Framework curricula for primary education


PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS



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PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS

Years 1 through 4 of Education


Objectives and tasks
Physical Education and Sports in primary schools contributes to the development of students’ pro-life, health-conscious character as a result of the combined effect of the means of physical culture (exercises, motion games, sports activities and related intellectual knowledge) and the health-improving factors of nature as an integral part of the school’s uniform education and training efforts. The condition of the above is that students know their level of motor skills, the ways of maintaining and/or improving such motor skills, and experience the joy of motion games and competitions as individuals and as teams. Physical Education and Sports contribute to the students’ appreciation of the performance of their peers, to students acquiring motor skills and cultured in their movements, recognising the health and prevention values of Physical Education and Sports. The objective is that regular physical exercise become part of their behaviour.

Physical Education in primary schools equips primary students with a physical literacy from the values acquired from the elements of physical culture (knowledge, competencies, skills and abilities), which provide a foundation for their later acting certainty and regular physical activity. This enables them to become capable of acquiring sports tasks and motion systems successfully, and of improving their motor abilities efficiently. Its specific methods, primarily motion games and competitions facilitate a smooth transition from the less bound life of nursery schools to the academic life demanding independent work, and provide experiences to maintain their desire for movement.



Exercises related to health: supporting physical development and maturing; establishment and strengthening of hygienic habits; development of resistance and fitness; prevention and compensation of orthopaedic deformation; preparation for the prevention and alleviation of circular and respiratory diseases; learning about and understanding the essence of prevention and the relaxation processes.

Exercises related to the improvement of physical culture: establishment and development of fundamental (generic) motor skills at the appropriate level; learning to swim; improvement of physical condition and co-ordination skills in line with students’ age and aptitude; acquisition of diverse motion experience and practical motion skills; acquisition of knowledge related to task solving, ability development, games and sports activities, to their performance without any detrimental effect (rules, historical aspects, laws of mechanics and biomechanics, task-solving schemes and health considerations; communication with movements.

Providing positive experience in learning, games and sports: acquisition, performance, collective success, and the joy of being active.

Development of valuable personality traits: overcoming fear, keeping rules, concentration, focus, overcoming difficulties, tolerating failure, love of nature, environment-friendly attitude.
Developmental requirements
Facilitating a healthy physical development

The circulatory, respiratory and motor system of students should work in line with their age. They are to do exercises regularly.

Through active and increasingly conscious physical exercises, they are to prevent the development of posture disorders, avoid positions and movements damaging their spinal column. The muscular balance of muscles responsible for posture and the equilibrium of the pelvis should be established.

As a result of exercising, their health is to be strengthened, they are to become resistant to illnesses.


Exercises related to the improvement of physical culture

They are to be able to run fast or steadily, by adjusting their pace to the distance and the landscape, to overcome obstacles during running. They are to acquire jumping and throwing (putting) techniques in order to expand their set of fundamental (generic) skills.

They are to acquire gymnastic-type supporting and hanging positions, they are to be capable of changing their position and posture in supporting and hanging positions.

Their activity is to be characterised by creativity in the most diverse tasks. With their elementary game skills, they should love to take part in simple sports games.

They are to become confident in water, they are to learn one swimming style.

They are to acquire behavioural patterns to avoid threats.

The level of the conditional and co-ordination skills and of their motion/action certainty is to be characterised by a positive tendency.

They are to be able to control their body weights with a muscular apparatus in line with their age in solving different tasks.

They are to be capable of co-ordinated movements.

They are to be familiar with the basic rules of games. They are to understand the underlying logic of task solving.


The requirements of maintaining their demand for motion

They are to acquire new task solutions, games, competitions and sports activities as positive experiences.

Their demand for a healthy way of life and for regular physical activity is to be established.

Years 1 and 2


Number of teaching hours per year: 92
New activities
Quick taking on and changing of formations.

Establishing the order of lockers and practice areas.

Execution of playful and fixed free, team and hand-tool exercises.

Quick start from different postures.

Avoiding collisions in tag games and running tasks, gaining space against the tagger.

Sustained running for 4 to 8 minutes without stopping or with short walks.

Execution of tasks (games) involving running.

Hops and jumps at an appropriate pace.

Distance and target throwing with one and two hand(s).

Secure performance of simple supporting, hanging and equilibrium exercises.

Tasks with balls.

A few simple outdoor games of the particular season.

Getting to know the water, acquiring confidence in water.

Swimming 8 to 10 meters without putting down one’s legs.




TOPICS

CONTENTS


Marching

“Straight”, tense position.

Relaxed (at ease) position.

Turning around in one place.

Lining up (in front of a bench, stall-bars, bleachers).

Formation of a circle by holding each other’s hands.

Taking on a scattered formation.

Marching at a steady pace in one place and in motion (clapping, stamping).

Games (standstill, sculpture, little owl, all to their battalions



Preparation and prevention

Free, team and hand apparatus exercises with common postures, arm positions and basic forms (with balls, beanbags, jumping-ropes, ribbons, etc.).

Rhythmic tasks with songs and music.

Exercises improving (correcting) posture and preventing spinal deformations.

Exercises designed to provide preparation and a foundation for motor skills.


Walking, running, hopping and jumping, throwing

Walking and running

Walking and running freely and in formation (single line), along a path (back and forth, around, in a wave, etc.) with short and stretched out steps.

Games (sneaking, running races, tags, train, fire, water, flying, magnetic tags, relays, etc.).
Hopping and jumping

Hopping on one leg, alternating and two legs for a certain distance.

Hopping with rope-folding.

Long jump from standing and running position, from jumping strip.

Games (hopping tag, goat tag, hopping march, etc.).
Throwing

Throwing attempts with paper balls, knot-tied ribbons (comets).




Support, hanging and equilibrium exercises

Changing position by imitating animals (dog running, spider crawl, limping fox, etc.).

Changing position on a horizontal and a tilted bench, facing down and up, with hand and foot support, crab crawl and spider crawl.

Somersault forward from squat, from straddle into a crinkle and a straddle sit.

Somersault backward on a slightly tilted surface.

Standing on the scrag of the neck.

Crinkle headstand. “Drifting” from a hanging position along stall-bars.

Jumping on and from various apparatus (benches, stools, vaulting-boxes) with supporting hands.

Balancing walk along a line and on a bench, on the brace of the bench back and forth and sideways. Games (carts with hand and leg support; relays with walks imitating animals).




Ball games

Skills development with balls: getting hold of, picking up and putting down a still ball.

Rolling a ball in place with one or two hand(s) around one’s legs and in motion.

Rolling the ball to a partner in straddle sit; receiving a ball thrown up.

Receiving a thrown ball by running after it with one bounce before it reaches the ground.

Bouncing a ball with hand in place (standing, sitting, squatting) and in motion freely.

Attempts to dribble a ball with foot.

Games (getting rid of a balloon, a ball, serving competitions, rolling or throwing the ball, hunters, etc.).


Struggling tasks, games

Raising or holding one’s arm against the force of a partner. (Do not let your partner raise his/her hand from below the waist above the waist, and vice versa.)

Pulling and pushing in pairs. (Pull and push your partner.)

Sitting down and standing up in pairs by holding hands and pushing each other’s back against each other.

Games (hand fencing in push-up position, don’t take your legs away, cock fight).




Extracurricular sports activities

Walks, cycling, sledding, snowballing and snowman.

Means of transport improving skills (cycling, roller-skating, roller-blading, skateboarding, hotrolling, skating).




Swimming

Lining up and marching in waist-level water.

Free exercises in water.

Gliding attempts.

Gliding and scissors in an arbitrary swimming style.

Gliding and arm-stroke.

Co-ordination of scissors and arm-stroke.

Games (tag in water, towing a ship, pearl-diver, fish, etc.).

(In case swimming is not feasible at all, the timeframe allocated to swimming will be spread out evenly among the other topics.)





Prerequisites of moving ahead
Taking on and changing formations according to instructions. Performing gymnastic exercises with imitation. Acceptable execution of basic motion skills (walking, running, jumping, throwing, crawling, climbing, etc.). Participation without fear in exercises performed in the water.
Year 3
Number of teaching hours per year: 92
New activities
Gradual development of clear execution of marching exercises, following instructions without any delay.

Precise execution of basic gymnastic exercises.

Start on signal.

20-30-metre dash in competition form.

Sustained running for 8 to 10 minutes.

Various jumps with sufficient control.

Throwing motion possibly from straight arm position.

Target throwing from straddle (leg opposite the throwing arm is front) through increasing the certainty of throwing.

Development of running, jumping and throwing skills under versatile conditions.

Execution of gymnastic (type) exercises with little assistance in a secure manner and a pleasant posture.

Collaboration with peers in ball games.

Fair contact fight.

A few simple outdoor games of the particular season.

Swimming a certain distance.




TOPICS

CONTENTS


Marching

Practising previously learnt exercises.

Lining up in two rows, in two columns.

Starting, stopping in two steps.

Catching up, falling behind in motion.

Marching while keeping the steps.

Opening, closing, taking on distance between each other in all directions.

Games (on instruction of leader, Mr. Teacher says).



Preparation and prevention

Gymnastics:

Free exercises independently, following peers and technical instructions, team and hand apparatus and apparatus exercises of free exercise form (bench, stall-bars, stools).

Physical education games designed to provide preparation and skills development (tags, competitions in dual circles, cockfight, etc.).


Walking, running, hopping and jumping, throwing

Walking as above and: backwards, with control of pace and step length, cross-stepping, lifted knees.

Games (blind tag with clapping and singing).


Running:

Sustained running.

Standing and squatting start.

Running races.

Games (tags, get the third, fishermen on the lake, black, white, etc.).
Hopping and jumping

As in the previous years and: rope folding attempts in groups of 3 (two are folding the rope); hopping on one leg, alternating and two legs following the rhythm of clapping.

Games (kangaroo tag, cockfight, etc.).
Throwing

Throwing: for distance and target, with balls of various sizes, banging, slimming, “bombing”.




Support, hanging and equilibrium exercises

Exercises enumerated for Years 1 and 2, and “compass” in push-ups before and behind the chest.

Somersault forward from squat, from straddle.

Series of somersaults forward.

Headstand and handstand.

Rope climbing attempts.

Horizontal hanging on stall-bars.

Balancing walk and turns on beam, brace of the bench.

Games (skinning, cartage, steeplechase, etc.).




Ball games

Skills development with balls, as in previous years, and: dribbling a ball in place with right and left hand, in motion, one foot, while hopping, along a slalom path, dribbling a ball with foot along a given path and in a small area while avoiding collisions.

Single-handed passing and receiving in pairs.

Kick attempts with inner foot on a wall or an upturned bench.

Games (in a reducing circle, relays with ball dribbling, two-court reduction, etc.).




Struggling tasks, games

Self-resistance exercises (raising arms, lowering arms, slow-motion running, push imitations).

Getting behind and attempting to lift the opponent in pairs.

Games (cockfight, hand fencing in push-up position, leg fencing in offensive position, stick-wrestling).


Extracurricular sports activities

Hiking and cycling trips.

Snowballing, skating, sledding.




Swimming

Acquisition of a swimming style practised before.

Diving into the water.

Games (going through a tunnel, diver, piston).



Prerequisites of moving ahead
Knowing commands, execution of marching and formation exercises. Following basic gymnastic exercises. Reproduction of acceptable motion example in starts, running, jumping and throwing. Sufficient attempts at crawling, climbing, supporting and hanging. Participation in physical education games with joy. Acceptance of contact fight. Secure behaviour in water reaching chest-level.

Year 4
Number of teaching hours per year: 92


New activities
Disciplined execution of in-class session forms required for lesson organisation purposes in formations corresponding to the age of this group, compliance with the order demanded in physical education lessons.

Precise and continuous execution of movements consisting of gymnastic exercises learnt, striking concord between rhythm and motion, climbing the pole or the rope.

Dash and sustained running for 10 to 12 minutes.

Jumping from standstill and from motion with emphasised and harmonic taking-off.

Selection of method of throwing suiting the purpose the best, acceptable execution of the throwing motion.

Target throwing with reasonable certainty.

Development of good running, jumping and throwing skills.

Holding one’s weight in supporting or hanging position.

Balancing, orientation in space.

Co-ordinated execution of gymnastic exercises.

Playing games at a level ensuring the feeling of success.

Dribbling, passing, handling the ball by hand or foot, scoring a goal or a point.

Adapting to the ball and the peers, realising possible alternatives, collaboration with peers, keeping the rules of the game and behaviour.

Fair coping with success and failure in fights and games.

Knowing and playing a few simple outdoor games of the particular season.

Secure movement in the water, basic swimming skills, swimming a certain distance.




TOPICS

CONTENTS


Marching

Lining up in two rows, in two columns.

Attention and at ease positions.

Marching, catching up, falling behind in one, two, three and four column(s).

Games as before.


Preparation and prevention

Gymnastics:

Free exercises with specific form; team, hand apparatus and apparatus exercises of free exercise form.

Exercises correcting posture, ensuring the automation of the muscular balance of the spinal column and the equilibrium of the pelvis, compensating for foot deformation.

Exercises and games designed to provide preparation and motor skills development.




Walking, running, hopping and jumping, throwing

Walking as in Years 1 through 3:

Backwards, forwards and sideways with eyes closed.

Seaman walk (sideways with support).

Games (walking races, relays).


Running: sustained running, running with tasks.

Running races.

Games (front and back, animal imitation, races in dual circles, etc.).
Hopping and jumping

Hopping schools. Series of jumps on one foot and on two feet.

Long jump, high jump with running.

High jump from standstill position.

Jumping down from hanging.
Throwing

Throwing attempts from shot-put position with turning in and running.

Banging, slimming. Who is the best skilled in the circle? Hunting ball.


Support, hanging and equilibrium exercises

Exercises enumerated for Years 1 through 3.

Leapfrogging.

Dive from squat support into push-up before the chest and back.

Moving from squat support behind the back at the stall-bars with legs moving into a handstand position and back.

Swinging to a handstand position at the stall-bars with help of a partner.

“Long somersault”.

Scale position with face down.

Vertical flight over stools and 2-3 piece vaulting-boxes.

Swinging on stall-bars sideways in a hanging position with the chest and with the back to the stall-bars.

Rope climbing.

Turning to backward hanging position on the rings (low) with a jump and back, swinging with running.

Games (tag on stall-bars in hanging position, wild donkey, wire-dancing with a rope on the ground).




Ball games

Dribbling a ball in a small area with both hands while mirroring a partner’s moves.

Two-handed passing and receiving before the chest in pairs (in place and in motion).

Ball passing attempts in pairs in place.

Scoring attempts with hand and foot (on a small goal without a goalie, on a handball goal with a goalie).

Basketball throwing attempts in place.

Ball bouncing attempts with hand.

Games (ball dribbling competitions, “bombing”, tag with a ball, string ball).


Struggling tasks, games

A in Years 1 through 3.

Breaking free from wrists held. “Fanning” (leaning back with partner holding hands opposite oneself until arms are stretched and back).

Wrestling.

Tug of war.




Extracurricular sports activities

War of numbers (if possible).

patrol competitions (with orientation tasks).




Swimming

Learning the arm-stroke and scissors of another swimming style in addition to the acquired swimming style.

Games (tag in the water, heading the ball in the water).




Prerequisites of moving ahead
Disciplined execution of formations and marching required for lesson organisation purposes. Participation in team gymnastics. Rope climbing with 2 to 3 grips. Acceptable execution of running, jumping and throwing tasks. Carrying out supporting, hanging and equilibrium tasks. Participation in physical education and sports games. Promising attempts in the swimming style learnt.



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