It should be remembered that, when reading dates under the Old Style or "Julian calendar", i.e., prior to the year 1752, the year began on March 25. Therefore all dates before that day (that is, January 1-March 24, inclusive, of each year) would bear the date of the previous year. Until 1752, the so-called "Old Style" or Julian calendar was used throughout the Middle Ages. Its inaccuracy amounted to about 3 days in every 4 centuries. By the time of the Gregorian Calendar or “New Style” calendar (named after Pope Gregory XIII) promulgated in 1582, calendar dates were ahead of actual time by 10 days. In other words, the so-called “New Style” Calendar became effective in the American Colonies on January 1, 1751 and which was revised in order to compensate for earlier miscalculations. Thus, in 1752, the new year began on January 1 for the very first time. Previously, the year began on March 25. Therefore all dates before that day (that is, January 1-March 24, inclusive, of each year) would bear the date of the previous year. The so-called Gregorian Calendar was first adopted in Europe in 1582 and was later adopted in the British Colonies in on January 1, 1751.
Since actual time is the time that it takes the earth to make one complete revolution around the sun (a year), eventually the summer months would have come in winter, and vise versa if the calendar had been left uncorrected.
Roman Catholic countries adopted the Gregorian calendar in, or shortly after, 1582. The Greek Church did not approve the calendar revision, and consequently Greece, Bulgaria and Russia were on the Old Style calendar until the time of the first World War, when they were 13 days ahead of sun time. The conservatism of the English and the fact that the new calendar was sponsored by a Pope, delayed acceptance of it in Great Britain and the British colonies until after the passage of an Act of Parliament in 1751. By then the calendar was 11 days ahead of sun time, so the Act provided that in 1752, the second day of September should be followed by the fourteenth day of September. In other words, what would have been September 3 was thereafter called September 14, exactly 11 days being thus dropped out of the year. So, in 1752, the new year began on January 1 for the very first time.
It is to be further noted that no Cavender’s were located by a professional genealogist prior to 1800 in any one of the following English counties: Bedfordshire, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Cheshire, Cornwall, Derbyshire, Dorset, Durham, Hereford, Huntingdon, Leicester, Lincoln, Monmouthshire, Norfolk, Northampton, Northumberland Rutland, Nottingham, Oxford, Shropshire, Somerset, Suffolk, Surrey, Westmoreland, Wiltshire, or Yorkshire. Additionally, no trace of any Cavender prior to 1800 was found in either of the counties of Scotland: Angus, Dumfries, Fife, Inverness, Midlothian, Moray, Orkney, Perth, Renfrew, Roxburgh or Sutherland. However, as the vast number of immigrants were illiterate, their surnamed were phonetically spelled. Thus, the surname Cavender most probably was originally spelled as Cavener, Cavenagh, Cavanner, Cavenaugh, and even Kavender, etc.
Another item of possible relevance is contained in an article written by a Chester R. Johnson, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org, wherein he stated that the Primitive Baptists, of which many Cavender and descendants were members, particularly the line of Hugh Cavender whose grandson became a Primitive Baptist Minister:
“All Baptists in the beginning (i.e., before 1820) were what we could now call Hard-shell or Primitive. They (some) did not believe in Missionaries and they had as an ordinance, ‘foot washing’, as Jesus did at the Last Supper. The split really began in the 1830s when many in the South felt there was a need for missionaries, one of my ancestors, John Blake, charter member of Enon Baptist Church, Bibb County, Alabama, vigorously opposed the calling of a pastor who was ‘for the missionary’. For his opposition, he was excluded from the church in June 1836. By 1845 the break was complete with the Primitives, and the Southern Baptist Convention was formed. Some Primitive Baptists claim primary descent from certain Baptist churches in Wales and in the Midlands of England. The views of these particular Baptists are summarized in the 1655 Midland Confession of Faith. The Particular Baptists of London are also part of Primitive Baptist heritage. Their most important confessions of faith were the London Confessions of 1644 and 1689. The 1644 confession better represents Primitive Baptists views than the one of 1689. Primitive Baptists' claim the scriptures as their sole rule of faith and practice, and therefore, are not bound to creeds of faith. However, churches and associations among Primitive Baptists have summarized their interpretation of scriptures in various Articles of Faith. These differ in wording but not in substance. There are scattered Primitive Baptist churches throughout Appalachia. Primitive Baptists are especially found in Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi (and in Kentucky and Tennessee). I have attended several ‘singings’ at Primitive Baptists Churches in Western North Carolina. They do not allow musical instruments in the church as they practice the old style of accapella singing called shape-note singing. I have conversed with Primitive Baptists Elders about their beliefs. It is my understanding that they do not believe in missionary work, passing a collection plate during the service, or proselytizing; have no Sunday Schools, special youth activities, pictures of Jesus or crucifixes in the church or home or educational schools for their ministers; use only the KJV Bible, use real wine and unleven bread in communion, have only male leaders (Elders) in the church. They believe in predestination and election. If you want to give money to the church, then do so privately according to your conscience. They may be ‘Hard-shell’, but in my experience they are really lovely Christian people and very friendly toward outsiders."
(Chronologically Arranged Historical Nuggets)
1085/1086 The so-called “Domsday Book” (sometimes called “Doomsday”) was compiled at the instruction of William the Conqueror and was a nationwide survey of the state of the English nation as it then existed.
The survey included: the number of “hides” (i.e., a land measure of about 120 acres in most shires); the number of ploughs, both those in lordship and the men's; the number of villagers, cottagers and slaves, how many Freemen; the amount of woodland, meadow and pasture; the number of mills and fishponds; the amount that had been added or taken away, what the total was and is, how much each Freeman had or has; and, all freehold, before 1066, when king William gave it, and now; and if more can be had than at present.
The purpose of the survey was to find out who owned what and how much it was worth. It was so-named by the landowners because it was the final authoritative register of rightful possession in the land. There were many disputes stemming from the Norman invasion. By analogy, its judgement was as final as that of Domesday. Each manor was listed, together with it's owner, with other details and in particular relates values of those manors before, during, and after the invasion. The Domsday is the first and most complete survey of its type in any country.
1582 The Gregorian Calendar was first adopted in Europe and was later adopted in the British Colonies in 1752.
1585 Even thought Sir Walter Raleigh never came to America, he did send others to make the first attempts at permanent colonization. The first of these attempts was made in 1585 by 109 men led by Sir Richard Grenville. They settled on Roanoke Island on the Outer Banks of what is now known as North Carolina. Grenville returned to England for supplies, but was slow in gathering them. After 11 months and a pounding by a hurricane, the 108 remaining men hitched a ride back to England with Sir Francis Drake, who had stopped by to check on Raleigh's investment. Grenville arrived after the fort had been abandoned. The second attempt (the “Lost Colony”) was made in 1587. This time, entire families came over. Governor John White brought his daughter Eleanor and her husband Ananias Dare, the parents of Virginia Dare who is considered by many as being the first child born in America to English parents. The colonists shortly ran low on supplies, and when the promised ships to re-stock their larders did not appear, they sent John White back to England to plead for more support. While White was there, the Spanish Armada attacked, and all ships were called in to fight. After that, White was unable to raise the required funds for a ship and supplies until 1590. Investors, Raleigh included, had lost interest. When White finally returned to Roanoke, there was no sign of the colonists.
1587 According to experts examining tree rings, it has been concluded that for the years 1587 to 1589, the most extreme drought in 800 years hit the entire southeastern United States and may have been the main cause for the disappearance of the "Lost Colony", and was particularly severe in the Tidewater region of Virginia near Roanoke.
1603/07/25 King James VI of Scotland became King James I of England on this date, and is considered to be the founder of the Scotch Irish immigration from the Ulster Province of Northern Ireland to America. His reign ended in 1625. It is to be noted that the given name “James” appears quite often in subsequent Cavender generations.
1606 King James I of England granted a charter to the Plymouth Company to colonize "Northern Virginia", and further granted a charter to the Virginia Company of London to plant colonies in America. The Virginia charter included the Tennessee area. Later, a so-called "Headright" system was adopted by the Virginia Company meeting in a Quarter Court held on November 18, 1618 whereby a male adult was granted free of charge 50 acres of land for each man, woman or child brought to the new colonies, up to a maximum of 660 acres. Additionally, under the headright system, a prospective settler who could not afford the cost of transportation, had his or her passage paid for by a planter or by any other person in the colony. In the mid-seventeenth century, the planter received 50 acres of land for every person he transported. The new settler worked for the planter for a certain number of years, usually about 4-5 years, to repay the cost of his/her transportation to the colony; thereafter, he/she became a free person or "freeman" and received 50 acres of land for himself/herself. Usually, the date of the headright did not indicate the time of arrival of the new settler as claims for headright could wait for years, or could actually be sold to someone else. However, "quit rent" of 2 shillings per 100 acres was required to be paid annually and forever. Later, the quit rent was raised to 4 shillings per 100 acres. The origin of the quit rent in this country started during the colonial period and was based on the English law that all of the land in Virginia belonged to the King with the exception of the Northern Neck portion of Virginia, which belonged to the Proprietor (Lord Fairfax for many years) and which area now comprises the four counties at the end of the northernmost peninsula on the Chesapeake Bay comprising Northumberland County, Lancaster County, Richmond County and Westmoreland County. Although persons could claim the land, sell it, or keep it and pass it on to their heirs, they could hold it only if they paid a small annual quit rent to the King (or to the Proprietor). If the quit rent was not paid, the land was then reclaimed by the King (or the Proprietor), and could then be granted to another. This system existed until the Revolution.(It is of interest to note that, as of 1995, the Queen of England still makes a so-called "ceremonial" annual payment of quitrent on the land owned by her. Accordingly she makes the following payment: 2 wooden boards, 1 "scinner" (i.e., some type of cutting tool), 6 horseshoes, and 56 nails! This token payment is quite a contrast to the annual quitrent required by the King of England to be paid by the American colonists on land owned by them.
At about the same point in time, Brewster and Bradford and other "Separatist" departed England and went to Holland because they would not agree to King James I's decree that the Church of England, of which he headed, was to be the only church in England. 261
According to some family stories, the Cavener's, Cavner's, Cavanaugh's, and/or Kavanaugh's originally lived in Scotland near the northern border of England and thereafter immigrated to this country from Ireland. According to the July 1984 issue of National Geographic, these border people were very adept in the art of obtaining horses and other livestock of other persons and thereafter altering the brands to show the animals belonged to them, when it was not necessarily so. It was further stated that King James I rounded up all these border raiders that he could capture and shipped them off to Northern Ireland. As most of the immigrants from Ireland were Catholic, and as Baltimore, Baltimore County, Maryland was the only port of entry that would accept Catholics, virtually all the immigrants from northern Ireland first landed in Baltimore, Baltimore County, Maryland, regardless of their religious preferences.
It is to be noted that two genealogists in Northern Ireland did not found a single document of any early Cavender in Ireland. However, they did find a substantial number of documents relating to the surnames Cavanagh, Cavenagh and Cavenah.447
The county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland was originally Joppa, Maryland, also known as the "Gunpowder Town", and was a port at the head of the Gunpowder River, and was incorporated in 1745.
1607/05/13 The date of arrival of Captain Newport's 3 ships from England. They sailed up the James River (which they named after King James I of England) for 40 miles until they saw a peninsula where they decided to locate Jamestown, Virginia, the first permanent English settlement in North America. John Smith became the leader of the colony. This marks the beginning of white settlement in Virginia and became a royal colony of Great Britain in 1621. Until this time, Virginia very loosely covered a large indefinite area, including what is now Maryland, West Virginia and Kentucky. 261 1609-1611 Scottish "undertakers" were granted leases to land in the Ulster province of Northern Ireland during the time of the so-called "plantation" of Ulster in Northern Ireland and as edicted by Scottish King James I from 1609-1616.
1610 The colonists abandoned Jamestown, Virginia and set sail for England. However, they soon met Lord de la Warr with provision ships and all return to Jamestown.261 1615/06/xx Captain John Smith sailed for Plymouth, Massachusetts to plant a colony at New England which had been named by Prince Charles, heir to the British throne.
1615/08/19 Dority Cavender ("Dorothy Cavender"), daughter of Francis Cavender, was baptized in Dormston Parish, Worcestershire County, England and is the earliest presently known spelling of the surname "Cavender".170,. 399 & Bishops Transcripts for Dornston Parish, Worchestershire Cnty., Eng. b736-BA2006/29(iv) According to a United Kingdom transcriber, the name "Dority" Cavender is actually Dorothy Cavender which is stated to have been a very popular name at that time. It is said that the handwriting used at that time was called "Secretary Hand" and the "h" in Dorothy looked liked like a "y" today as it hung down below the line and, therefore, could easily be missed by someone unfamiliar with the writing style.
1617/12/xx King James I issued a proclamation on this date which stated “that the most notorious and lewd people in England were to be sent to the colony of Virginia”.
1619/06/03 The following entry is found in the (Old) Rappahannock County, Virginia Order Book, Court of 3d June 1691:
"Whereas a rude and uncivilized custom of smoaking (sic) tobacco in this county court house during the sessions of the Court hath been frequently used and practiced among us, And for as much as the same is greatly derogatory from the respect due to and dignitie of their Majties (sic) Courts of Justice, This Court have ordered what person or persons whosoever shall be found smoaking tobacco in either of the Court Houses of this County during the setting of the Court shall be fined fifty pounds of tobacco to be paid to the Sheriff or his Deputy for the use of the County als exo."
It is to be noted that "old" Rappahannock County, Virginia was split into what is now Essex County, Virginia and Richmond County, Virginia.
1619 The date of the first session of the Legislature of the Colony of Virginia.
1620/11/11 On this date, “Old Style” Calendar (November 11, 1621, “New Style” Calendar or “Gregorian” Calendar), the ship Mayflower landed at Plymouth Rock, Massachusetts and the "Mayflower Compact" was signed in a cabin in Cape Cod, Plymouth County, Massachusetts to control the governing of the settlement which was named Plymouth.261 The so-called “New Style” Calendar became effective on January 1, 1751 and which was revised in order to compensate for earlier miscalculations. Thus, in 1752, the new year began on January 1 for the very first time. Previously, the year began on March 25. Therefore all dates before that day (that is, January 1-March 24, inclusive, of each year) would bear the date of the previous year. The so-called Gregorian Calendar was first adopted in Europe in 1582 and was later adopted in the British Colonies in on January 1, 1751.
1620 (1) The Plymouth Company of New Hampshire received a grant as Council for New England to all land between the 40th and 48th parallels, west from the Atlantic Ocean.261
(2) Bryon Cavender ("Brian Cavender"?, "Bryant Cavender"?, "Bryan Cavender"? & "Briant Cavender"?), believed by some to be of Catholic faith and born in Ireland, was then living in Newburyport, Essex County, Massachusetts.418
1621 Jamestown, Virginia, became a royalty colony of England in 1621. Until this time, it very loosely covered a large and indefinite area, including what is now Maryland.
1622/03/22 Date of the great Indian massacre simultaneously occurred in virtually all of the settlements situated along the James River of Virginia, with the sole exception of Jamestown which was saved by an early warning which allowed it to prepare itself before the attack. 300-400 settlers were put to death by the attacking Indians said to be by the most cruel means.
1623/05/04 Samuel Caverner (“Samuel Cavender”?), son of Samuel Caverner (“Samuel Cavender”), was christened in Romford, Essex County, England on May 4, 1623.
1624 Thomas Lavander ("Thomas Cavender"?) was living in Jamestown, Virginia, as an tradesman or artisan. 112 1625 Charles I became the King of England and reigned until 1649.
1626 Peter Minuit bought Manhattan Island, New York, from the Indians for about $24 worth of trinkets.261 1628 Charles I of England granted a colonial charter to Massachusetts in 1628.261 1629/03/29 Ships from Southampton England, landed at a place they named Charleston and which was located across the river from Boston, near the mouth of the Charles River.
1629 Massachusetts Bay Company was chartered and voting franchise included only church members. King Charles I of England gave the entire Cherokee Indian land ("Cherokee Nation") to a friend, Robert Heath, with the exception of some hunting grounds to the north, now North Carolina. This year also marks the year that the Huguenots, exiled from France, arrived in Virginia and more kept coming over the years, with the largest influx coming in 1700 when 700 of them arrived and settled Monocan ("Manikan") Town in Henrico County, Virginia.
1630 The Puritan "great migration" began from England to America and eventually about 14,000 settled in the Massachusetts area.261 1632 Virginia was reduced in size when King Charles I of England, a Catholic, granted the northern portion of the colony to Lord Baltimore. This became the separate colony of Maryland in honor of Queen Henrietta Maria and comprised primarily persons of Catholic religion. 261 1634/03/xx A group of English settlers led by Lord Baltimore's younger brother, Cecil Leonard Calvert ("Cecil Calvert"), an English nobleman and the second Lord Baltimore, found Maryland "a most convenient harbour, and pleasant country lying on each side" of the James River, and received a charter for the colony from King Charles I. Here on land formerly home to a Yaocomaco Indian village, the Old World put down roots on the Chesapeake frontier and built "our town we call St. Maries" (now St Mary's City). For 60 years this settlement served as the capitol of Maryland. The 140-odd settlers and so-called "gentleman adventurers" survived an arduous Atlantic crossing aboard the ship "Ark", a passenger ship, and the supply ship "Maryland Dove". As part of a venture that combined an investment scheme with a refuge for Roman Catholics, the passengers included both Protestants and Catholics eager to find economic opportunity and freedom from religious persecution. St. Mary's City (now St. Mary’s County, Maryland") became the first settlement in the new world to make religious toleration a matter of law. At first utilizing structures vacated by the Yaocomaco, the newcomers soon built a fort, more as a defense against the hostility of Protestant Virginia than out of fear of the neighboring Indians. St. Mary's City served as the capitol and chief urban center for the colony until 1695. 376 1634 Virginia Counties of Charles City, Virginia; Charles River County, Virginia; Elizabeth City County, Virginia; Henrico County, Virginia; Northampton, County, Virginia; Virginia; Accawack County, Virginia; Warrosquoyacke County, Virginia; Warvich River County, Virginia; York County, Virginia; James City County, Virginia; and Isle of Wight County, Virginia; were all formed on this date,and Leonard Calvert founded St. Mary's, Maryland on Clement Island. 112 & 374 1635/07/08 "Order for the following prisoners in Newgate ("Newgate County, England"?) to be transported to Virginia and to be executed if they return." One name listed was that of Maurice Cavenaugh. (Maurice Cavender?, Maurice Cavenough? & Maruce Cavener?) Sect. II, Ch. 30, 1635 This is further confirmed by Peter Wilson Coldham (“Peter Coldham”) on page 155 of his publication entitled: “The complete Book of Emigrants”.
1639 In this year, Williams and his followers are said to have formed the first Baptist Church in America in Providence, Rhode Island. However, another source states that the first Baptist church was established in 1703 in Pencader Hundred in New Castle County, Delaware.261 And, according to a pamphlet from the Fourth Street Baptist Church in Portsmouth, Virginia entitled "A Century in Kingdom Work-A History of Fourth Street Baptist Church", published in 1955, it is stated that the first Baptist church in Virginia was started by a little colony of Baptists from England who settled in or near what is now Isle of Wight County, Virginia, early in the 18th. century. It is recorded that the said colony of Baptists wrote back to England for a minister and the Baptists in London ordained Robert Nordin and Thomas White and sent them to "gather up the sheep and preach the Gospel" in the colony. Apparently Thomas White was not permitted to land on these shores, but Robert Nordin did land and constituted a church in 1714.