimes - jinoyat
Medicine – tibbiyot
A medicine - medicines – dori darmon
I need much time to finish this work
Lekin vaqt ko’rsatkichlari sanaladi:
A second/seconds (minute, hour, day, week, month, year, century, decade)
I need many weeks to finish this work.
Izoh: Money – unc – pul
I need much money to buy a car.
Lekin valyutalar sanaladi.
A dollar/dollars (rouble, pound, yen)
I need ten dollars to buy something to eat.
RULE: Ba’zan sanalmaydigan otlarni miqdor ko’rsatkichlarini ko’rsatib ularni Sanaladigan Birlik va Ko’plikka aylantirish mumkin. Ularga Kesim tanlashda OF predlogidan oldingi miqdor ko’rsatkich so’ziga qaraymiz.
a bale of cotton
a bar of chocolate
a bar of soap
a basket of fruit
a bit of news
a block of ice
a bottle of water
a bowl of rice
a breath of air
a bundle of hay
a cake of soap
a carton of orange juice
a cloud of dust
a column of smoke
a crate of fruit
a cup of tea
a cup of coffee
a drop of oil
a drop of rain
a fall of rain
a fall of snow
a glass of water
a grain of sand
a harvest of heat
a harvest of corn
a heap of rubbish
a jar of jam
a kilo of cheese
a kilo of rice
a layer of soil/dirt
a loaf of bread
a lump of sugar
a mass of hair
a pane of glass
a piece of bread
a slice of bread
a piece of advice
a piece of information.
a piece of wood
a piece of paper
a sheet of paper
a pot of jam
a ream of paper
a reel of thread/film
a roll of film/cloth
a set of china
a sheaf of corn
a sheaf of grain
a sheaf of wheat
a sheet of paper
a shower of rain
a slice of cheese
a sort of work
a stack of corn
a stack of hay
a stack of timber
a stack of wood
a stock of wood
a suite of furniture
a tin of paint
a tube of tooth paste
a tuft of grass
a tuft of hair