Questions written by current and former members of the Norcross High School Academic Team (Mostafa Bhuiyan, Andrew Kahn, Steven Miller, Hernan Morales, Doug Morgan, Michael Sokolow), and Adil Khan (formerly of Chattahoochee)
Finals Packet 2 – Tossups 1. On the left side of this painting, a small picture frame shows two people wearing red and blue shirts. The upper right portion of this piece includes spoons idly hanging on the wall, while the opposite side shows a clock reading seven o’clock. A black (*) teapot sits on a wooden desk, and another teapot is being used by a woman wearing a white bonnet to pour four cups of tea. An oil lamp serves as the only source of light in this work as five workers congregate to enjoy their dinner. For 10 points, name this depiction of a Dutch family sitting down to eat some cut vegetables, a work by Vincent van Gogh.
ANSWER: The Potato Eaters [accept De Aardappeleters] [MB]
2. This fictional character transformed into Mafalda Hopkirk so that entry into a certain facility would go unnoticed. Before working to regulate magical creatures, this character traveled to Australia to remove a certain charm from relatives. This figure received The (*) Tales of Beedle the Bard and was put under the Crutiatus curse to reveal whether a sword was a fake. She used a Time-Turner to compensate for her rigorous schedule and her cat Crookshanks constantly bothers Scabbers. She defeated the Devil’s Snare, despises Rita Skeeter, and is called “Mudblood” by Draco Malfoy. For 10 points, name this witty Gryffindor, a friend of Ron Weasley and Harry Potter.
ANSWER: HermioneGranger [accept either underlined part; don’t accept Emma Watson] [MB]
3. This conflict saw Taticius desert one of the main armies because of plans to kill him during the Siege of Antioch. This war also saw Bohemund of Taranto meet Kilij Arlsan in the Battle of Dorylaeum, an event that followed the Byzantine emperor Alexious Komnenos’s plea for help. It saw (*) Peter the Hermit lead a disastrous campaign against the Seljuk Turks, although some success for his allies came with Godfrey of Bouillon’s taking of Jerusalem. It was called to begin at the Council of Clermont by Pope Urban II in 1095. For 10 points, name this crusade that was followed by eight more fights for the Holy Land.
ANSWER: First Crusade [prompt on just “Crusades”] [MB]
4. A saturable absorber is used in Passive mode-locking, which is one of three types of mode-locking, or Q-switching, used on these objects to change their pulses. They can come in an excepilex form and produce population inversion when they (*) excite particles by pumping. The “free-electron” variants of these devices go through namesake “cavities” and propel electrons near the speed of light. First created by Theodore Maiman, for 10 points, name these devices that amplify light and produce a stimulated emission of photons.
ANSWER: laser [or Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation] [MB]
5. This man wrote a novel featuring five young intellectuals discussing the future of their home country. In addition to The Interpreters, this man wrote a play which Eman volunteers to be sacrificed as a “carrier” known as The Strong Breed. He also wrote a work that features Joseph and (*) Sergeant Amusa, while in another, Alaito is scolded for mistreating her husband Baroka. That work also includes Sidi and Lakunle. For ten points, name this Nigerian author of The Lion and the Jewel and a novel in which Elesin Oba fails to commit suicide, Death and the King’s Horseman.
ANSWER: Akinwunde Oluwole “Wole” Soyinka [AdilK]
6. This man wrote that myelinization of the brain had no correlation to one’s ability to learn in his dissertation for the University of Chicago. He worked with Harvey Carr to observe animals’ speeds increasing as exposure to the same environment increased, which led to them habitually running into (*) walls. This husband of Rosalie Rayner carried out the Kerplunk Experiment and claimed that any baby could be trained to be an artist or a doctor in his “Twelve Infants Theory.” He utilized loud noises to make an infant fear white rats in his Little Albert Experiment. For 10 points, name this American psychologist who founded behaviorism.
ANSWER: John Broadus Watson [MB]
7. This composer borrowed lute songs by Fabrizio Caroso and Simone Molinaro to complete “Villanella” as part of one of his three section suites. He was inspired by the songs of cuckoos, nightingales, and doves to finish a piece entitled The Birds. In addition to composing Ancient Airs and Dances, this man also used trombones to depict (*) catacombs in another of his compositions, while he also split another of his pieces into four parts to portray the title objects at different times of day. The former of those works also paints a scene of men marching on the Appian Way. For 10 points, name this Italian composer of The Fountains of Rome and The Pines of Rome.
ANSWER: Ottorino Respighi [MB]
8. This text translates “philosophy” to “gymnosophaon” as part of a fictitious language created by its author, and one narrator in this work is introduced to a capital city of Amaurot and talks to Jerome Busleiden and Peter Gilles, two of the author’s closest friends, in Antwerp. The protagonist meets (*) Raphael Hythloday and describes a locale found off the coast of South America that is distinguishable by its crescent-shaped outline. Written before its author was sent to the Tower of London to be beheaded, this is, for 10 points, which work about “nowhere” by Sir Thomas More.
ANSWER: Utopia [MB]
9. The older remaining examples of it may be recorded on the Ishango Bone and be well over 20,000 years old. In of his most famous theorems, Kurt Gödel showed that it could not be proven consistent. While its four basic functions are typically used on (*) real numbers, they can, in fact, be used on any number ring. The field of number theory is often considered to be the “high” version of it. For 10 points, name this area of mathematics typically focusing on addition, subtraction, multiplication, division.
ANSWER: Arithmetic [DM]
10. In one work by this author, Officer Bell frames Fonny of raping a Puerto Rican woman named Victoria Rogers, tearing apart the relationship between him and Tish. He included his experience with Muslims and the Christian Church in one essay. This author of If Beale Street Could Talk and “(*) Down at the Cross” included the latter work along with a letter to his nephew in his book TheFire Next Time. His most famous work is about a family that is part of the Temple of the Fire Baptized Church and concerns Florence, Gabriel, Elizabeth, and John. For 10 points, name this African-American author of Go Tell it on the Mountain.
ANSWER: James Arthur Baldwin [MB]
11. Widukind escaped this king’s slaughter of approximately 4,500 rebellious Saxons at the Massacre of Verden. Pope Adrian I asked him to defeat King Desiderius, which he did at the Siege of Pavia. The Treaty of Verdun ended a civil war within his empire by settling a land dispute between the sons of (*) Louis the Pious. This loser at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass co-ruled with his brother Carloman as the second Carolingian emperor after the death of his father Pepin the Short. He was crowned by Pope Leo III as the first Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas 800 A.D. For 10 points, name this second king of the Franks.
ANSWER: Charlemagne [or Charles I or Charles the Great or Carolus Magnus or Karl der Grosse] [MB]
12. The western end of this body of water is bounded by Cape Spartel and the Alboran Sea, while it is marked to the northeast by Kum Kale and Cape Helles. The deepest recorded point in this body is southwest of Pylos and is the Calypso Deep. Palma is the capital of the (*) autonomous archipelago known as the Balearic Islands that lies at its western end. The Aeolian Islands are located in the central Tyrrhenian Sea, a constituent of this sea. Its port cities include Tunis, Tangiers, and Tripoli. For 10 points, name this sea that is connected to the Black Sea by the Sea of Marmara and to the Atlantic Ocean by the Strait of Gibraltar.
ANSWER: ANSWER: Mediterranean Sea [Accept “Eurafrican” or “European” Mediterranean Sea; prompt on Mare Nostrum] [MB] 13. He wrote that to label an item as aesthetically pleasing required separating temporary and principle ideas in his work The Sense of Beauty. Though not Spinoza, he wrote that matter acts as the limit to what can be in his discussion of matter, essence, truth, and spirit. This author of The (*) Realms of Being discussed “common sense” as a phase of human progress and believed philosophy begins “in media res.” His assertion that pragmatism trumps idealism was outlined in Skepticism and Animal Faith. The Life of Reason is by, for 10 points, which Spanish-born thinker who stated “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.”
ANSWER: George Santayana [MB]
14. This author wrote about an adopted son of Frederick Barbarossa who tells stories to Niketas and makes friends with the Archpoet after going to the Kingdom of Pester John during the Fourth Crusade. This author also wrote about three conspirators who come up with “The (*) Plan” in his book about Diotallevi, Belbo, and Causabon. In another novel by this author, Adso of Melk narrates the story of several murders investigated by William of Baskerville. For 10 points, name this prolific Italian author of Baudolino,Foucault’s Pendulum and The Name of the Rose.
ANSWER: Umberto Eco [MB]
15. These compounds are in excess when a plant develops a shoot-like crown gall, and one type of this compound is known as TDZ and is classified as a phenyl-urea type one. First discovered by Folke Skoog in herring sperm and coconut milk, this class of hormones is derived from adenine and includes kinetin and zeatin. The ratio of the amount of this hormone to the amount of (*) auxin determines cell growth and differentiation, and this class of hormones promotes cell division. For ten points, name this class of plant hormones that is named for the last part of mitosis that it promotes.
Answer: Cytokinins [AdilK]
16. Constantin Caratheodory’s version of this statement says there are inaccessible states from the current adiabatic system. Loschmidt’s paradox describes an error in Boltzmann’s H-theorem, which gives a solution to this law’s violation of T-symmetry. Two (*) chambers with molecules that would be sorted according to energy by a hypothetical “demon” named for Maxwell violates this law, and it was first proposed when Rudolph Clausius discovered heat could not simultaneously flow from low to high temperatures. For 10 points, give this law that holds the entropy of the universe is constantly increasing.
ANSWER: second law of thermodynamics [MB]
17. These people saw religious revival led by Redbird Smith as part of the Keetoowah Society. One member of these people named Stand Watie organized the Knights of the Golden Circle. Their border was fought for by John Ross in an 1831 Supreme Court case that dealt with their disputes over (*) Georgia. Their ability to read grew after one of its members developed their first syllabary. Along with Sequoyah, they signed the Treaty of New Echota which was later used as the basis for their forced removal by the Jackson administration. For 10 points, name this southeastern tribe that was forced to move from Tennessee to Oregon on the Trail of Tears. ANSWER: Cherokee Nation or Tribe [MB]
18. The protagonist of this work encounters a tree that tells him that he was once a man named Fradubio and comes across a beast that is the lover of a witch. Besides fighting Duessa and Orgoglio with Arthur, the protagonist talks with Despair about death and is chased by the wizard (*) Archimago. After repenting at the House of Holiness with Una, the protagonist spends three days fighting a dragon, an assignment given to him by Gloriana. The Redcrosse Knight is the protagonist of, for 10 points, which poem written in praise of Elizabeth I by Edmund Spenser?
ANSWER: The Faerie Queene [MB]
19. The scattering of this phenomenon is expressed in the Kompaneets equations. In 2003, high altitude balloon fights that were part of the BOOMERanG experiment measured this entity, and photon redshift in this phenomenon occurs in the Sachs-Wolfe effect. Machines that map it include the WMAP and COBE. Discovered by (*) Robert Wolfe, 2.7 Kelvin is the temperature at which it fits a black-body spectrum. For 10 points, name this radiation left over from the Big Bang.
ANSWER: Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation [CMBR] [MB]
20. Harry White received a Medal of Honor after fighting in this battle, while Harry Liversedge led a notable group in it. The opposition in this conflict drew inspiration from the earlier Battle of Peleliu. Also known as Operation Detachment, it was the most notable battle of (*) Tadamichi Kuribayasha. Over 650 Marines perished at this battle partly because of the locale’s intricate tunnel network, but five U.S. Marines triumphed on top of Mount Suribachi. For 10 points, name this 1945 battle that Joe Rosenthal depicted the raising of a flag on, a Pacific conflict between the U.S. and Japan often paired with Okinawa.
ANSWER: Battle of Iwo Jima [prompt on Operation Detachment until mentioned] [MB]
THE ROUND IS NOW OVER. IF THERE ARE ANY PROTESTS, RESOLVE THEM NOW. IF THERE IS A TIE, THEN READ THE TIEBREAKERS BELOW UNTIL THERE IS A SCORE CHANGE.
TB1. One law associated with this scientist is used to find the Gaussian gravitational constant, while another of his contributions was done in collaboration with Louis Poinsot and dealt with namesake stellated polyhedra. The “equal areas” in “equal” times was part of this man’s namesake (*) “two-body problem.” He also discovered that 3/2 [three-halves] was the power for the relationship between the periods and orbits of planets. For 10 points, name this student of Tycho Brahe who was a German astronomer that formulated three laws of planetary motion.
ANSWER: Johannes Kepler [MB]
TB2. In one of his novellas, Missirilli goes on a quest to liberate Italy and rejects some jewels that the title character had given her. This author also wrote a novel in which the protagonist communicates with Clélia Conti via pages ripped out of a book. In that novel by this author of Vanina Vanini, the relationship between Gina and Count Mosca helps a veteran of Waterloo named (*) Fabrizio del Dongo. Another of his characters is infatuated with Mathilde de la Mole and, out of anger, shoots his former lover Madame de Renal. For 10 points, name this author of The Charterhouse of Parma who wrote about Julian Sorel in The Red and the Black.
ANSWER: Stendhal [or Marie-Henri Beyle] [MB]
TB3. In one of his novels, the protagonist marries Behary and finds a job as a politician in Britain. In addition to writing about Ganesh Ramsumair, he also wrote about a poet named B. Wordsworth that struggles to finish his one-line epic poem and a construction worker named Popo who fails to build anything. This author of The Mystic Masseur and (*)Miguel Street also wrote about a shopkeeper named Salim who attempts to make a living while under the rule of Big Man. He also wrote about a six-fingered journalist named Mohun, who marries Shama and lives with the Tulsis. For 10 points, name this Trinidadian author of A Bend in the River and A House for Mr. Biswas.
ANSWER: Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul
Written by current and former members of the Norcross High School Academic Team (Mostafa Bhuiyan, Andrew Kahn, Steven Miller, Hernan Morales, Doug Morgan, Michael Sokolow), and Adil Khan
Finals Packet 2 – Bonuses 1. He’s a big green monster with really bad breath. For 10 points each:
 Name this ogre that lives in the swamp and goes on tons of adventures with his wife Fiona and his friend Donkey. He is voiced by Michael Myers.
 Princess Fiona was voiced by this American actress who has played one of the main roles in Charlie’s Angels. She has recently played the title character in Bad Teacher.
ANSWER: Cameron Michelle Diaz
 Shrek and all his other companions live in this place, which is the setting of most of the Shrek series. It is the location of Fiona’s parent’s castle.
ANSWER: Far Far Away Land
2. This disease is characterized by the formation of clumps of abnormal protein called Lewy bodies. For 10 points each:
 Name this degenerative disease that begins to develop in elderly patients and usually results in dementia. Symptoms include slowed movement and stiffness.
ANSWER: Parkinson’s Disease
 Parkinson’s disease is caused by the death of cells in the substantia nigra that contain this pleasure-reward neurotransmitter.
ANSWER: dopamine  Dopamine is released from this part of the brain located above the pituitary gland. It controls body temperature and circadian cycles.
ANSWER: hypothalamus [MB]
3. This novel ends with Arabella Wilmot and George being married, and an earlier scene sees the central family tell Mr. Burchell to go away. For 10 points each:
 Name this novel in which Squire Thornhill attempts to stain the good name of the Primrose family.
ANSWER: The Vicar of Wakefield  This author of The Vicar of Wakefield and alleged source of the phrase “goody two shoes” also wrote the novel The Good Natur’d Man and the poem The Deserted Village.
ANSWER: Oliver Goldsmith  This play by Goldsmith concerns Mr. Hardcastle’s attempts to get his daughter Kate to marry the anxious Charles Marlow. In order to woo Marlow, Kate dresses up as a maid.
ANSWER: She Stoops to Conquer [MB]
4. For 10 points each, name these legendary figures that used a bow and arrow as their main weapon.
 This outlaw from English folklore was accompanied by his “Merry Men” and stole from the rich and gave to the poor. He was almost always depicted wearing green clothes and carrying a bow and arrow.
ANSWER: Robin Hood  This son of Indra and third oldest of the Pandava brothers was persuaded by Krishna to fight against his family in the Bhagavad Gita. This master archer won his wife Draupadi by firing some arrows through a ring.
ANSWER: Arjuna [accept Orachun or Arjunan or Harjuna or Harjuno or Herjuno or Ranjuna]
 In Chinese mythology, this leader of the Dongyi and archer almost shot down all ten suns, but was convinced by Dijun to spare the last one. This figure would later marry Chang’E, the daughter of an irate river god.
ANSWER: Houyi [accept Yiyi or Yi] [MB]
5. The fictional country in this book has its capital at Orkko and is known as Cimmeria, and every odd-numbered chapter in it is in second person. For 10 points each:
 Name this very frustrating novel about a man that tries to read the titular book and comes to realizes that the book is misprinted. In it, the Reader corresponds with Ludmilla over that book.
ANSWER: If on a winter’s night a traveler [or Se una notte d'inverno un viaggiatore]
 If on a winter’s night a traveler is a novel by this Italian author of The Cloven Viscount who wrote about a conversation between Marco Polo and Kublai Khan that describes fifty-five titular Invisible Cities.
ANSWER: Italo Calvino
 This other Italian author wrote many sonnets to Laura as well as Seniles, Trionfi, and the song book, Canzoniere.
ANSWER: Petrarch [or Francesco Petrarca] [MB]
6. The Karman line is located fifteen kilometers into this region. For 10 points each:
 Name this largest of the Earth’s atmospheric layers that lies below the exosphere and above the mesosphere.
ANSWER: Thermosphere  This portion of the thermosphere is charged because of the ultraviolet radiation hitting it. It’s “D” layer is its innermost.
ANSWER: Ionosphere  The Ionosphere’s “E” layer, which reflects medium frequency radio waves, is referred to by this term to honor two English engineers.
ANSWER: Kennelly-Heaviside layer [MB]
7. Bibb Latane and John Darley undertook research to learn more about this phenomenon. For 10 points each:
 Name this phenomenon in which people present at the scene of a crime or emergency do not offer help because they think others will.
ANSWER: Bystander effect  One of the most famous examples of the bystander effect was during the 1964 murder of this New York woman. Over thirty people watched her being stabbed, but no one helped.
ANSWER: Kitty Genovese  This effect, a different form of the bystander effect, was showcased when its namesake French scientist gathered people to participate in a rope-pulling experiment. This effect shows that as more people participate for a certain cause, coordination goes down.
ANSWER: Ringelmann effect [MB]
8. The subject of this painting wears a dark green robe and has frizzed, orange hair. For 10 points each:
 Name this work in which a hiker stands on top of a mountain and observes the veiled landscape.
ANSWER: Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog [or Wanderer Above the Sea of Mist or Der Wanderer über dem Nebelmeer]
 Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog is a work by this German Romantic painter of Seashore by Moonlight and The Tree of Crows.
ANSWER: Caspar David Friedrich  Another Friedrich painting called The Stages of Life depicts these entities to represent each of those titular stages. In Winslow Homer’s The Gulf Stream, a black man sits in one of these entities as sharks surround him.
ANSWER: ships [accept close synonyms like “boats”] [MB]
9. Capillary action is caused by adhesion and this property. For 10 points each:
 Name this force that causes liquids to be held together, exemplified by some insects’ ability to walk on water.
ANSWER: surface tension  Surface tension can be lowered by using these substances. Examples include detergents and foaming agents.
 Different values for surface tension result in the movement of liquids, a phenomenon given this name. This effect causes “tear-drops” to form in wine.
ANSWER: Gibbs-Marangoni effect [MB]
10. This man signed the peace of Ramlah with his greatest rival after ceding Acre. For 10 points each:
 Name this chivalrous leader of Muslims during the Third Crusade who fought multiple times with his adversary Richard the Lionhearted.
ANSWER: Saladin [or Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub]
 Saladin founded this dynasty and named it after his father. Centered around Egypt, it expanded after its victory at the Battle of Hattin.
 The Ayyubid dynasty also saw rebellions started by this class of warrior slaves. They later established a namesake sultanate and founded the Bahri dynasty.
ANSWER: Mamluks [MB]
11. For 10 points each, name these largest cities of their respective Asian nations that are NOT capital cities.
 This city, under a different name, was once a capital city under a different name, before being renamed in 1976 in honor of a Marxist–Leninist revolutionary leader. The current capital of the nation in which it lies is Hanoi.
ANSWER: Ho Chi Minh City [Prompt on Saigon]
 Also a formal capital, it is located on the island of Luzon and named for a former president of the country in which it lies. The current capital of that country is Manila, which contains this city within its metropolitan area.
ANSWER: Quezon City OR Lungsod Quezon [Prompt on partial answer]
 One of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, it flourished in the past due to its location at the end of the Silk Road. Many Armenian Christians have sought refuge here due to its position in northeastern Syria.
ANSWER: Aleppo [or Halab] [MS]
12. This country saw a civil war that pitted the White Guard against the Red Guard. For 10 points each:
 Name this northern European country once home to the radical Lapua Movement. It hosted the 1952 Olympics in its capital of Helsinki.
ANSWER: Republic of Finland  Finland engaged in bitter conflict with Russia in this bitter 1939-1940 conflict that included the Battle of Suomussalmi and ended with the Moscow Armistice.
ANSWER: Winter War [accept Talvisota or Zimnyaya voyna]
 This figure was Finland’s Commander-in-Chief during WWII and was head of the White Guard until war with the Soviets. He also names a line that was penetrated by the Finnish during the Winter War.
ANSWER: Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim [MB]
13. One member of this group composed an insanely difficult “Oriental Fantasy” called Islamey. For 10 points each:
 Name this group of composers led by Mily Balakirev who strayed away from the typical music of the time and whose members included Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov.
ANSWER: The Five [or Russian Five or Mighty Handful or Mighty Coterie]
 This member of the Russian Five composed children’s music such as versions of Puss in Boots and Little Red Riding Hood, but he is also known for an opera about a suicidal lover of Fatima called The Prisoner of the Caucasus.
ANSWER: Cesar Antonovich Cui
 This other member of the Five portrayed his Polevstian Dances by using slaves in his opera about Konchak, the captor of the title Prince Igor. He also composed In the Steppes of Central Asia.
ANSWER: Alexander Borodin [MB]
14. This philosopher believed in “material implication,” the thought that humans associate certain causes to specific events. For 10 points each:
 Name this Scottish thinker who awoke Kant from his “dogmatic slumber” and wrote An Enquiry on Human Understanding and introduced a new shade of blue to explain knowledge in Treatise of Human Nature.
ANSWER: David Hume  Hume was a major proponent of this branch of philosophy that asserts knowledge is derived wholly from experience, not emotions or ideas.
ANSWER: Empiricism [accept word forms like Empiricist]
 Hume’s Problem of Induction influenced this philosopher who labeled Plato as a traitor to Socrates in his book The Open Society and Its Enemies.
ANSWER: Karl Raimund Popper [MB]
15. One character in this short story is obsessed with have as many canna lilies as possible. For 10 points each:
 Name this short story in which Laura attempts to cancel an event thrown by the Sheridan family after the death of Jose.
ANSWER: “The Garden Party”
 This author from New Zealand wrote “The Garden Party,” as well as a story in which Leila learns that one day she will not be able to dance in the titular event, “Her First Ball.”
ANSWER: Katherine Mansfield Beauchamp Murry
 Mansfield also wrote a short story in which an old office manager is looking at a picture of his son, when this titular animal appears. In a Dickinson poem, the narrator heard one buzz before she died.
ANSWER: a fly [MB]
16. These molecules can either be hydrophobic or amphiphillic. For 10 points each:
 Identify these molecules that store energy and aid in signaling molecules. Examples include steroids and waxes.
 The backbone of a lipid structure is comprised of these water-soluble compounds. Three of them are present in fatty acids.
ANSWER: glycerol [or glycerine or glycerin]
 Lipids like the “fat-soluble” vitamins A, D, E, and K are all based on this organic compound that is the monomer of natural rubber.
ANSWER: Isoprene [or Isoterpene] [MB]
17. The protagonist of this novel encounters a badly injured Mexican while he was antelope hunting, only to find out that the Mexican was involved in a drug deal gone bad. For 10 points each:
 Name this recent novel about Anton Chigurh, Ed Tom Bell, and Llewelyn Moss and their adventures in Terrell County.
ANSWER: No Country for Old Men  Subtitled The Evening Redness in the West, this other novel by the author of No Country for Old Men follows a runaway from Tennessee known as “the kid” and his life with Judge Holden and Glanton’s gang.
ANSWER: Blood Meridianor the Evening Redness in the West  This author of No Country for Old Men and Blood Meridian wrote about a boy’s adventures with his father in The Road and about John Grady Cole in All the Pretty Horses.
ANSWER: Cormac McCarthy [or Charles McCarthy] [MB]
18. The axioms of extensionality and choice are part of the Zermelo type of this mathematical field. For 10 points each:
 Name this field of mathematics that studies groups with unions and intersections. Venn diagrams are part of this field.
ANSWER: set theory [do not accept group theory]
 This German mathematician worked with Richard Dedekind to co-found set theory. His other work includes the proposition of an “infinity of infinities” in his namesake theorem.
ANSWER: Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor  Cantor’s other work in the area of set theory included this hypothesis about the sizes of infinite sets. It asserts that there exists no set in which the cardinality is between that of the integers and that of real numbers.
ANSWER: continuum hypothesis [MB]
19. This event was preceded by the Border Ruffian’s take of Lawrence. For 10 points each:
 Name this May 24th to May 25th 1856 event that took place in Kansas in which five supporters of slavery were killed.
ANSWER: Pottawatomie Creek Massacre
 The massacre at Pottawatomie Creek was a precursor to this 1859 event in which abolitionist John Brown attempted to seize an armory but was stopped by Robert E. Lee.
ANSWER: Harpers Ferry raid
 Franklin Sanborn, Theodore Parker, and Samuel Howe were a few of the members of this group that substantially financed John Brown during his movements.
ANSWER: The Secret Six 20. His time as prime minister saw territorial conflicts with Spain in the Nootka Crisis. For 10 points each:
 Name this British prime minister from 1804 to 1806 who saw Britain join the Third Coalition. He was the youngest British prime minister ever.
ANSWER: William Pitt, the Younger [prompt on Pitt]
 During Pitt’s tenure, he oversaw this 1805 naval conflict off the coast of Spain in which British troops led by Horatio Nelson defeated the Spanish and French navies.
ANSWER: Battle of Trafalgar  This British Whig was a huge rival of William Pitt. Along with Lord North, this man attempted to have the Regency Bill passed, but it was delayed by Pitt.
ANSWER: Charles James Fox [MB]
Replacement Bonus This leader was succeeded by Georgy Chicherin as the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for the Soviet Union. For 10 points each:
 Name this Russian communist who, after a bitter conflict with Lenin, was exiled to Mexico. There, he was killed with an ice axe by Ramon Mercader.
ANSWER: Leon Trotsky [or Lev Davidovich Bronshtein]
 Before being exiled to Mexico, Trotsky founded and became the head of this Soviet combat force during the Civil War.
ANSWER: Red Army [or Workers' and Peasants' Red Army or RKKA or Rabočě-Krěst'janskaja Krasnaja Armija]
 Trotsky held that “socialism in one country” was not possible, and instead believed in this Marxist ideal in which the proletariat must dominate the titular ideal. As a result, Trotsky supported socialism in other countries.