Exam 1 hist 1302 – U. S. History II example Assessment

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Exam 1

HIST 1302 – U.S. History II

Example Assessment

This is an example of an assessment for HIST 1302. It will be completed in approximately 1 hour.

PART I – Multiple Choice

Select the best answer for each of the following questions, and mark the corresponding letter on your Scantron. One (1) point each.

  1. In 1895, the Supreme Court crippled the 1890 Sherman Antitrust Act by ruling that:

    1. Monopolies were beneficial to the public

    2. The act was constitutional

    3. Monopolies were perfectly constitutional

    4. Manufacture and trade was not the same thing

  2. The White City, constructed in 1893 five miles down the shore from Chicago, was:

    1. The site of newly constructed tenements for Chicago’s slaughterhouse workers

    2. The home of the Columbian Exposition

    3. An art exhibit about the dangers of rapid technological advancements

    4. A shelter for Chicago’s homeless and unemployed

  3. Samuel Gompers formed the American Federation of Labor in 1886 to coordinate the labor activities of __________ throughout the United States.

    1. Craft unions

    2. Socialists and anarchists

    3. Middle-class professionals

    4. Unskilled workers

  4. Mugwumps were late-nineteenth-century Republicans who believed that the:

    1. Republican economic platform was insufficient

    2. Government needed to be reformed

    3. Government was flagrantly corrupt but who did not want much reform

    4. Party should remain loyal to Grant

  5. John D. Rockefeller organized Standard Oil as a trust. That decision was made to:

    1. Offer legal protection to oil refineries

    2. Control the key elements of production and so corner the market for oil

    3. Allow the liquidation of assets to purchase shares of stock in competing companies

    4. Divide the oil market among the top five competitors in the business

  6. After an investigation in 1893, Illinois governor John Peter Altgeld blamed __________ for the violence of the 1886 Haymarket riot.

    1. Immigrants and anarchists

    2. Cyrus McCormick Jr.

    3. Carter Harrison, the pro-labor mayor of Chicago

    4. Police captain John “Blackjack” Bonfield

  7. An oligopoly is:

    1. A competitive business system in which several large companies control production in an industry

    2. An innovative way to organize a trust

    3. A system in which smaller companies combine their influence to set the pricing structure in a particular industry

    4. A way to divide the markets served by an industry so that the industry achieves regional control of sales

  8. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882:

    1. Had led to a sharp decline in the Chinese population of the American West by 1900

    2. Limited the number of Chinese immigrants to America for a period of three years

    3. Was a response to the demands of Chinese laborers for higher wages and better working conditions

    4. Reduced anti-Asian prejudice in the West

  9. The Great Fire of 1871 allowed Chicago to take the lead in:

    1. Eliminating urban slums

    2. Beginning the process of suburbanization

    3. Developing the modern skyscraper

    4. Decentralizing business districts

  10. The Homestead Act of 1862 promised:

    1. 640 acres to any citizen at a guaranteed price of $1.25 an acre

    2. 160 acres free to any citizen or prospective citizen who settled on land west of the Mississippi River for five years

    3. Free agricultural implements and enough money to live for one year to all citizens willing to cultivate land west of the Mississippi River

    4. 160 acres to any citizen or prospective citizen at a guaranteed price of $2 an acre

  11. James Blaine, the Republican presidential candidate in the 1884 election, narrowly lost the campaign at least in part because:

    1. A supporter insulted Roman Catholics

    2. He actively refused to campaign.

    3. He was a dull candidate.

    4. He was accused of fathering an illegitimate child.

  12. Photojournalist Jacob Riis’s 1890 best-selling book, How the Other Half Lives, demonstrated that:

    1. Upper-class New Yorkers lived lives of wasteful self-indulgence

    2. New York’s poor population lived in comfort

    3. Life in New York’s tenements was miserable

    4. New York’s wealthy residents had a strong social conscience

  13. The U.S. army gunned down unarmed Sioux at Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota, in 1889 primarily because:

    1. It was rumored that the Indians were waiting to ambush the troops

    2. The soldiers feared an uprising provoked by a militant interpretation of the Ghost Dance religion

    3. The Sioux had refused to sign a new treaty

    4. The troops had been ordered to wipe out all Native Americans in the area

  14. Congress’s 1887 Dawes Act was intended to:

    1. Make amends for the slaughter of the buffalo

    2. Restore Indian lands in the East to ease population pressure in the West

    3. Encourage Indians to adopt white culture

    4. Provide reservations with more efficient service from the government

  15. A key factor in the rise of the Gilded Age was:

    1. The growth of industrialism in the United States

    2. Urban political reform

    3. Massive government programs to help the poor

    4. The separation of business and politics

  16. After Californios were granted United States citizenship by the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, they were:

    1. Subject to intense discrimination

    2. Treated like any other Americans in the West

    3. Forced to migrate to Mexican lands

    4. Given favored treatment in courts of law

  17. Political bosses were able to defeat “good government” reformers in the American cities of the late nineteenth century because:

    1. Reformers were not as honest as they claimed to be

    2. The machines engaged in electoral intimidation

    3. Immigrant voters did not understand the importance of clean government

    4. The machines aided cities’ immigrant and poor populations

  18. Anger over the Supreme Court’s Wabash v. Illinois decision resulted in:

    1. The destruction of railroad property

    2. Widespread rioting

    3. The passage of the 1887 Interstate Commerce Act

    4. The Republican Party’s loss of the White House in 1892

  19. The Indian Wars on the Great Plains lasted from:

    1. 1872 until 1898

    2. 1850 until 1876

    3. 1861 until 1890

    4. 1880 until 1903

  20. The Knights of Labor, a prominent labor organization of the late nineteenth century that advocated a “universal brotherhood” of all workers, pursued:

    1. Narrow objectives like improved working conditions

    2. The punishment of capitalists

    3. Broad social reforms

    4. The destruction of the railroads

  21. Henry Miller and Charles Lux can best be described as:

    1. The Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller of the far West

    2. Small ranchers

    3. The enlightened benefactors of migrant laborers

    4. Adherents to Thomas Jefferson’s ideal of the self-sufficient yeoman farmer

  22. According to Herbert Spencer in Britain and William Graham Sumner in the United States, Charles Darwin’s ideas were relevant to:

    1. The American governmental system

    2. Academic institutions

    3. All human society

    4. Biology alone

PART II – Definitions

Given a definition of a key term, identify the term from the list of choices. Mark the corresponding letter on your Scantron. One (1) point each.

  1. A June 1876 battle in Montana Territory in which Sioux warriors routed Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer and his men. Although a clear victory for Indians’ resistance to the United States’ efforts to remove them from lands granted them by the Treaty of Fort Laramie, the battle did not forestall the United States’ ultimate victory in the West.

    1. Battle of Little Bighorn

    2. Battle of Palo Duro Canyon

    3. Battle of Summit Springs

    4. Battle of Washita River

  2. Institution established in Pennsylvania in 1879 to educate and assimilate American Indians. It pioneered the “outing system” in which Indian students were sent to live with white families in order to accelerate acculturation.

    1. Reading Indian School

    2. Lancaster Indian School

    3. Altoona Indian School

    4. Carlisle Indian School

  3. Group of over 15,000 African Americans who left behind extremely difficult economic and political circumstances in Mississippi and Louisiana to take up land in Kansas.

    1. Carpetbaggers

    2. Scalawags

    3. Exodusters

    4. Texodusters

  4. A social and educational organization for farmers, also known as the Patrons of Husbandry, which was established in 1867. It became an independent political movement that contributed to the passage of state laws aimed at regulating the railroads and their unfair shipping practices.

    1. Grange

    2. Redeemers

    3. Tammany Hall

    4. Woman’s Christian Temperance Union

  5. Self-educated inventor who developed scores of inventions in his Menlo Park laboratory and became an American folk hero. His inventions included the phonograph and the filament for the light bulb.

    1. Alexander Graham Bell

    2. John Pierpont Morgan

    3. Thomas Alva Edison

    4. William Graham Sumner

  6. Company founded by Andrew Carnegie in 1872, which, through vertical integration and uncompromising management, he built into the biggest steel business in the world in the late nineteenth century.

    1. Carnegie Steel

    2. Standard Oil

    3. United States Steel

    4. Woman’s Christian Temperance Union

  7. System of business organization pioneered by Andrew Carnegie that organized all aspects of a business under a single manager. For example, in Carnegie’s business it meant controlling everything from the mining of ore to the sale of refined steel.

    1. Holding company

    2. Horizontal integration

    3. Trust

    4. Vertical integration

  8. Movement of populations across large distances such as oceans and continents. In the late nineteenth century, large-scale movement of peoples from southern and Eastern Europe into the United States contributed to the growth of cities and changes in American demographics.

    1. Middle passage

    2. Grand migration

    3. Great migration

    4. Global migration

  9. Republican representative from Ohio who was elected president in 1880. His assassination less than four months after taking office by Charles Guiteau, a disgruntled office seeker, led to severe criticism of Republican factionalism and intensified demands for civil service reform.

    1. Benjamin Harrison

    2. James A. Garfield

    3. Rutherford B. Hayes

    4. William McKinley

  10. Sioux chief of the Oglala band who refused to sign the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie and accept reservation lands. After discovery of gold in the Black Hills in 1874 and the United States’ attempt to remove Indians from the land, he, along with Sitting Bull, led the Sioux resistance to United States aggression until his death in 1877.

    1. Geronimo

    2. Crazy Horse

    3. Wovoka

    4. Red Cloud

  11. Site of a large immigration office constructed in 1900 in New York harbor through which millions of European immigrants passed upon arrival in the United States.

    1. Ellis Island

    2. Coney Island

    3. Angel Island

    4. Castle Clinton

  12. German immigrant radical who helped lead the movement for an eight-hour workday in the mid-1880s, culminating in a large, peaceful May day rally in Chicago. He addressed the crowd at a rally in Haymarket Square on May 4, 1886, before the event devolved into violence that left several people dead and the labor movement greatly weakened. He was executed for his part in the Haymarket riot.

    1. August Spies

    2. Adolph Fischer

    3. Albert Parsons

    4. John Bonfield

  13. Preeminent finance capitalist of the Gilded Age who increased his fortune by acquiring and reorganizing industries, including the railroads and United States sSteel. His management focus on stock price and short-term profit often worked to the detriment of the businesses he controlled by discouraging technological and organizational innovation.

    1. Andrew Carnegie

    2. Jay Gould

    3. John D. Rockefeller

    4. John Pierpont Morgan

  14. Paiute shaman who in 1889 established the Ghost Dance religion, a form of nonviolent resistance to white control of the land that drew adherents from diverse Indian tribes across the West.

    1. Geronimo

    2. Wovoka

    3. Sitting Bull

    4. Chief Joseph

  15. A recreation destination for many Manhattanites, who could easily reach the small stretch of sand by trolley or steamship. Its entertainments became increasingly commercialized during the late nineteenth century as its penny arcades and dance pavilions began to share space with elaborate amusement parks.

    1. Ellis Island

    2. Castle Clinton

    3. Angel Island

    4. Coney Island

  16. A geographic region on both sides of the North Atlantic that included a high concentration of urban industrial centers. In the late nineteenth century, Chicago and St. Louis formed the western boundary of the region; Warsaw, the eastern; Toronto, Glasgow, and Berlin, the northern; and Richmond, Louisville, Milan, and Barcelona, the southern.

    1. Rural core

    2. Industrial core

    3. Industrial periphery

    4. Rural periphery

  17. Enormous new vein of ore discovered in Nevada by miners in 1873. It drew corporate mining interests to invest heavily in the area, dramatically changing the economic and social environment of Virginia City.

    1. Comstock Lode

    2. Cripple Creek gold rush

    3. Big Bonanza

    4. California gold rush

  18. Political cartoonist whose vivid, trenchant critiques of William Marcy Tweed in cartoons published in Harper’s Weekly contributed to Tweed’s downfall.

    1. William Graham Sumner

    2. Lincoln Steffens

    3. Jacob Riis

    4. Thomas Nast

  19. Severe winters of 1886-87 and 1887-88 that decimated herds of cattle in the West. Fencing, which restricted cattle’s movement, their primary defense against cold, and overcrowding of the range contributed to the devastation of the herds. The losses marked the end of the open range.

    1. “Great Die Up”

    2. “Big Die Up”

    3. “Huge Die Up”

    4. “Vast Die Up”

  20. Architect who helped create the “Chicago school” of commercial architecture. An adherent to the principle “form follows function,” he built innovative modern structures that became Chicago landmarks.

    1. Jens Jensen

    2. Frederick Law Olmstead

    3. John Roebling

    4. Louis Sullivan

  21. Charles Darwin’s magisterial work, published in 1859, which laid out his theory of evolution explaining that competition for survival and the process of environmental adaptation produced natural selection, resulting in evolutionary progress.

    1. On the Origin of Species

    2. The Gilded Age

    3. “The Gospel of Wealth”

    4. What Social Classes Owe to Each Other

  22. Immortalized in the dime novels of the nineteenth century as Buffalo Bill, he had been a gold prospector, army scout, and buffalo hunter. In 1883 he formed a touring Wild West Company that entertained the public with displays of western skills like shooting and roping, as well as by reenacting scenes from United States history such as Custer’s Last Stand.

    1. William F. Cody

    2. George Armstrong Custer

    3. John M. Chivington

    4. William J. Fetterman

  23. Extraordinarily wealthy New York family whose extravagant spending and ostentatious living typified the excesses of the Gilded Age. The family’s fortune dated back only to “Commodore” Cornelius’s construction of the New York Central Railroad, marking them as part of a new but increasingly powerful class of Americans made rich by industry.

    1. The Van Rensselaers

    2. The Vanderbilts

    3. The Rockefellers

    4. The Astors

PART III – Map Questions

Identify the letter from each map that corresponds with the given location. One (1) point each.

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