Feminism  Feminist literary theory is one of the most prominent forms of literary theory that has its origins in the most influential social and political movement and dynamic philosophy of history

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Mary Ellmann‘s Thinking about Women (1968), Kate Millett‘s Sexual Politics (1969), Betty Friedan‘s The Feminine
Mystique (1963) and soon mark the major works of the phase. Millett’s work specifically depicts how western social
institutions work as covert ways of manipulating power, and how this permeates into literature, philosophy etc. She

undertakes a thorough critical understanding of the portrayal of women in the works of male authors like DH Lawrence,
Norman Mailer, Henry Miller and Jean Genet.

Third wave of feminism
Third-wave feminists adopted law professor and civil rights activist Kimberlé Crenshaw’s theory of intersectionality. For
example, a black woman’s experiences of sexism may differ from those of white or Latina women. Third-wave feminists
also argued that gender could be socially constructed. Now, transgender issues have become feminist causes.
Transgender women and men have increasingly gained acceptance and are advocates for the feminist cause. Like
second-wave feminists before them, many third-wave feminists continued with efforts to secure equal employment and
education opportunities.
In the third wave (post 1980), Feminism has been actively involved in academics with its interdisciplinary associations
with Marxism, Psychoanalysis and Poststructuralism, dealing with issues such as language, writing, sexuality,
representation etc. It also has associations with alternate sexualities, postcolonialism (Linda Hutcheon and Spivak) and
Ecological Studies (Vandana Shiva)
Elaine Showalter, in her Towards a Feminist Poetics introduces the concept of gynocriticism, a criticism of gynotexts,
by women who are not passive consumers but active producers of meaning. The gynocritics construct a female

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