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Scaffold Procedure


The purpose of this procedure is to provide guidelines for the erection, modification, dismantling and storage of scaffolding that shall be constructed / used on project. Implementation of these guidelines shall be essential to allow a means of safe access to work fronts using scaffolding that is assembled, inspected and maintained in a safe and accident free environment.

The procedure shall Provide guidance on how to manage "scaffold services" to ensure that only well designed, erected and maintained scaffolds can provide safe means of access and a safe working area for end users.

Specify the minimum acceptable safety codes and specifications.

Define the parties involved in the scaffolding works

Identify the responsibilities of parties

Describe the types of scaffold approved (including modular) and any limitations on its use

Outline minimum safe work practices to be applied during the erection of scaffolds including the use of fall arrest equipment and tools, training requirements and competencies / skills (certified / experience) of scaffolding supervisors / workers.

Establish a procedure to control how scaffolds can be erected, modified and dismantled

safely including any safety checks.

Highlight the need for the proper use of this scaffold system to other workers by incorporating ‘how to use scaffold safely’ into the ‘safety inductions’ required before permission to enter site is granted

Require quality audits to be undertaken to ensure compliance with this procedure.


Scope


The following procedure shall cover all scaffolding erected, dismantled, modified and stored on the project including any off-site or subcontracted elements of the project that require scaffolding to execute the works. Compliance With Statutory Regulations

The following international standards shall be applied for the project:

BS EN 39:2001 - Loose steel tube for tube and coupler scaffolds prEN 74-1 - Couplers, spigots and base plates for use in falsework and scaffolds - Part I: Couplers for tubes – Requirements and test methods.

BS EN 12811-1:2003 - Scaffolds – Performance requirements and general design or equivalent approved Codes of Practice.

BS 2482:1981 - Specification for timber scaffold boards

EN 354:2002 - Personal protective equipment against falls from a height - Lanyards

EN 355:2002 - Personal protective equipment against falls from a height - Energy Absorbers

EN 361:2002 - Personal protective equipment against falls from a height - Full Body Harness

EN 362:2004 - Personal protective equipment against falls from a height - Connectors

EN 364:1992 - Personal protective equipment against falls from a height - Test Methods

EN 365:2004 - Personal protective equipment against falls from a height - General

requirements for instructions for use and for marking

EN 795:1996 - Personal protective equipment against falls from height - Anchor devices

requirements for testing prEN 12402-4 - Personal flotation devices Part 4, Class D (inland / close to shore. 100 N), safety requirements prEN 1263-1 – Safety Nets

Contractor shall obtain prior written approval in the event alternative standards are proposed. The request for a substitution shall include a comparison of proposed alternative standard(s) with British Standard / Euro Norm listed above, highlighting any differences.

Definitions


Scaffolding Representative

Employee of the Contractor certified and approved to supervise and inspect scaffolding works.



Subcontractor

A party having a contract with the Contractor to carry out work required for the realisation of the project



Subcontractor Scaffolding Worker

Employee of a subcontractor such as qualified scaffolders, scaffolding foremen and

supervisors who are certified and approved to carry out scaffolding work

Subcontractor Scaffolding Inspector

Employee of a subcontractor certified and approved to carry out inspection of scaffolding work

End User -Any party authorised to be on site that has cause to utilise scaffolding.

Responsibility


Contractor shall ensure that the scaffolding provided by any subcontractor complies with

the safety and erection regulations for scaffolding.

Contractor shall be responsible for ensuring that scaffolding is only erected, modified or

dismantled by or under the direct supervision of a competent and experienced person.

NO scaffolding should be modified by any person other than approved subcontractor

scaffolding workers.


Contractor shall require that subcontractors engaged in scaffold works:

Provide all scaffolding workers with overalls, hard hats, leather gloves, safety glasses and safety boots as well as ‘fall arrest’ safety equipment. In addition, ear defenders, dust masks and life vests shall also be provided where necessary.

Train all scaffolders in the use of ‘fall arrest’ equipment so that scaffolders are tied off at all times.

Provide scaffold workers, supervisors and inspectors who are qualified and whose qualification has been verified with trade tests. Records of tests, qualification certificates, training and performance shall also be maintained

Provide qualified scaffold workers, supervisors and inspectors who are trained in the proper use of fall arrest equipment and maintain records of qualification certificates, training and performance.

Provide training for scaffold inspectors, supervision and labour from a competent electrical specialist on when scaffolds must be earthed.

Contractor shall implement a scaffold inspection and control system to be common across the project.

Contractor shall appoint sufficient number of suitably qualified and experienced scaffolding representatives to manage, supervise and audit the inspection system used

by scaffold subcontractor staff and labour.

It is the responsibility of the Subcontractor to provide sufficient suitably qualified scaffolding inspectors to provide an inspection signature prior to access to the scaffold

being given to the relevant workforce.

Subcontractor shall also be responsible for Carrying out inspections including scaffold tube, boards, ladders and other materials within the contractors approved storage area to ensure no damaged tubes or boards reach the site from the storage area prior to erection. Defective materials shall be destroyed and disposed off from site.

Ensure that inspectors, foremen and scaffolding supervisors immediately report any breaches of safety or discipline regarding the integrity of the scaffold by other discipline contractors to the Contractor’s scaffolding representative or their own safety representative.

Contractor’s scaffolding representative shall be responsible for:

Coordination and communication across all scaffolding subcontractors 100% audit of special scaffolds

Auditing of the scaffold inspection and control system for standard scaffolds

Auditing the inspection of materials in storage areas

Providing safety training to end users on safe use of scaffolding onsite including checking that the inspection date be current and not beyond the 1 week validity

Contractor shall include instructions on the safe use of scaffolding in the site induction given to all labour, staff and visitors before site entry is permitted. This shall specifically include the prohibition of scaffold modification by any party other than qualified scaffolder labour, the obligation to immediately report any scaffolding defects observed, and authorisation to stop any work being carried out from it and immediately remove a green scaffold tag when such defects are noticed.

Types Of Scaffold

Special Scaffolds

A scaffold that falls within the following categories shall be designated as non-standard, special construction and as such requires the additional safety checks specified below. This includes the requirement for Contractor’s representative to carry out 100% audit of all special scaffolds and countersign the tag and logbook.
Load Bearing Scaffold

Load bearing scaffold is one that is required to carry any load other than an evenly distributed load of 2.5kN/m2 or is subject to point loading. Examples may include scaffolds used as falsework in supporting civil type structures such as concrete floors, or that used as means of support for lifting equipment such as chain blocks and winches. This type of scaffold shall always be approved in advance by Contractor’s representative and supported with drawings the relevant load calculations. Erection of this type of scaffold cannot commence until full approval has been granted and it may not be utilised until a full inspection by Contractor’s representative is carried out and the installation assembly approved.


Engineered Scaffold

Any scaffold structure in excess of 38m height shall be designed by a competent engineer and approved by the Contractor’s HSE Manager


Suspended Scaffolds

Bosun’s chairs and gondola type scaffolds are not covered by this specification. Permission for their use shall only be given by the Contractor’s HSE Manager following submission of detailed method statements specific to the particular proposed application. Use of Bosun’s Chair shall be permitted only in exceptional circumstances and then only with the approval of Company’s HSE Manager.


Cantilever Scaffold

Cantilever scaffold shall be erected from beams which protrude beyond the face of the building or structure. Contractor shall implement the same approval and inspection requirements as for load bearing scaffolds detailed above.

NOTE: Supporting data provided for approval shall include details of the proposed fixing method.
Hanging Scaffolds

Hanging scaffold shall be one that is suspended from a point of support above the intended final working platform. Contractor shall implement the same approval and inspection requirements as for cantilever scaffolds including details of the proposed fixing method.


Mobile Scaffolds

Mounted on castor wheels consisting of four or more standards. The wheels must be locked when users are on the scaffold. When moving the scaffold no personnel should be on it for any reason. The maximum height / base ratio for a mobile scaffold shall be:

a) Indoors: 3.5:1 b) Outdoors: 3:1 up to a maximum of 3 lifts or 6m.
Standard Scaffolds

Subcontractor may elect to use scaffold types rated as suitable for differing loads for routine construction activities in accordance with the categories listed below. Where this approach is adopted, subcontractor shall specify how the different load capacities shall be readily and visually identified to ensure workers do not create safety hazards by wrongly loading up scaffolds as a minimum this shall require identification on the scaffold safety tag.


Heavy Duty

Scaffold erected for the use of multiple disciplines, civil, mechanical, piping, electrical, with a maximum allowable weight of 2.5kN/m2


Light Duty

The main purpose of this type of scaffold is for painting, plastering, glazing and light electrical work and in some cases inspection requirements with a maximum allowable weight of 1.5kN/m2.


Safety During Erection, Modification and Dismantling of Scaffold

Below are the basic principles that should be adopted as a minimum requirement:


Use and Care of Fall Arrest equipment

Fall arrest equipment shall consist of a full body harness with 1.75m double lanyards

incorporating integral shock absorbers one of which to be tied off to a secure anchorage at all times. Each lanyard shall terminate with a 55mm opening scaffold hook for one handed operation Inspection of which equipment shall be carried out by a competent person at intervals recommended by the manufacturer or at an absolute minimum of one (1) month. Records of these inspections shall be kept and be made available for safety audits.
An approved person, specifically trained to carry out inspection of fall arrest equipment shall train all project scaffolding personnel in the’ use, inspection and maintenance of fall arrest equipment’. Records of this training shall be kept. Fall arrest equipment shall be worn at all times and 100% tie-off be required for all persons when the following situations occur:

Work is taking place 2m or greater above a working platform / grade.

Work takes place at any height above a significant hazard (eg uneven or rocky surface,

water, etc). Work is outside the confines of a complete platform. Work is taking place from mobile working platforms. When raising or lowering materials (with a double guarded handrail provided). Anchor Points shall wherever possible be above shoulder height. Always clip on to Ledgers supported with load bearing couplers, Guardrails supported with load bearing couplers, Transoms supported by the ledgers in the lift above fixed at both ends by single couplers

Never clip on to Standards, Ledgers supported with putlog or half couplers, Ledgers or guardrails within a bay where it has a joint, Guardrails supported with a putlog or half couplers, Transoms below foot level, Transoms when underslung below ledgers.
Tools

Tool belts to be provided and worn at all times. No adjustable, open ended or home made wrenches to be used. Only the correct socket type wrench shall be used when tightening couplers which shall assist in the reduction of hand and wrist injuries. Apply the correct torque on the coupler and reduce the risk of slippage and tools falling to ground level.


Barricade

During any scaffolding works (erection, modification, dismantling), warning tape and signs shall be erected to prevent others entering the work area.

Working in a Marine Environment .

When working close to or over water, PPE requirements shall be reviewed. A full Job Safety analysis shall be conducted and where appropriate, fall prevention equipment would be replaced by life vests for works over water. In addition, a suitable boat shall be readily accessible, equipped with at least one boat hook, one ring buoy and 20m of 10mm polyester rope.


Confined Space Working

Work in any confined space shall be carried out in accordance with the Confined Space Entry Procedure required to be developed for the project which typically require the use of a permit system for entry, low voltage power supply for lighting and provision of a trained watchman.


Requirements Specific To Scaffolding Works

To prevent hazards from falling objects, protection by means of a physical barrier (eg. scaffold boards) shall be provided inside and out, above entry points to confined space areas such as tanks and other equipment items.

Scaffolding erected inside equipment shall generally be built up from the floor.

Where it is proposed to construct a cantilever scaffold attached to a support ring or similar, the attachment method shall be provided by a purpose made clamp.

Attachment by adapting the use of jacking devices such as adjustable base plates shall not be permitted.

Contractor’s HSE Manager shall review and approve any proposed method.


Protection From Falling Objects During Demolition

Contractor shall ensure that all horizontally stored or erected tubes are closed with a purpose made plastic end cap to prevent objects being inserted into the tubes (eg small tools, rubbish etc) that subsequently falls out during demolition.


Regulations For Scaffolding

Only metal scaffolding systems shall be used.

Scaffolding built with tubes and couplers shall be in accordance with BS EN 39 and use

galvanised steel tubes with a minimum 48.3mm outside diameter, wall thickness of 3.2mm and yield strength of 235N/mm2. Couplers shall comply with prEN 74-1.Where proprietary quick assembly / modular scaffold systems are used, the contractor shall provide full technical data and seek written prior approval before use. Modular scaffolds shall be subject to approval and installed in accordance with manufacturers written instructions.



Ladders


The use of rope, cable or home made ladders shall not be permitted on the project unless specifically permitted by the HSE Manager.

Wooden ladders shall not be permitted

Metal / Aluminum ladders shall not be used near or in the vicinity of electrical installations

Extendable ladders shall be permitted for access only and shall be no longer than 10.5m (extended). Minimum overlap shall be in accordance with manufacturer’s

recommendations or 1m, whichever is the greater.

No ladders are to be utilized as supports for working platforms.

One person only shall be allowed on a ladder always facing the rungs when ascending or descending. No tools or objects are to be carried by the user.

Inspection of ladders shall be carried out as required . Any defective ladders discovered in the inspection shall be removed from site.

Ladders shall be installed on a firm base, erected with a 1:4 slope (1 horizontal to 4

vertical ) with 1 meter or 5 rungs protruding above the landing platform and a sideways

exit or entry provided to the landing platform. Safety bars or gates at the landings shall

be installed. Ladders providing access to high working platforms shall have a landing platform every 5m. Landings shall be 2000 x 1200mm as a minimum and not be utilised as storage places. As minimum, ladders shall be secured at both the top and bottom using clamps. Where they are required to ensure stability, additional intermediate support points shall also be secured with clamps. Ladders should be installed at the earliest possible phase of the erection and removed as late as possible to minimise the need for scaffolders to climb around the structure A minimum of 200mm clearance is the required vertical and horizontal area behind ladder rung.



Scaffold Planks


Scaffold planks providing the working platform shall be slip resistant. If timber boards are used they should be 38mm thick and comply with BS 2482.

It is recommended that cleats should be used to fix down boards with the underside of the boards clamping to the top of the scaffold wherever possible. If this is not feasible ensure fixing from the top causes no tripping hazards.

Timber boards shall be adequately supported by transoms and bearers spaced at a distance of 1.2m to 1.5m as required by the loading of the scaffold. Every board shall have three supports unless its thickness or span is sufficient to prevent sagging under load.

Timber scaffold boards shall extend a minimum 50mm beyond the putlog or transom with a maximum permissible overhang of 4 times the board thickness. Prefabricated metal planks shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

Boards should be butted together (on all scaffolds except circular structures) but, when

lapped boards are used, bevelled pieces to minimize the risk of tripping should be fitted at the laps.


Minimum width for platform shall be 600mm (3 boards)

Guard Rails and Toe Boards

A guard rail shall be provided at the outer edge and ends of all scaffolds. It shall be 1m or more above the working platform level.

A mid-rail shall also be provided located half way between the top pf the toe board and the guard rail.

Toe boards should also be fitted on the outer edges of the scaffold structure. The toe boards shall be minimum 150mm high with a maximum gap of 12mm between the board and the scaffold.

Guard rails, mid-rails and toe boards in accordance with 7.2.5 shall also be provide the distance between the ledge of a working platform and an adjacent wall exceeds 225mm.

Foundations

All scaffolds must be constructed on an area that has been compacted

The regular scaffold inspections shall include a check for undermining of foundations by other subcontractors. If any undermining is apparent, the inspector shall remove any personnel working on the relevant scaffold, then close down the scaffold (by means of the scafftag system) and inform the HSE representative.

No scaffold bases are to be constructed by means of temporary supports i.e. laying scaffold board over voids or trenches to support the sole plates is not permitted.

The load at the base of a standard of a high scaffold may exceed two (2) tonnes. A load of this magnitude may cause subsidence if not properly distributed over a sufficient area.

When required, supporting earthwork shall be compacted to ensure a sound foundation.


Soleplates


Generally, a continuous timber soleplate of 200mm x 200mm x 38mm shall be satisfactory to

distribute the load from a base plate to the ground. However, in some cases, in addition to ground compaction, it may be necessary to increase the thickness and the area of the soleplate.

Earthing of Scaffold

Scaffolding that carries lighting or small power circuits greater than 50V shall be bonded to the protective carrier of the circuit that it carries. Below this voltage no bonding is required, and for circuits above it earthing shall be designed and installed by a competent person (qualified electrician).

Scaffold Inspection And Control System

Contractor shall establish a system of control for scaffolds. The proposed system shall be illustrated it by producing typical flow schemes showing how the process is controlled from request stage through to demolition. The responsibilities of each party and methods of

communication between them shall clearly be defined on the flow schemes.

The system shall include the registration and inspection of new build scaffolds, subsequent recorded periodic inspections and the use of a tagging system with the following features:


A register / logbook of scaffolds shall be established recording a scaffold request from an enduser and a unique identification number for the scaffold to be built.

Upon completion, before the scaffold is allowed to be used, the scaffold shall be inspected by a qualified inspector, and the date and name of the inspector shall be recorded.

The inspection is only valid for seven calendar days. Any scaffold erected for longer than 1 week must be reinspected to revalidate the inspection tag.

Scaffolds must also be inspected after bad weather which may affect the scaffolds strength and stability.

Subsequent daily checks and inspections following modifications shall be recorded in the Register / logbook concluding with a record of the dismantling date.

A standard checklist shall be developed by Contractor and used for all inspections across the site. The checklist shall include a check of whether earthing of the scaffold is required. Status of a scaffold shall be indicated on site by using a tag attached to the structure itself. The tag consists of two elements, a holder and an insert. The holder shall be placed on the scaffold structure as soon as possible after the initial erection, and as close as possible to the point of access or ladder access. Where a scaffold has more than one access, a tag shall be attached at all of the entry points.

The scaffold tag has a hole in the top, which must be placed over a tube in order to secure it.

Holders must not be affixed by any other means.

Scaffolds must not be used if they have a red “DO NOT USE SCAFFOLD” symbol on the holder.

The scaffold tag insert is green in colour and when it is present it signifies to potential users that it is safe to use. When a scaffold has been inspected and passed, tags are to be signed by the responsible inspector using a permanent ink pen.

The green insert contains more significant information than the holder and is used to record details of statutory inspections, the maximum allowable loading.

While the RED holder is in place, access to the scaffold structure is prohibited to non

scaffold personnel.

When a scaffold is to be structurally modified, the scaffold crew assigned the work shall

remove the green scaffold tag and barrier off the area. The tag shall therefore only comprise the red holder with the “DO NOT USE SCAFFOLD” symbol, and only scaffold personnel allowed on the scaffold. Once the modification is complete, the scaffold should be reinspected by the inspector prior to use and when accepted, the GREEN tag would be inserted into the holder signifying it being safe to use.

If a scaffold requires a minor modification for a short period due to construction reasons, e.g. removal of handrail or board to allow pipe installation, only scaffold personnel shall be permitted to make the modification. Contractor shall develop a detail procedure to control these type of modifications that cover the following non-exhaustive list of concerns:

Provision of ‘stand-by’ scaffold crew(s) to ensure minimal waiting time for

workers requiring the modifications.


Safe use of scaffold during the work that created the need for modification (ie use of fall arrest equipment by all scaffold users) Reinspection and recertification of scaffold

Chapter 14


HSE&S

Health, Safety, Environmental & Security

Standard Procedures

Enviornmental Control



Scope


Adherence to the requirements within the Environmental Control Procedures shall minimise the impact of construction activities to land, air, water, flora and fauna. These requirements apply to all construction activities and applicable locations throughout the camps, Preparation of Access Ways and work areas associated with the installations under the control of Contractor.

The Environmental Control Procedure describes the requirements during construction for Spill Prevention and Response / Waste Management / Dust Control / Traffic / Noise and Vibration Control. The responsibilities, management, co-ordination and review of these environmental activities are to be implemented by Site Manager in coordination with QA / QC and HSE departments.


Purpose


The Environmental Control Procedure (ECP) describes the environmental compliance activities for Contractor Construction personnel and their contracted entities.

The objectives of the ECP are to define the specific environmental activities required to: Comply with the provisions of the Contract, HSE standard specification and other applicable environmental legal documents, mitigate the environmental impact of construction activities & fully comply with the Environmental Protection Practices.

Contractor Construction team shall comply with this Procedure during construction, start-up and initial operation of the system. Each subcontractor involved in construction activities shall be provided with a copy of this Procedure and required to comply with its contents. Periodic reviews of the Procedure shall be performed to confirm its adequacy & effectiveness so that the Procedure be updated to meet the practical requirement.



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