Ega vazifasida Kim? Nima? Jack is coming tonight



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NOUNS 2012
10 Маъруза матни
Scissors

glasses

tongs

jeans

binoculars

pincers

Trousers

spectacles

knockers

pants

tights

shears

shorts

pliers




pyjamas

tweezers




Where is/are my glasses? Have you seen it/them? Yes, It/They is/are on the table.
The pants is/are in the drawer.
The pliers was/were on the table.
This/These scissors is/are dull.
My trousers is/are too tight.
That/Those jeans costs/cost 20 dollars.

Ularni sanash uchun «pair/pairs of» strukturasidan foydalanamiz. Xuddi miqdor ko’rsatkichday predlogdan oldingi so’zga qarab kesim qo’yiladi.



Pair of

birlik kesim

It

This/That

























Pairs of

Ko’plik kesim

They

These/Those







A pair of trousers is/are 20 dollars.
Two pairs of trousers is/are 40 dollars.
I have many pairs of pants.
Some pairs of pants is/are in the drawer.
This/these pair of scissors is/are dull.
That/Those pairs of glasses was/were on the table.
Rule:
Ushbu otlar Yozilishi faqat ko’plikdadir. Ma’nosi ham ko’plikdir. Ular doim ko’plik kesim talab qiladi. Olmoshi They ga tengdir. Oldidan These/ Those ishlatish mumkin.

arms (weapons) particulars damages (compensation) premises earnings goods wares stairs
greens (vegetables) grounds outskirts surroundings valuables belongings clothes contents savings thanks steps customs congratulations tropics

The clothes was/were in the closet.


The goods is/are packed.
My belongings have/has been stolen.
This/These thanks is/are for you.


Izoh: Compound nounda aniqlovchi bo’lsa ham u shaklini o’zgartirmaydi.
Customs tax customs taxes
Clothes shop clothes shops


Rule:
BOTH / EITHER / NEITHER
BOTH = ikkala

1.. Both + ko’p ot + ko’p kes

Both girls is/are happy.
Both children was/were born in Italy.
Both restaurants is/are very expensive.

2.. Both of + ko'p ot + ko'p kes
us/you/them

Both of the girls is/are happy.
Both of these children was/were born in Italy.
Both of the restaurants is/are very expensive.




3.. Both … ham and … ham + ko’plik kesim

Both Tom and Ann were late for the party
Both European and Oriental languages are taught at this school.
He was both clever and strong.

Either – ikkala/ ikkisidan biri (ot bilan kelsa ikkala)



1.. either + bir ot + bir kes

Either girl is/are happy.
Either child is/are ready.
Either restaurant is/are very expensive.
2.. either + of + ko’p ot (us,you,them) + birlik kesim
Either of the girls is/are happy.
Either of us want/wants to go out.
3.. either … or … (yo … yo)
IZOH: OR dan keyingi otga qarab kesim tanlanadi.
Either Bob or Tom want/wants to go to the cinema.
Either Bob or his friends want/wants to go to the cinema.


Neither – ikkalasi ham emas (inkor so’z)

1.. neither + bir ot + bir kes

Neither girl is/are happy.
Neither child is/are ready.
Neither restaurant is/are very expensive.
2.. Neither + of + ko’p ot (us,you,them) + bir kes
Neither of the girls is/are happy.
Neither of us want/wants to go out.
3.. neither … nor … (na … na)
IZOH: OR dan keyingi otga qarab kesim tanlanadi.
Neither Bob or Tom want/wants to go to the cinema.
Neither Bob or his friends want/wants to go to the cinema.


IZOH: both / either/ neither ning yolg’iz ishlatilishi
Both=ikkala either=ikkisidan biri neither=ikkisi ham emas
Which book would you like? _______. They are interesting.
Which book would you like? _________. I don’t care.
Is it the 18th or the 19th today? ________. It is the 20th.
Is your father Italian or Spanish? _________. He is Australian.


RULE: Quyidagi otlarning birligi ham ko’pligi ham bir xil bo’lib ularning miqdor ko’rsatkichiga qarab kesim tanlanadi
means = vosita
series = seriya
species = tur

a means of transport
a television series + Birlik Kesim
a species of bird

many means of transport
two television series+ ko’plik kesim
200 species of bird



There is/are many species of bird.
The bicycle is/are a means of transport.
The bicycle and the car is/are means of transport.
Ann is going to write a series of articles for her local newspaper.
There is/are a lot of American TV series shown on British television.
While we were out walking we saw 25 different species of bird.


Rule:
Dozen = 12 Score = 20 Gross = 44

  1. Agar orqasidan ot kelsa bular aniqlovchi bo’lib qo’shimcha olmaydi.

A dozen eggs
Two dozen eggs
Three dozen students
Three score people.

  1. Agar orqasidan ot kelmasa o’zi ot bo’lib ko’plik shaklini oladi.

Pack the books in dozens.
Scores of people were waiting for the concert to begin.


Rule: THERE/HERE oboroti (mavjud)



A) There/Here + is/was/has been + birlik ot

There is/are a book on the table. There was/were a demonstration In New York.

B) There/Here + are/were/have been + ko’plik ot

There was/were many students at the university. There is/are many flowers in the room.

C) There/Here + is/was/has been + sanalmaydigan ot

There is/are little milk in the glass. There was/were much blood on the floor.
IZOH:
There/Here oborotida birinchi ot qanday bo’lsa kesim ham shunday bo’ladi.

There is/are a book, two notebooks and 3 pens on the table.


Many/Much/Few/Little
Many
Many – ko’p (count) (asosan bo’lishsiz va so’roq gaplarda, lekin bo’lishlida ham mumkin)
Does he have many friends in Moscow?
Many people attended the meeting.
How many times have you been to England?
There are not many books on the table.
Do you know many people? (or Do you know a lot of people?)
Many people drive too fast.
Syn:

a lot of

Lots of

Plenty of

A great number of

a large number of

(bular asosan bo’lishli gaplarda keladi)
He has plenty of friends in Tashkent.
He has read a lot of books about nature.


Much –
Much + ko’p (uncountable) (asosan bo’lishsiz va so’roq gaplarda, lekin bo’lishlida ham mumkin)
I haven’t much work to do.
Do you spend much time on your homework?
There was much traffic in the street
If he sold his car, he wouldn’t get much money for it as t is old.
There is not much news tonight.
We didn't spend much money. (or We didn't spend a lot of money.)
We spent too much money.
Syn:

a lot of

Lots of

Plenty of

A great deal of

a large amount of
ant:
a small amount of

(bular asosan bo’lishli gaplarda keladi)
We spent a lot of money.
There's no need to hurry. We've got plenty of time.


Izoh: Dar. Miq. Ravish vazifasida harakatning qanchalik ko’p qilinishini ko’rsatish uchun otsiz kelishi ham mumkin
Jack smokes much.
Bob drinks much.
SYN: a lot, plenty, a great deal
He smokes a lot.


FEW – kam (countable)
A) Few – juda kam , deyarli yo’q (yetarsiz)
She's lucky. She has few problems.
The boy, the newcomer, has few friends here.
He is not popular. He has few friends.
Most of the town is modern. There are few old buildings.
Syn: Hardly any
He is not popular. He has hardly any friends.


B.. A Few – bir necha, yetarli (Syn: some – bir necha)
Things are not going so well for her. She has a few problems. (= some problems)
When did you last see Clare?' 'A few days ago.' (= some days ago)
I enjoy my life here. I have a few friends and we meet quite often.


C.. Only a few / very few - juda kam , deyarli yo’q, yetarsiz SYN: FEW
The village was very small. There were only a few houses.


Little – kam (uncountable)
A..Little - juda kam , deyarli yo’q, yetarsiz
We must be quick. There is little time.
The have little money, that’s why they can’t afford to buy a new car.
Hurry up! We have got little time.
He spoke little English, so it was difficult to communicate with him.
Ann is very busy these days. She has little free time.
Syn: Hardly any
Jane is very busy these days. She has hardly any free time.


B.. A little – biroz, yetarli (Syn: some – biroz)
Let’s go and have a drink. We have got a little time before the train leaves.
Have you got any money? Yes, a little. Do you want to borrow some?
He spoke a little English, so we were able to communicate with him.


C.. Only a little / very little juda kam , deyarli yo’q, yetarsiz SYN: LITTLE
We must be quick. We've got very little time.
Hurry up! We have got only a liitle time.


Izoh: : Dar. Miq. Ravish vazifasida harakatning qanchalik kam qilinishini ko’rsatish uchun otsiz kelishi ham mumkin.
Bob is studying little for his exams.


A ten year Old girl A girl of ten years old
Agar bir necha so’zlar asosiy otdan oldin kelsa u paytda oldingi so’zlar aniqlovchi vazifasida bo’lib ularga hech qanday qo’shimcha qo’shilmaydi.

Birlik shakli







A ten year old girl

a girl of ten years old




room A flat three
















door A car four
















page A hundred two book
















five A bicycle speed
















week three A holiday
















suit A piece three
















twenty flight minute A
















six A course month
















day A trip two
















holiday week A
















hour An film
















Month a course
















building A year old hundred two
















century castle A old five
















a hour journey three
















note a pound ten
















week a four course English
















Ko’plik shakli







ten Three old year girls
















flats Five room three
















Two four cars door
















films Many hour two



















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