First Web Edition 2006, Devoted to Engineering Community

Author - Professional Engineer Suraj Singh March 8, 2006

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Author - Professional Engineer Suraj Singh March 8, 2006

Published by – Ms Sumitra, SLSM Publishers, Edited by Dr Mala Saini MBBS, 3373, Delhi Gate, New Delhi 110002





Chapter 1

Industrial development, policy, components


Chapter 2

Project Design, Contract award & Miscellaneous


Chapter 3



Chapter 4

Construction & Controls


Chapter 5

Testing- Pre Commissioning, commissioning, start up, performance & maintenance


Chapter 6

Project management


Chapter 7

Detailed Engineering Requirements


Chapter 8

Building Design Concept


Chapter 9



Chapter 10



Chapter 11



Chapter 12

Execution Plan


Chapter 13

Environmental clauses for plant Industrial city in

Construction Contracts


Chapter 14



Chapter 15

Commercial Sub Contracts


Chapter 16


Chapter 1


Industrial development- Processing Facility formation

It is necessary in the interest of the economical development, industrial project should be efficiently promoted as Industry being backbone of a nation. Sooner the industry creation, better the prospects for the nation. Therefore, the value engineering should efficiently be applied for the product proposed to be facilitated to enable the consumer delivered with the most economic & qualitative products.

Policy decision- Authorization-Technology Promotion

The government should promptly decide relevant policy in a positive manner for the time is extremely important to be used properly to get the optimum use of the project provided adequate funds are available within the budget or finance borrowing should be made. Value engineering should be properly studied by experts to reach a conclusion that the product shall be processed imparting no adverse effect to the environment, shall be most economical in production cost, shall be easy to be transported to the end user facility, shall be most beneficial to the society from every aspect/view of cost & economy uplift as well as shall promote the technology & provide benefits to the people globally in long run.

Facility requirement

Value Engineering effective application, Effective Technology, Product end User Requirement Necessity, Approval & Financing, international competition, Cost effectiveness & environment tenability, Sustainability. Should these points be met by the proposal, the project may be given a go ahead subject to the meeting other criteria.

Facility Justification & Feasibility

Environment sustainability - Cost viability in long term – Nationally beneficial to add to economic growth – multi purpose approach & creation of employment casual as well as regular. Export potential of the product.

Processing Technology & availability of raw material.

Adequacy of availability of terrain & routes.

Selection of the planning & execution mode. Availability of the expertise & experts along with all other inter related professionals.
Components Elements of any Facility - inclusions in general

Availability of the natural gas or oil fields from where the natural resources are being tapped out at offshore location

Availability of the land for the required processing area onshore with acceptable terrain that may be used for the complete chemical engineering applications as well as transportation of the processed products to the outlet leading to the consumers’ locations

Plant processing scheme & Technology with legal license for the defined period

Liquefied Natural Gas tanks, cryogenic containments with spillage & other components etc for the storage purpose at minus temperature

Plant processing trains elements, complete with complete descriptions of heavy & light industrial equipment

Utilities areas element for the integration with plant equipment

Off sites element for sub assistance to aforesaid

Intake Piping for circulation & delivery into plant equipment for cooling

Seawater basin for storage of seawater & delivery to plant

Piping, pipe supports, pipe sleepers & pipe racks for the product transportation & handling

Service air & Instrument air circulation piping

Chlorination plant & its system for the purpose of chlorinating the water

Storage & Warehousing for the physical handlings of subsidiaries

Drainage infrastructure from plant to receiving basin & then to outfall structure through the discharge channels duly provided with metal lugs & channels

Ditches completely lined to carry out to the final discharge the storm water from various catchments areas of the plant.

Complete Package drainage system for, oily water, acid water, dusty water, sewage etc.

Water line for the whole site for various purposes including loss prevention i.e. fire fighting with fresh water as well as back up sea water supply

Cooling water line throughout the whole industrial area zone taking in water from the intake at sea, supplying to the industries & then through the return headers discharging to the sea directly after being supplied once as well as employing cooling water system technology to re-circulate the water & only make up water to be supplied.

Pipe supports, pipe anchors, general anchors, big anchors/thrust blocks at various spacing. Pipes supports to be connected to sleepers & direct supports using structural steel connection for both direct clamping as well as achieving sliding action to make up for the expansion

Electrical heat tracing system for the piping system carrying minus temperature liquid or gas to keep the pipe on required temperature not allowing freezing of the material for example Sulphur can freeze within pipe line.

Administration as well as Amenities buildings elements for the operation & maintenance as well as supply that should contain various offices with access control

Electrical main, sub stations, switchgears, package sub stations, Pump houses, Guard houses, Visitor’s areas, Ring Main Units, transformers, heavy duty armoured cables

Central controlled as well as Operations building to control the whole plants from one single location

Consumer receipt stations to be used by the consumer delivery control

Pump houses at various locations

Water retaining structures such as sumps, receiving basins, drainage channel, outfall discharge to the sea.

Site security arrangements, fencing, surveillance

Site telecommunications

All loss prevention arrangements including internal & external fire fighting.

Adequacy of plant & non- plant area of roads & paving, maintenance tracks, road crossings, utility crossings, road culverts, pipe culverts, transit manholes,

Soil erosion protection for the machines & equipment

Facility bye product plants as extensions & every required elements for that.

All related civil engineering disciplinary structures for the buildings, sheds, equipment vessels as well as other equipment.

Vessels such as cracking furnace, wash water structures, cracked gas compressor, propane compressor, ethane compressor, boilers, auxiliary boilers, various types of spheres, steel tanks, fuel towers, rotary equipment, reciprocating equipment etc. Shall be a part of the plant & necessary foundations for these be constructed according to the requirement. Massive concrete blocks shall be required for many of such major foundations.

Civil engineering foundation structural requirement shall vary from a simple machine plinth to independent footings to combined footing to strip footing to raft & piles as well as massive block foundations. Concrete shall generally be low heat cement based produced by using micro silica or GGBS ground granulated blast furnace slag replacement up to an extent of 70% as also pulverized fly ash PFA. The bases of pipe racks may be either steel structure or RCC construction. Foundations of the pipe racks shall generally be of RCC bases or independent footings.

Overhead crossing shall be required at many locations for the pipe to jump over roads.

Cathodic protection requirement for the corrosion control of the reinforcement from a central control anode station shall also be necessary.

Earthing for the individual structures, equipment as well as network.

Coloured Covered Cable trenches RCC walled, buried directly to ground or cable ducts shall also be included in design forming a major part of the facility. These ducts shall be coordinated to various interface crossing requiring site resolutions to protect interface clashes.

Heavy-duty Concrete pavement shall be required in the plant area for the purpose of the maintenance of the machines as well as movement of heavy vehicles. On the area where no pavement is included, stone aggregate shall be spread & compacted to avoid soil effect on the vessel or equipment.

In addition important administration areas shall be given an attractive soft & hard landscape provision. Access security arrangement shall also be made with automatic controls using card readers etc.& installation of CCTV.

Inclusion of flare towers & radio masts is also contemplated.

Components brief

LNG tanks- These components are meant to store Liquefied Natural Gas 80000cum capacity each within the steel tank. A RCC with pre-stress arrangement for the cables structure of about 80 m dia, 800 mm thick wall as we as a height of 50 m was used for the prevention spillage. Each tank was provided a spillage tank outside at finished ground level. The top of the tank was a permanent formed cupola structure raised to the level by compressed air. Cryogenic steel was used to maintain about (–)60 degrees temperature of the condensed gas. The concrete of the circular walls was poured using kwickform in 5 m lifts. A cantilever operational platform was constructed on the cupola.
Compressors-Compressors are to be installed as a part of trains for the Ethylene production unit. Being heavy reciprocating machines to be installed on massive foundations at elevated levels tabletops are constructed resting on massive concrete foundation. Foundation concrete for one compressor being 400 cum about 25m long, 12 m wide as well as 2 m deep. This carried thick columns above to support tabletop. Steel plate inserted between the equipment & epoxy grout. Tabletops are constructed of thick framed slabs resting on thick columns. The arrangement of the tabletop slabs are complicated in all respects about civil as well as mechanical inserts. Such type of thick & massive elements require special type of cement probably with high slag replacement which could be pulverized fly ash or ground granulated fibres or microsilica. Particular arrangements are worked for the curing solutions for such low heat generating cements to effect thermal curing methods.
Cracking gas furnaces- this meant for the purpose of cracking gas from the refinery as bye product for the transmission to the compressors for the production of ethane as well as propane. These are tall heavy structures vertically oriented in group of vessels & founded on a common base.
Other structures included wash water structures, auxiliary boilers within the processing train. Also included various spheres to contain gases as well as tanks for storage. Foundations for the tanks are generally constructed of RCC ring beams. Other structures are provided with independent footings stripped using grade beams.
Seawater basin- A RCC open reservoir meant to collect water from sea through 2 # 84” pipes, supply to the plant various trains requirement & after cooling the system dispose water to be disposed from the industrial locations to the receiving basin & then to outfall chamber. It is a huge voluminous open structure constructed of RCC base slabs provided construction joints during construction, peripheral retaining walls up to 12 m high not more than 9 m panel as well as covered pump house area & baffles. Such structures must be water tight from all locations of the water storage portions duly tested for water tightness using BS 8007 criteria. Concrete protection is applied for both below ground as well as above ground surfaces.
Many other stationary as well as vibratory equipments are included for the processing plants for which foundations are constructed accordingly either as footings bases or combined footings. These horizontal or vertical vessels are erected on these bases connected using anchor bolts & grouting done between the sitting steel plate & the top of concrete. For vibratory equipment, epoxy grouting is applied while for stationary, cementitious.
Sump chambers – These covered chambers are used for the collection of water from various catchment areas & constructed of RCC underground structures duly tested for water tightness using BS 8007 criteria. Concrete protection is applied for both below ground as well as above ground surfaces.
Manholes, catch basins, rainwater ditches, etc are constructed using RCC.

Manholes are meant for the sewerage line oily manholes for oily discharge, catch basins for rainwater. Generally, these units are in large numbers for any plant area making it preferable to produce by pre casting on site for which all working details for the yard are required to be issued to site.

Open ditches are constructed for the discharge of storm water. These ditches can also be used for the purpose to give way to fire water disposal during any fire on the installation. This may also be used for the purpose of any water line maintenance discharge from any single loop. At the commencement the section is shallow but as it reached moving within various catchments, the section is considerably deepened like a big drain.
Piping of carbon steel or ductile iron or Fiber reinforced plastics family GRP, ERP, GRE etc are used depending on the requirement & structural adequacy to sustain various imposable stresses. Stress analysis is carried out for various loops giving the location of various supports as well as anchoring requirement. Various types of supports are designed for varying diameter of the pipes for the on ground or underground or aboveground use.
FRP (Fiber Reinforced Plastic) Pipes

RTRP stands for reinforced thermosetting resin pipe, a composite material consisting of a thermosetting polymer, a type of polyster reinforced with glass or other fibers that provide strength & stiffness to a composite material. Different type of resins used for manufacturing GRP, GRV & GRE pipes are Isophthalic resin, Vinylester resin & Epoxy resin respectively that are selected according to the required properties like chemical resistance, temperature resistance & mechanical properties. The resins provide thermal & chemical properties such as glass transition temperature, resistance to heat, chemical resistance etc. required for finished product. The properties of GRP pipes can be varied by changing the ratio of raw materials as well as winding angle. These pipes consist of three layers adherent to each having different characteristics in relation to functional requirement.

Inner Liner – Veil (Glass), Resin: CSM (Glass), Resin

Structural wall - Roving (Glass), Resin

External liner- Veil (Glass), Resin
Inner Liner – Veil (Glass), Resin: CSM (Glass), Resin

Inner Liner one is chemical resistant being in direct contact with fluid & therefore, responsible to resist chemical corrosion as well as permeability. The internal surface is particularly smooth to reduce the fluid head losses & also opposes the growth of minerals & algae. Lines has two monolithic sub layers. Inner in contact with fluid is reinforced with glass veil with a resin content 90 %, outer reinforced with CSM glass with resin content 70 % by weight. The standard liner thickness is about 0.5 to 1.5 mm.

Structural wall - Roving (Glass), Resin

Glass Reinforced layers guarantee the mechanical resistance of the whole pipe against stresses due to internal & external pressure, external loads as well as thermal loads. For GRP / GRV pipes, the layer is obtained by applying on the previous partly cured liner continuous riving of glass wetted with resin under controlled tension. For GRE pipes, the structural wall is wound directly on a wet liner. The layer can contain aggregates like silica sand if allowed by specifications while thickness depends on design conditions.

External liner- Veil (Glass), Resin

Topcoat or external liner is the outer layer of pipe consisting of pure resin. UV protectors may be added if so required to protect the pipe from solar exposure. In case of severe exposure condition like aggressive soils or very corrosive environment, the external liner can be reinforced with a surfing veil or added with filters or pigments.

Fiberglass composites consist of glass fiber reinforcements, thermosetting resins & additives designed & processed to meet specific functional performance criteria.

Amount, type & orientation of glass fibers in pipe provides mechanical strength. C Glass, E glass & ECR / Advantex glass are used commonly depending on pipe application. Various forms of glass reinforcements are surface veil, chopped strand mat (CSM), chopped roving, filament roving & woven roving (WR).

Raw materials like catalyst, accelerators, inhibitors, aggregates & pigments are used together with resin & glass reinforcements to achieve desired properties of fiber glass product. Catalyst is an organic compound which when added to resin in presence of an accelerator determines the polymerization reaction at ambient temperature. Acceletor is a chemical compound used together with a catalyst to shorten the polymerization time. Inhibitor is added to the resin to reduce reactivity at ambient temperature.

There are two manufacturing processes Dual helical filament winding process & the other being Continuous winding process (Drostholm)

Pipe racks are used for the purpose of running the piping from one point to the other over ground levels. These are generally steel structures founding on RCC footings but RCC frames structures are also used. Several km of pipes are run on these racks supported & anchored to the rack structures. These are fully accessible structures for maintenance purpose. Open flooring is provided.
Heat tracing is applied on the piping carrying minus degree gas which may freeze during flow & block pipes for the protection of which, the heat is continuously maintained on the piping to keep the gas in the condensed form. Various loops are provided on the piping routes for various purposes.
Pipe supports / sleepers are used for the purpose of carrying the pipes at near ground levels. These are RCC units located at defined spacing. For direct support of the pipes, steel structural supports are used remaining connected or touching pipe by shoes over lengths at various spacing meant for the purpose of sliding also. For deciding the locations of the supports & the anchorage, stress analysis is conducted that dictates the spacing, dimensions & the pipe structural base design. For a pipe of dia not more than 4 m, not more than 12 m spacing is adopted. For other smaller dia pipes, the spacing depends up on the standard length of the pipes. Pipes that need sliding movement at the joints are provided such a base that allows the movement of the pipe in the direction of its run. For that, PTFE (Poly Tetra Fluro Ethylene) bearings fixed on steel plates duly designed to withstand imposed force are provided. Below the pipe support shoe steel portion, a stainless steel plate is provided so that this plate slides over the PTFE pads.
Anchor sleepers, big sleepers, thrust blocks are used at various points depending on the stress analysis requirement on the en-route pipeline. These are thick & voluminous structures requiring thousand of cum of RCC for an individual sleeper connecting a group of pipes. On the pipe loops various kinds of stresses from all directions are imposed during operations or flows which are to be resisted by these sleepers. At the change in directions of the pipe routes as well as at the Tee locations etc, big sleepers or thrust blocks are provided to resist the resultant forces. These are constructed of massive blocks of RCC.
Access platforms are constructed to access to an area above the pipe level for the maintenance purpose. EOT cranes are installed for the maintenance as well as lifting & placing the pipes & other items in the shops. These also meet the crossing over pipes requirement. Proper ladders, handrails & open floorings are provided for the safe access.
RCC box culverts are used for the cross over of the underground pipes below roads. Pipes culverts are also used wherever required. For the accommodation of the spillage tanks, bunding is carried out around to hold oil during spillage. Pipes are connected to the base slab using steel connecting arrangements. Enough space is allowed for the maintenance purpose for free movement as well as circulation.
Receiving basin is meant for the collection of used water purpose to further discharge into the outfall at the sea. This is also a considerable size of structure collecting water from the return piping headers discharge, letting it accumulate & the dispose into the outfall channel for further discharge into the sea. Various types of steel stop logs are installed to control the flow according to the capacity of the channel & the receiving basin keeping abreast also the maintenance function of the piping. Structure consists of RCC retaining walls in the flow direction & RCC base slab.
Flare towers are required to establish a system to dispose safely into the environment the gases that cannot be used any further keeping in view that the compositions of the disposable gas does not deteriorate the environment. Height of these towers are kept considerably so that gases are burn away into the environment safely. Proper arrangements are done for the founding as well as the stability of the tall structure.
Pump houses are installed as large size & highly elevated steel buildings housing a train of various pumps, electrical equipment, chlorination plant, rotary drums, intake equipment etc. The piping is routed on ground, vertically as well as horizontally on various types of supports of complex design. Various types of structural steel access platforms are built for the operational & maintenance purpose. These water is pumped into the supply manifolds located just outside where is applied the chlorination & then the pipes are routed to the main route on ground up to various industrial users. Hundreds of thousand cum of RCC structures are built for the supporting bases as well as for the anchoring arrangements depending -
General components for other facilities

‘Train’ indicates the separate process trains.

‘String’ indicates parallel process line-ups of equipment within a train

‘Common’ to be used for equipment that does not exclusively belong to one

train but serves the total complex.
Process / Unit : Slug Catcher - Condensate Stabilisation (Column) - Flash Gas Compression - Acid Gas Removal - Dehydration, Mercaptan and - Mercury Removal Unit (Operating + Regeneration)
Sulphur Recovery Unit; Sulphur Degassing - Claus Offgas Treating - Off-Gas Thermal Oxidation - NGL Extraction and Fractionation (Overall) - Refrigeration Unit - LPG and Ethane Treating Unit (LTU) - Field Condensate Treating - Plant Condensate Treating - LIN & LOX Storage & Vapourisation - Air Separation Units (ASU’s) - SGP Reactors - Syngas Treatment - Steam Methane Reformer SMR Unit - One SMR plus one Pre-reformer 1x 50% One SMR plus one Pre-reformer
Hydrogen Manufacturing - One High Temperature Shift (HTS) and PSA unit with compression 1 x 50% One High Temperature Shift (HTS) and PSA unit with compression - Heavy Paraffin Synthesis - Water Distillation Unit - Catalyst Activation and Regeneration - Light Ends Stripper - Light Detergent Feedstock

Heavy Paraffin Conversion - Synthetic Crude Distiller - High Vacuum Unit

Catalytic Dewaxing - Base Oils Re-Distillation
Reliability and availability, particularly system uptime are key project drivers. A

systems effectiveness model shall be developed for the complex comprising the base case configuration of the offshore facilities and GTL (Gas to liquid) plant configuration

FEED for the project units so that the required overall system effectiveness of

335 stream days per annum is reached in a cost effective manner.

The offshore development concept is based on direct transportation of the

produced fluids and gas from the wells on platforms to shore without any offshore

process or treatment. From each platform, there shall be multiphase carbon-steel

trunk line to the common slug catcher. Chemical injection and regular pigging shall

be applied for corrosion as well as hydrate formation inhibition to the carbon steel lines. The produced fluids are received into the slug catcher in the upstream onshore facilities.
Onshore upstream - comprises Slug Catcher - Condensate Stabilisation - Acid Gas Removal - Sulphur Recovery (Claus Unit) and Storage - SRU Offgas Treating or SCOT Unit - Dehydration and Mercaptan Removal - NGL Extraction and Fractionation - Final treating for finished NGL products: LPG and Ethane Treating Unit
Field and Plant Condensate Treating

In the Onshore Upstream facilities, Condensate and water / kinetic hydrate inhibitor (KHI) & corrosion inhibitor ex the slug catcher are separated. Water is sent to a dedicated effluent treatment which caters for the KHI and possible saline components. Condensate is stabilised and treated (for sulphur removal / conversion) for export sales. Wet feed gas ex the slug catcher is routed to gas treatment followed by NGL extraction and fraction. The gas treating facilities remove sulphur components, water, CO2 and mercury from the feed gas.

Treating of the ethane (ethane recovery and treating facilities shall be installed later) and LPG products to further remove residual traces of sulphur, water and CO2. The sulphur components so removed shall be converted to elemental sulphur for export as liquid sulphur.
Onshore downstream: Synthesis

The onshore downstream synthesis comprises

Gasification Process- Air Separation Units- Heavy Paraffin Synthesis- Catalyst Activation & Regeneration - Water Distillation - Steam Methane Reformer - Hydrogen Manufacturing - The ASU’s main purpose shall be to produce oxygen for use in the SGP as well as also produce HP Nitrogen for the CAR unit, LP Nitrogen and compressed air for use as site utilities.
In the SGP syngas shall be produced from natural gas (NG) and oxygen by partial oxidation. The SGP produces the majority of the syngas for subsequent conversion to a synthetic heavy paraffin stream in the HPS. The SGP syngas requires treatment to remove soot and undesirable by-products.

In the SMR hydrogen rich syngas shall be produced from NG and steam by a catalytic reforming process. The SMR syngas has a higher H2 content than the SGP syngas and is used to supplement the syngas feed going to the second stage of the HPS reactors.

The reaction in the HPS follows the Fischer-Tropsch chemistry and produces significant quantities of process water as a by-product.

The WDU shall be used to strip hydrocarbons from the process water which be subsequently sent to the effluent treatment plant for recovery.

The CAR Unit shall be used to regenerate the HPS reactor catalyst.

The HMU uses a High Temperature Shift (on a part of the SMR syngas) and a PSA Unit to produce an ultra pure H2 stream mainly for use as a reactant in the SMR and the Liquids Processing Unit.

Onshore downstream: Liquids processing

The onshore downstream liquids processing scope comprises

Light Ends Stripper - Heavy Paraffin Conversion - Synthetic Crude Distillation & Stabilisation- Light Detergent Feedstock Units
Base Oil Units:

High Vacuum Unit - Catalytic De-Waxing Unit - Base Oils Re-distillation Unit

The LES, LDF, HPC, SCD & Base Oil (HVU, CDW and RDU) Units shall be also collectively referred to as the Liquids Processing Unit or LPU. In the LES Unit water, CO and CO2 be removed. In the LDF Unit, components shall be recovered and after hydrogenation, rundown to storage for sale as a product. The remainder of the HPS product shall be routed to the HPC where the paraffinic molecules are cracked and isomerised into middle distillate range components, which are subsequently distilled by the SCD into LPG, Naphtha, Kerosene, Gas Oil and an SCD bottom product stream. In the “Base Oil” mode of operation, the SCD bottom product stream is routed to the HVU for further separation into Vacuum Gas Oil, a Waxy Raffinate fraction and a residual fraction, that is recycled to the HPC. The Waxy Raffinate fraction is shall be catalytically isomerised in the CDW and then separated into products according to boiling range and viscosity in the RDU. In the “No Base Oil” mode, the SCD bottom product stream shall be recycled to extinction back to the HPC. For the no Base Oil case, the throughput of the complex is limited by the capacity in the HPC (one single maximum size reactor per train).
Supporting facilities: Utilities

Utility systems comprise - Boiler Feed Water, Steam & Condensate Systems - Raw, Demineralised, Potable & Service Water Systems - Power Generation and Distribution - Cooling Water Systems: Cooling Water System, Chilled Water and Closed - Cooling Water System - Instrument and Tool Air System - Nitrogen System - Heat Transfer Fluid System - Aqueous Ammonia System

Utility systems shall be designed to allow stand-alone operation of the GTL complex. Steam and gas turbines shall be provided for shaft power and generation of electrical power. The steam shall be generated in the synthesis section thereby effectively utilising the exothermic heat of the process reactions. Auxiliary boilers and gas turbines with Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSGs) shall be included to facilitate black start capability, to enhance reliability of the steam and power system. Cooling shall be principally by air but cooling water may also used where appropriate. Steam is the principal heating medium but fired heaters and a heat transfer fluid system shall be provided for specific applications.
Supporting facilities: Storage & off-sites - Storage and Offsite Systems comprise Relief & Blow down System, including flares - Drainage, Collection and Primary Treatment - Effluent Water Treatment - Sour Water Stripper - Flushing Oil System - Storage and Loading Facilities including onsite product storage - Slops & Intermediate Storage. In general, plant condensate (blended with naphtha) and GTL products shall be stored on site and transported to the RLC harbour for shipping. Field condensate shall be stored in an on-site as well as an off-site shipping tank prior to export via the RLC harbour. LPG shall be transported directly to the RLC facilities for refrigeration, storage and export. Liquid sulphur shall be piped to common RLC facilities.
Design Basis – Mechanical Equipment

Table Of Contents

1. General, 2. List Of Codes, Specifications and Standards, 3. Design Basis – Mechanical Equipment, 4. Equipment Selection, 5. Spare Parts, 6. Shop Testing

Design Basis – Mechanical Equipment


The purpose of this part is to provide the design basis for all mechanical

equipment (rotating equipment + static equipment) on scheme. It shall be used for

verification of selection and detailing / sizing of equipment for procurement engineering

(while developing EPIC documentation). The plant facility design and installation

shall consider 100% equipment redundancy (where applicable), 100% availability of the plant, Equipment selection to ensure 99.7% reliability, environmental conditions. The packages and equipment shall be suitable for outdoor installation in salt laden, saliferous and highly corrosive atmosphere prevalent at open Coastal area. The Basic Engineering Data developed shall be applied for development of FEED documents.

Design Life & Experience

Mechanical Equipment and associated auxiliaries shall be suitable for the specified

operating conditions including any upset, start up, shutdown and emergency, be designed and constructed for a minimum service life of 30 years with equipment

providing at least 2 years of uninterrupted continuous service while first major over-haul

requirement not before 10-years being a design criterion. Vendor experience for previous supply of at least 2 validly similar design equipment and proven track record of at least two years trouble free running history / experience (in conditions similar to this project conditions) shall be applicable.
List Of Codes, Specifications and Standards

The main cooling water pumps and associated auxiliaries and other mechanical

equipment shall be designed and manufactured in compliance with the Requisition,

documents listed in the Requisition and applicable specification / data sheets included elsewhere for the consideration as part of the FEED.

Applicable Codes, Standards and Reference Documents

The Equipment Specification lists the applicable International Codes and Standards.

Reference to any Standards or Codes shall mean the latest edition of that Standard or

Code including addenda or supplements or revisions thereto as on the effective date of

Project Documents, General, Project Design Basis, Technical Specification of Vibration Monitoring System, Piping Material Specification, company specifications, Lifting Equipment Technical Regulations, RA Pressure Vessel Design and Fabrication.

RA Above ground Welded Storage Tanks, RA Pressure Vessels, RA Air Cooled Heat Exchanger Design and Fabrication, Plate Heat Exchangers – Design and Construction

RA Piping General Design, Diesel Engines, Diesel Engine Driven Generator, Equipment Identification and Tag Numbering, Standard Specification for Painting and Wrapping of Metal, Surfaces, Company standards applicable to other disciplines shall be listed in individual, Equipment specifications and data sheets included elsewhere for the consideration as part of the FEED.
International Codes and Standards

API RP 500 Recommended Practice for Classification of Location of Electrical Installation, API 610 Centrifugal Pumps for Petroleum, Heavy Duty Chemical and Gas Industry Services (relevant sections shall be applicable), API 520 Sizing Selection and Installation of Pressure Relieving Devices. API 526 Flanged Steel Pressure Relief Valve

BSEN 13414 Steel Wire Rope Slings, Safety Standards, API 650 Welded Steel Tanks

UBC Uniform Building Codes (Earth Quake Zones), API 2000 Venting Atmospheric and Low Pressure Tanks, API 670 Vibration, Axial Position and Bearing Temperature Monitoring, Systems. API 673 Centrifugal fans for Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Service. BS 848 Fans for General Service, HI Standards (HI-2.6) Hydraulic Institute Standards on Centrifugal Pumps, NFPA20 Standard for the Installation of Stationary Centrifugal Fire Pumps for fire Protection, NFPA 24 Standard for Installation of Fire Mains, AWWA American Water Works Association, ANSI B 73.1M Horizontal Centrifugal Pumps, ANSI B73.2M Vertical Centrifugal Pumps, ISO 2858 End Suction Centrifugal Pumps, API 675 Positive Displacement Pumps – Controlled Volume, ASME Sec.VIII Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels (Div. I), ASME Sec. II Material Specifications (Part A, B, C & D), ASME Sec. V Non-Destructive Examination, ASME Sec. IX Welding and Brazing Qualifications, BSEN 10204 Types of Inspection Documents – Metallic Product, BS CP3, Chapter V Basic Data for Wind loads

Part2, ISO 9001 International Organisation for Standardisation, ISO:3046 Standards for Combustion Ignition Engines, ISO : 10440 (Part 2) Packaged Air Compressors (Oil Free), FEM Standards Federation of European Manufacture Standards on Drum Screens, ASME B30 Crane Safety Standards, ASME B16.5 Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, ASME B31.3 Petroleum Refinery Piping, ASME B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, ASME B16.47 Large diameter steel flanges (NPS 26” to NPS 60”).

AMCA Air Movement and Control Association, ISO 1940 Mechanical Vibration – Balance Requirements of Rigid Rotors, ASTM A370 American Society for Testing and Materials – Standard Test, Method for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products

The principles to be adopted during the selection & specification of prime equipment and equipment within the package can be summarised as follows:

Design life being 30 years, High availability, Standard / Proven Equipment Model.

Safe to operate and Maintain, Typical subjects to be addressed / considered during the equipment selection and final preparation of the purchase requisitions are addressed in the following sections. The nameplates indicating major design parameters / specified parameters shall be screw attached to the equipment. Nameplates shall be in SS316 materials.
Equipment Standardization

The design of rotating / mechanical equipment shall ensure high equipment availability

and maintainability. Effort shall be made to standardise the spares stocking by

minimising the variety of makes and types of auxiliary equipment used within the

package. This standardisation shall be applied so far as it does not interfere with the

selection of an optimal solution for the specified operating conditions and duly considered equipment to minimize spares stocking.


Equipment design shall meet the noise level (85 dBA @ 1m) specified in Company

standards. It is Supplier’s full responsibility to ensure that noise level of supplied

equipment (including drive equipment as a combined unit) shall not exceed the

maximum allowable as specified in Project HSE Plan. Effort shall be made to select equipment with low noise level. Where it is not feasible despite the best design available, acoustic enclosures and / or acoustic insulation shall be provided.

Supplier shall submit estimated noise level, consider / advise measures that would be applied when equipment noise level exceeds to noise level specified at respective specification and data sheets.

Instrumentation / Controls

Equipment Supplier shall include all required package / equipment / auxiliaries controls

for safe operation of equipment. The instrumentation for communication with DCS shall

be included to comply with requirements specified in respective Equipment

Specifications, Data sheets and P&ID’s.
Equipment Covered

This design basis covers the requirement for the following equipment :

Main Cooling Water Pumps - Vertically suspended, submerged pump end, mixed

flow seawater service Pumps complete with electric motor drive, VSD, Transformer,

Local Control Panel (LCP) and associated auxiliaries.

Centrifugal Pumps (General Service); includes hypochlorite dosing pumps / dilution

pumps etc.

Submersible Motor Pumps (Portable); includes sump pumps and drain water pumps.

Firewater Pumps (as per NFPA 20)

Instrument Air Compressor and Dryer Package

Centrifugal Fan (at Hydrogen disengagement Tank of Chlorination Plant)

EOT Cranes / Semi Portal Cranes (Pump house, Mechanical Plant, Receiving Basin,

Workshop / Warehouse and Piping Manifold area cranes)

Fixed Bar Screens cooling water common raking facility

Rotating Drum Screens

Stop Logs (Intake and Receiving Basin)

Emergency Diesel Generator Set.

Vessels and Storage Tanks

Electro Chlorination Plant Equipment
Equipment Selection
Main Cooling Water Pump Sets

The electric motor driven (through VSD), vertically suspended, submerged pump end

mixed flow seawater service line shaft Pumps with right angle discharge head shall

comply with Project Specification requirements, HIS Standards and in general

compliance to API 610 Standards (where applicable for this service such as pump rotor

dynamics, vibration levels, line shaft and thrust bearing design criteria etc).

The offered vibration monitoring system for pump / motor shall be in compliance with API 670 recommendations.

The pump datasheets shall address the pump drive train requirements; VSD’s, Local

Control Panel (LCP) and complete electrical set-up shall be provided by Pump Vendor

(single point responsibility for Tender Scope).

The vertical centrifugal pumps handling liquids whose vapour pressure is below

atmospheric pressure, can be provided with gland packing suitable for the service.

Pumps line shaft bearings shall be service fluid lubricated however, Supplier

incorporate pump bearing design or operation strategy that shall take care of start-up

scenario of stand-by pumps that would be with dried up bearings. The pumps shall be shop assembled to the maximum extent possible to consider minimum site assembly work and shipment limitations. The pump houses being in non-hazardous area while the pumps are operating in very corrosive environment i.e. salt laden sea mist, dust, wind etc. Flexible coupling shall be selected for the duty by main cooling water pump sets’ Vendor. Coupling guards shall be made from non-sparking material. The pumps and auxiliary items located at Pump House shall be designed for outdoor conditions as pump house is only a shelter with partially covered sides. Pumps shall be in parallel operation with head rising continuously to shutoff are required. Pump’s right angle discharge head shall be with expansion-joint to tie-in with downstream flanged CCV (Combined Check Valve).
In case of blocked discharge the specific unit shall be able to withstand shut off head

condition for at least 5 minutes without any damage to pump and its auxiliary items. In

case of CCV failure, the specific unit shall be able to withstand reverse rotation up to full

speed. Pumps materials for major items / wetted parts shall be specified in Pump data sheets for Vendor review, the selection correctness i.e. compatibility to service fluid / material grades availability etc. shall be the Suppliers’ responsibility for providing right pump sets for the service. Pump set items shall be new and shall be selected by Pump Vendor to provide the single point responsibility of meeting specified pump duty requirements and service.

Pumps selection shall consider common pump model (to the extent feasible) that

provides stable continuous operating range and includes governing process flow

requirements. To achieve this pump model commonality the pump driver could be of different rating and of different VSD speed range.

Pump model testing is required. Complete testing requirements shall be as specified in

pump specification and Data sheets elsewhere.
Centrifugal Pumps (General Service)

Centrifugal pumps for non-hydrocarbon service shall comply with Project Specification

and ANSI Standards B 73.1 M or B 73.2 M and ISO 2858; Pump construction shall be

specified on the pump datasheet elsewhere.

Two-stage overhung and single stage double suction overhung pumps shall not be

offered. Maximum allowable flow shall not be less than 120% of best efficiency capacity of the rated impeller. Pumps shall be selected so that it is possible to achieve 10% head rise / 5% head decrease at rated capacity by replacement with new impellers.

Pumps shall have head curves rising continuously to shutoff. Shutoff head shall

preferably be in the range of 110 - 120% of rated head.

Pump impellers shall be closed or semi-open type – open impellers are not acceptable.

Use of inducers to enhance NPSH is not acceptable.

The mechanical seal when specified in data sheet, shall comply with requirements of

API 682. Mechanical seal design and material selection shall be suitable for the service

fluid continuous operation with maximum operating temperature. Seal system piping

shall be as a minimum in SS 316L or suitable to service. Material of construction of pump components shall meet the requirements as specified in equipment data sheet and compatible to service. Coupling shall be forged steel flexible type with spacer. Removable coupling guards shall be made from non sparking material suitable for very corrosive environment. As a minimum, electric motor nameplate rating shall be as below. Motor Nameplate Rating Percentage of Rated Pump Power = 18.5kW 120 20 – 55kW 110 = 75kW 105. Inspection and Tests shall be carried out as per Engineering Standards and as covered in applicable specification.

Sump Pumps (Portable Submersible Motor-Pumps)

Portable Submersible Motor Pump shall be utilised for dewatering of pump house and

receiving basins. When piping sections are to be cleaned from sediments, the pumps

are required to be compatible with nature of seawater service fluid with sediments / grits. The Manufacturer’s Standard design shall be acceptable for sump pit installation drainage duty portable submersible motor-pumps. The pump motor shall be oil filled type and provided with two sets of mechanical seals for double security. Pump shall be fitted with cable and watertight cable connector. These drainage pumps shall be with lifting hook for portability and placed / lowered in sump pits of pump basin / receiving basin area whenever basin emptying is planned. For safe custody, these pumps shall be stored in warehouse / maintenance workshop when not in use. The tough duty submersible-motor pump’s housing and impeller shall be in aluminum bronze (or alternately in super duplex stainless steel) material and all major components subjected to wear be coated with polyurethane for longer service life in fine grain abrasive application. The pump impeller shall be semi open type. The pump motor shall be water jacketed to provide cooling to motor by service fluid.

Firewater Pumps

Fresh water service Firewater Pumps shall be planned to provide fire protection to equipment by deluge. The horizontal centrifugal type Fire Pump sets shall be in accordance with NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) 20 design requirements. One pump set shall be with electric

motor drive and other with a diesel engine driver. An electric motor driven jockey (make-up) pump shall also be installed to maintain the header pressure of fire Main Ring. The fire pump packages shall be with listed (UL / FM approved) pump set items and pump controller for fire protection service auxiliary items included in the packages comprise of circulation relief valve, water flow test devices etc.

The selected pumps shall be a listed one per Firewater Pumps specifications and

pump requirements in-line with NFPA 20.
Pumps shall get supply from storage tank(s) of adequate capacity for the expected

duration. Pump capacity selection shall be to NFPA 20 rated provisions and be specified at respective data sheets. Fire pump shall not furnish less than 150% of rated capacity at a total head of not less than 65% of the rated head and total shutoff head shall not exceed 140% of the rated head. Each pump shall have automatic relief valve listed for the fire pump service installed and set below the shutoff pressure at minimum expected suction pressure. The flexible coupling between pump and driver shall also be listed for the service.

When more than one pump is installed on single suction line, the suction pipe layout at

the pumps shall be arranged so that each pump receive its proportional supply. The automatically controlled Fire Pumps shall be provided with a listed float operated air

release valve (when automatically controlled deluge system is planned). The Fire Pump installation shall include water flow test devices to allow test of the pump at its rated conditions as well as the maximum flow condition. Metering devices for pump tests shall be listed. Each pump shall have its own test loop. Each individual pump shall be tested at the factory to provide detailed performance data and demonstrate compliance to specification. Jockey / Make-up pumps shall have rated capacities not less than any normal leakage rate and discharge pressure sufficient to maintain the system pressure.
Fire Pump Driver – The lead fire pump and Jockey pump shall be with electric motor drive while back-up fire pump with diesel engine drive. The diesel engine and drive train components shall be listed items for the fire pump service.

Controls – Each pump shall have its dedicated driver and each driver its controller. The controllers for the motor and diesel engine shall comply to specification of NFPA 20 Chapter 7 (motor) / Chapter 9 (engine).

Instrument Air Compressor – Dryer Package

The Air Compressor – Dryer Package construction shall be to Vendor Standards designed for Coastal Area installations. Package units (train of compressor and dryer) shall be installed on single lift skid and compressor unit be inside its enclosure for sound attenuation. The plant facility shall be provided with two numbers of packages operating under lead lag basis. Air Compressor shall be oil-free, air cooled, electric motor driven Screw type Air Compressor unit complete with its UCP (Unit Control Panel), lube oil console and air cooler for lube oil and compressed air (inter and after cooler of compressor). Package Start / Stop and lead / lag operation shall be monitored from skid installed UCP on pressure level signals. The daily maximum average temperature shall be considered for compressor and its compressed air cooler sizing. The oil-field type air-to-air heat exchange cooler in SS316 (SS – Stainless Steel) or construction with marine installation coating shall be specified to provide rugged construction in corrosive sea coast environment. The compressed air temperature down stream of air cooler shall be limited to 58°C (with air cooler sized for ambient temperature of 50°C).

Air Dryer unit shall be heatless PSA (Pressure Swing Adsorption) type complete with twin molecular seive (aluminum silicate) desiccants towers and timer based controls for air flow switch-over. This unit shall be located downstream of Air Compressor unit and shall handle specified flow delivered by upstream air compressor unit. Compressed air shall be stored in Plant’s Service Air Storage Vessel and dried instrument quality air stored at Instrument Air Storage Vessel sized to cater for the Plant needs. Package instrumentation (PLC controls) for lead-lag controls shall be in Vendor’s local control cabinet; DCS communication as per package P&ID shall be achievable as a minimum battery limit pressure, temperature and dew point level shall be reported besides running status. A common facility delivering complete plant needs including instrument air needed for Chlorination Plant is envisaged in this Phase of project.
Fans (Cf Blower) - Fans shall comply with requirements of specifications generally per API 673 and company engineering standard. Fans shall be sized to deliver the air flow & differential pressure required for the H2 disengagement duty under all operating conditions. Normally two fans (2 x 100%) shall be installed each to run and deliver the required dilution air – with automatic switch over controls to other fan in case one fan trips. The power margin for electric motor drivers shall be in accordance with Specification at the rated conditions. Fans shall be provided with barrier type filter systems, filter shall be suitable for severe sandy & dusty atmosphere with rain hood and bird-screen. Fans shall be shop tested for the performance and stand by switch-over controls.
Electric Overhead Travelling (EOT) Cranes / Semi Portal Cranes

EOT Crane -

The Pump House is provided with maintenance duty EOT Crane to handle load lifts

during pump overhaul and general lifting needs. Currently PH has one 17m span

crane with main hook capacity of 60T and auxiliary hook capacity of 14T. The power

distribution to the long travel is by enclosed type bus bars system (with rubber lip seal)

and cross travel / hoisting power distribution is through power festoon cable system. In

Project, the possibility of extending the long travel of installed crane and any

considerations for additional second crane shall be reviewed (as a separate study) and

study recommendations shall be implemented. The crane construction as defined below

shall apply for any additional crane purchase.

The EOT Crane shall be top running double girder type designed for maintenance duty class 2M (FEM 9.511) and suitable for safe area outdoor location (though installed in Pump house shelter). The crane shall be with operator cabin located at one end of the crane bridge (girder) & provided with remote radio communication set-up for crane operator use. The complete crane shall be designed to provide access platform / service walk-way for servicing the equipment and flood-lights to illumine the work area. The power distribution to the long / cross travel and hoisting motion shall be Similar to Phase power distribution system, crane controls to incorporate normal and creep speed motion controls for precise adjustment. Crane load lift capacity per Phase crane and provision for auxiliary hook shall be maintained as the load lifts provision are with adequate margin.
Semi Portal Crane -

The Mechanical Plant (Screen Yard) is provided with maintenance duty Semi-Portal

Crane to handle load lifts during drum screen overhaul and general stop log lifting needs. Currently has one semi-portal 23m span crane with main hook capacity of 10T.

The power distribution to the cross travel and hoisting motion is through power festoon

cable system and long travel by cable reel. In Project, the possibility of extending the long travel of installed crane and any considerations for additional second crane shall be reviewed as a separate study. The crane construction as defined below shall be applied when any additional crane purchase shall be in picture. The semi portal Crane shall be top running double girder type electric overhead traveling crane with one end of the crane bridge supported at runway beam and other end resting on a portal frame.
The crane shall be designed for maintenance duty class 2M (FEM 9.511) and suitable for safe area outdoor location. The crane shall be with crane operator cabin located at one end of the crane bridge (girder). Crane shall also be provided with remote radio communication set-up for crane operator use. Complete crane shall be designed to provide access platform / service walkway for servicing the equipment and floodlights shall be attached to the crane bridge for work area lighting. The power distribution to the long travel shall be through enclosed type 7-bus bar system (with rubber lip seal) and cross travel / hoist motion power supply through power festoon cable system. A suitable sun shield shall be provided for the festoon cables – when in the parked position. Crane load lift capacity per Phase crane shall be maintained as the load lifts provision is with adequate margin.
Other EOT Cranes

The maintenance load lift facility e.g. E.O.T cranes of adequate capacity shall be installed at the following Plant Facility areas - Receiving Basin Area, Plant Workshop / Warehouse, Electro-Chlorination Plant and Piping Manifold Section.

The equipment construction shall be similar as stated in above. The power distribution for cross travel, long travel and hoist motion shall be through power festoon cable system. The crane load lift criteria as detailed in material handling study shall be accomplished.
Mechanical Plant – Bar Screen and Raking Mechanism

Bar screen panel consisting of fixed rectangular steel bar sections with 50 mm spacing

shall be installed at pump intake basin (upstream of rotating drum screens). The screen

bar panel shall be removable type and for easy cleaning these should be installed with

80 degree angle of installation. The screen panel size similar to PH installation shall

be considered for this phase.

The common raking machine shall be grab bucket type rake assembly with replaceable

tines. The assembly shall comprise of the following main components – electrically

operated travelling trolley, over head monorail traverse and power supply cable festoon,

hydraulically assisted grab bucket complete with associated hydraulic power pack, hoist

mechanism for grab bucket lowering and hoisting complete with PLC type Local Control

Panel and pendant controls, trash / debris bin (to hold and carry 0.5 T of load) for

disposal of rejects etc. The hoisting mechanism and hydraulic power pack shall be

attached to traveling trolley.

One number of rake machine for Pump House and rake machines for Pump House (1 op. + 1 sb.) shall be installed yet to remove trash / debris / marine seaweeds / sea shells etc. arrested in bar screens. In addition one complete warehouse spare suspended grab bucket c/w hydraulic power pack shall be considered for the Phase facilities.
Design Basis – Mechanical Equipment

Alternate trash rake machine would also be reviewed to consider efficient scraping of

bars at fixed bar screen panels (availability of traversing trash rake with scrapping in

ascending action for reclamation of attached sea shells and barnacles from bar screen

shall be investigated).
Mechanical Plant – Stop Logs

Plate gates type Stop Logs (stop gates) similar to Phase I installation and dimensions

compatible with civil design shall be planned for pump channels. Guide frame for each stop log shall also be provided by the stop logs supplier to embed in pump house civil work. The logs are not in use. Stop log designs construction and supply shall include equalising valve and a common lifting beam (Vendor supplied) with adequately sized slings. The stop log items supply and construction specification shall include material of construction, coating/painting requirements and other corrosion protection system viz. cathodic protection as applicable.
Rotating Drum Screens

The double side entry and central rejects disposal type rotating Drum Screen with 3 mm

(~ 6 mesh) opening wire mesh panels (removable panels) shall be installed for fine

screening of intake seawater. One screen shall serve 2 nos. of pump basins.

The Drum Screen shall consist of a rotating structure for drum and wire mesh panels

attached to drum periphery. The screen panel backwash set-up shall be incorporated in

drum screen design for efficient screening operation. The equipment shall be for sea

water service as such construction in Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) materials (of

suitable ASTM grade) is envisaged in Phase II of the project.
The sealing between the civil work and screen drum to eliminate by-pass of fed seawater shall be achieved as per the recommendation / arrangement offered by the equipment supplier. The rotating motion to drum screen shall be through rack and pinion drive, rack shall be in sectors for attachment to drum by bolting. The drum shall be shaft mounted and supported on bearing block at both the ends. The Drum Screen Supplier shall include Lubrication console for Pillow Blocks Bearing. The inner periphery of drum shall be with elevated plate buckets to lift the screenings up to debris hopper located inside the screen structure, this debris hopper shall be in two separated section to allow rotation of drum supporting structural members. The drum screen shall be provided with PLC type local control panel (LCP); interfaced with water differential level instrument and drum screen drive to monitor & control operational speed, the LCP shall also be interfaced with DCS. The installation shall be provided with service / inspection platforms and suitable structure for falling object protection to service the equipment even in operation.
Vessels and Storage Tanks

Pressure Vessels

Pressure vessel shall be designed in accordance with ASME SEC VIII, DIV-1 ‘Boiler and Pressure Vessels: Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels’ and shall be code

stamped. Pressure vessels shall also comply with requirements of COMPANY standard and specification. Vessel heads shall be 2:1 ellipsoidal. The minimum shell and head thickness for carbon steel pressure vessels, including corrosion allowance shall be 6.0 mm. The minimum internal corrosion allowance for carbon steel and low alloy steel vessels, without any internal coating, shall be 3 mm unless specified otherwise in the datasheets. The minimum corrosion allowance shall be added to both sides of non-removable CS internals when exposed to corrosive fluid or vapour. Removable CS internal parts shall be provided with corrosion allowance equal to half the specified value on each surface exposed to corrosion fluid or vapour. All vessel nozzles connections are to be flanged connections. Vessels shall be with manholes (24” min.) / handholes (12” min.) or end flanges as specified in equipment datasheets. These shall be provided for ease of servicing and operation and complete with davit. The structural access platforms for operation / servicing shall be supplied and installed by others, however attachment clips shall be provided on the vessels. The equipment and relevant lifting accessories as tailing lugs, trunnions and lifting lugs shall be designed to withstand the equipment lifting weight considering an impact factor of 1.5, unless otherwise specified on datasheet. Wind and earthquake loadings shall be calculated in accordance with standards. Wind and earthquake loadings shall not to be considered to act simultaneously.

Storage Tanks

Design, material fabrication, inspection, erection (where applicable), testing and

preparation for shipment (where applicable) of welded steel tanks shall be in accordance with API-650.

Rectangular tanks (if applicable) shall be designed in accordance with “Roark’s

Formulas for Stress and Strain” published by author Warren C. Young or similar

structural design practices. Tanks shall also comply with requirements of COMPANY standard and specification. Fixed roof tanks shall be of cone roof. Tank bottoms shall be sloped downward conically (either crown up or crown down) as specified in the data sheets. If tank is provided with drainage sumps, then sump shall be equipped with a drain pipe with flanged nozzle. Pressure / Vacuum relief devices shall be provided, if tank is designed for pressure/ vacuum conditions. Wind design loadings to be in accordance with BS CP3, Chapter V, Part 2. Tank shall be designed for earthquake loadings according to Uniform Building Code (UBC) with applicable Zone number as 1.
Emergency Diesel Generator Set

Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) set shall comply with requirements of Company

standard and specification. The EDG package shall be self contained and shall not depend on external utilities for operation. Diesel engine of package shall be 4-stroke, turbocharged type and provided with primary battery start-up and back-up start by compressed service air of plant supply. Engine shall be radiator cooled. Lubrication and cooling systems shall comply with requirements specified in ISO : 3046 and COMPANY standard. Dedicated diesel fuel system shall be provided with a day tank. Day tank capacity shall be suitable for at least 8 hours running of the package at full load without replenishment. Day tank may be part of the diesel engine generator skid or as a separate tank outside the skid. The fuel system shall include spring loaded fuel valve (actuated by fusible plug / melting fuse) that shall shut upon “FIRE”. EDG shall be located indoor, inside acoustically treated and ventilated building, to meet the specified noise levels. EDG Room ventilation shall be achieved by suitably over sizing the motor driven radiator fan.
Generator & other electrical equipment shall comply with requirements specified in the

Company Standard Electrical Specification – Diesel Engine Driven

Generator / Electrical Design Basis. EDG package shall be provided with a control panel which shall be located in the switchgear room away from the package. It shall be possible to start the EDG package from remote systems on failure of mains supply or manually from the package itself. Suitable synchronising hardwired interface shall be provided for the same.
Spare Parts

Spare parts for main equipment and auxiliaries shall be in line with requirements

specified in Project Spare Parts procedure and Company standards referred therein. Generally, spare parts for pre-commissioning, commissioning & start up as well as for the defined maintenance period are provided.
Shop Testing

Main equipment and auxiliaries shall undergo shop and site testing. Supplier shall

prepare test procedures for specified tests and submit the same for Company / Contractor review / approval. Procedures shall be in line with requirements of contract specification / applicable international standards as a minimum. Test procedures shall also identify the methodology of test, applicable international standards, acceptance criteria etc. The inspection & test plan and equipment data sheets shall identify Company / Contractor witness requirements clearly. Based on the above requirements, Supplier shall prepare project specific QA plan / Inspection & Test plan.
Buildings on the plants are of two classes one being process while the other non process. Generally administrative, amenities. control, operation, main & sub stations, pump houses, gatehouses, security controls etc. are included. Also included steel buildings for the industrial support purpose namely workshops, warehouses etc. These steel buildings are provided with all mechanical furniture, heavy equipment like lathe machines, forklift, trolleys, steel furniture, tool cabinets, steel racks, lockers etc & tools. The buildings require equipments such as office furniture & also steel furniture such as lockers, shelving, benches, racks etc
Building services require HVAC chillers, package units, air handling units, ducting, fittings such as fire dampers, volume control dampers, accessories & other controls. False ceiling, grills & diffusers. Ducts for supply & return run in the plenum between the false ceiling & the slab soffit. Also included CCTV, structured cabling, fire fighting, electrical installation of low power as well as high power, fiber optics cabling, cable cellars, switchgears transformers, telecommunications, radars controls, Information technology etc. all.
Electrical supply is distributed by Main station, sub main stations, transformers etc. The area where transformers are located are constructed around by firewalls. Sub station comprises of HV & LV areas, wherein switchgears are accommodated. Proper insulation is carried out for the building envelope to reduce the thermal heat flow into the buildings to maintain the required design conditions for economical air-conditioning.
Fire suppression system is used in the buildings by the name FM 200 or Inergen etc to extinguish the fire within seconds & minutes. This gas spreads in the unventilated space & extinguishes the fire immediately. Also included smoke detection systems along with fire fighting system for internal as well as for exterior use. Industries within plant area employ their individual systems for fire fighting bust preferably a sea water back up fire fighting system is also included as stand by. Fresh water system is also included for the areas locating expensive & strategic equipment for electrical supply as well as emergency controls.
Cathodic protection is used to control the corrosion of the reinforcement by providing electrode at the structure centrally controlled from one location. All reinforcing bars are clipped & wired naked maintaining the continuity of the bars.
Cooling towers are installed when the supplied water is required to be re-circulated for many uses for the concerned industry in which case only makeup water is supplied to maintain the balance.

For once through system, the water is supplied & returned after cooling the industrial systems into the returned headers without any circulations.

In some cases a combination of both could be adopted for economy.


Chapter 2

Project Design, Contract award & Miscellaneous

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