*RULE: automatically dismiss if D was acting within scope of authority (function, not office).
*RATI: too important to be sued; without immunity, judges and prosecutors would be constantly sued; need discretion; alternatives (electoral check on elected officials, appeals for prosecutors and judges)
1. Who gets absolute immunity?
*RULE: President: absolute immunity for acts w/i “outer perimeter” of duty. Nixon v. Fitzgerald.
*RULE: Presidential aides: absolute immunity if work in “sensitive areas.”